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C-Kermit Built-in Functions

Frank da Cruz, fdc@kermitproject.org
Most recent update: Tue Feb 18 09:05:39 2020
Function names can be shortened from the right as long as the result is still unique; for example you can use \Fchar() for \Fcharacter(). The F after the backslash means the following name is a function and the items in the parentheses are its arguments. The F need not be capitalized, nor does the function name need to be lowercase. The Returns column tells the data type returned by the function: int = integer, txt = text, chr = a single character, fn = filename, ip = IP address. A file specification, as opposed to filename, can include a directory path. Some functions require a longer explanation; these show up as links in the Name column. Also you can see documentation for any function by typing "help function xxx" at the C-Kermit prompt, where xxx is the function name, e.g. "help function arraylook" ("h fu ar" is sufficient).

Name Returns Description
\Faaconvert(name,&a,&b) int Converts named associative array to scalar arrays &a and &b
\Fabsolute(n1) int Absolute (unsigned) value of integer n1
\Farraylook(pattern,&a) int Looks up a string or pattern (wildcard) in an array
\Fb64decode(s) txt Converts Base-64 encoded string s into clear text
\Fb64encode(s) txt Encodes clear-text string s in Base-64.
\Fbasename(filespec) txt Filename extracted from filespec
\Fbreak(s1,s2) txt s1 up to first character that is in s2
\Fcapitalize(s1) txt s1 with first letter capitalized and the rest lowercase
\Fcharacter(n) chr Character whose numeric code is n
\Fchecksum(s1) int Kermit 6-bit checksum of text s1 (also see \fcrc16())
\Fcmdstack(n1,n2) int or txt Name or type of object at command stack level n1
\Fcmpdates(d1,d2) int Compares free-format dates and/or times d1 and d2
\Fcode(c) int Numeric code value of character c
\Fcommand(s) txt Returns the output of shell command s and sets \v(pexitstat)
\Fcontents(variable) txt Value of variable, unevaluated
\Fcount(s1,s2,n1) int Number of occurrences of string s1 in s2, 0 or more.
\Fcrc16(txt) int 16-bit cyclic redundancy check of text string s1
\Fcvtdatet(s,n) txt Converts free-format date s to format n
\fcvtdate() format codes 0-6:
C-Kermit> for i 0 6 1 { echo \m(i). \fcvtdate(,i) }
0. 20190822 07:59:29
1. 2019-Aug-22 07:59:29
2. 22-Aug-2019 07:59:29
3. 20190822075929
4. Thu Aug 22 07:59:29 2019
5. 2019:08:22:07:59:29
6. 22 August 2019 07:59:29
\Fcvtcset(s,cs1,cs2) txt Converts string s from character set cs1 to cs2 (see list)
\Fdate(file) txt Returns modification date/time of file as yyyymmdd hh:mm:ss 
\Fday(s) txt Returns 3-letter day of week for date given (default=today)
\Fdayname(s) txt Like \Fday but with language and full-name options
\Fdayofyear(s) int Given free-format date s), returns day of year as yyyynnn
\Fdecodehex(s1,s2) txt Decodes string s1 that contains hexadecimal bytes with prefix s2
\Fdefinition(macro) txt Returns definition of given macro evaluated one level deep
\Fdelta2secs(s1,s2) int Converts delta time to seconds (see link)
\Fdialconvert(s) txt Convert phone number s to modem-dial format
\Fdiffdates(d1,d2) dt Returns difference between two dates in delta time
\Fdimension(&a) int Returns the dimension (number of elements) in array &a.
\Fdirectories(filespec,&a) int,array Number of directories that match filespec, with names in array &a
\Fdirname(filespec) txt The full directory (path) for the given filespec
\Fdostounixpath(s) txt Converts a DOS/Windows pathname into a Unix one
\Fdoytodate(n) txt Converts day of year yyyynnn to date yyyymmdd
\Femailaddress(s) txt Extracts email address from email From or Sender header line
\Ferrstring(n) txt Converts platform-dependent error code to error message
\Fevaluate(expression) int Value of arithmetic expression such as 2*(5+6) (integers only)
\Fexecute(macro args) any Invokes given marcro with given args and returns its RETURN value
\Ffilecompare(fn1,fn2) int Compares contents and lengths of file fn1 and fn2
\Ffileinfo(fn,&a) int,array Returns attributes of given file in array &a
\Ffiles(filespec,&a) int,array Returns number of files that match filespec with names in array &a
\Ffunction(s) int Returns 1 if s is the name of a built-in function, otherwise 0
\Fhextoip(s) ipa Converts hexadecimal s to decimal dotted IP address
\Fhexify(s1) hex Returns character string s1 encoded in hexadecimal
\Findex(s1,s2,n) int Returns position of leftmost occurrence of s1 in s2 starting at n
\Fiptohex(s) ipa Converts the decimal dotted IP address s to hexadecimal
\Fipaddress(s1,n) ip Extracts first IP address from s1 starting at n
\Fjoin(&a,s,n1,n2) txt Joins array elements into a string, s = optional separator, n's are options
\Fkeywordvalue(s1,s2) txt Converts string like 'name=value' into macro with given value
\Fleft(s,n) txt Returns the leftmost n characters of string s
\Flength(s1) int Length of string s1
\Fliteral(s1) txt Protects string s1 from evaluation
\Flop(s1,c,n) txt Chops off beginning of string s1 at nth leftmost occurrence of char c
\Flopx(s1,c,n) txt Chops off beginning of string s1 at nth rightmost occurrence of char c
\Flower(s1) txt Converts all uppercase letters in s1 to lowercase
\Flpad(s1,n,c) txt Returns s1 left-padded to length n with char c
\Fltrim(s1,s2) txt s1 with all characters from s2 trimmed from left; also see \ftrim()
\Fmaximum(n1,n2) int Returns the larger of the two numbers
\Fminimum(n1,n2) int Returns the smaller of the two numbers
\Fmjd(s) int Converts free-format date s into numeric Modified Julian Date
\Fmjdtodate(n) date Converts Modified Julian Date to yyymmdd (and optional time)
\Fmodulus(n1,n2) int Returns the remainder when n1 is divided by n2
\Fmonthname(s,n) txt Extracts month from date s and returns its name
\Fntotime(n) txt Converts seconds since midnight n into hh:mm:ss
\Fnday(s) int Calculates day of the week from free-format date s
\Fntime(s) int Returns time portion of date-time s as seconds since midnight
\Fnextfile() txt Returns next filename from \Ffiles() list
\Fpathname(fn) txt Returns full pathname of file
\Fpattern(s) txt INPUT command only: Declares that s is a pattern ("wildcard").
\Fpermissions(fn) txt Returns the file's permissions as they would be shown by "ls -l"
\Fpictureinfo(fn,&a) int,array Extracts dimensions, orientation, and date from JPG image
  0 if file not found or not recognized;
  1 if orientation is landscape;
  2 if orientation is portrait;
  3 if the image is square.
Note: experience shows that the orientation is not necessarily reliable, depending on the camera, scanner, phone, or other device that that encoded the image. If an array name is included, and if the function's return value is greater than 0, the array elements are:
  1 width in pixels
  2 height in pixels
  3 'date taken' (if present) in 'yyyy:mm:dd hh:mm:ss' format
\Fpidinfo(n) int Given Process ID (PID) n, checks if process exists
\Fradix(n1,n2,n3) int Converts number n1 from radix n2 to radix n3
\Frandom(n) int Returns a random integer between 0 and n-1
\Frawcommand(s) txt Returns output from system command s without stripping final newline
\Frdirectories(s,&a) int,array Recursive directory list is returned array &a
\Frecurse(s) txt Returns string s with any and all variables evaluated recursively
\Frepeat(s,n) txt Returns a string composed of n repetitions of s
\Freplace(s1,s2,s3,n) txt In string s1 replace nth occurrence of s2 with s3; if n=0, replace all.
\Freverse(s) txt Returns string s reversed
\Frfiles(s,&a) int,array Recursive file list is returned array &a
\Fright(s,n) txt Returns rightmost n characters of txt
\Frindex(s1,s2,n) int Position of rightmost instance of s1 in s2 ignoring rightmost n characters
\Frpad(s,n,c) txt Returns s right-padded to length n with character c
\Frsearch(s1,s2,n1,n2) int Pattern (wildcard) string search from right.
\Fsearch(s1,s2,n1,n2) int Pattern (wildcard) string search from left.
\Fsexpression(s) any Returns the result of evaluating S-Expression s
\Fsize(fn) int Size of file fn in bytes
\Fspan(s1,s2) txt s1 up to 1st char that is not in s2
\Fsplit(s1,&a,s2,s3,n1,n2) int,array Splits elements of a text string (e.g. comma-separated list) into array &a
\Fsqueeze(s) txt Removes extra whitespace from string s
\Fstrcmp(s1,s2,n1,n2,n3) int Compares strings s1 and s2
\Fstringtype(s) txt Tells whether string s is 7-bit, 8-bit, or UTF-8 text, or binary.
\Fstripb(s,c1,c2) txt Strips enclosing parens, brackets, braces, or quotes from string s
\Fstripn(s,n) txt Strips n characters from the end of string s
\Fstripx(s,c) txt Strips string s up to the rightmost occurrence of character c
\Fsubstitute(s1,s2,s3) txt Substitute characters in string s1 according strings s2 and s3
\Fsubstring(s,n1,n2) txt Returns the part of string s starting at position n1, length n2
Compact substring notation ... A shorter and more flexible approach to substrings:
   \s(name[n:m]) Substring of \m(name) starting at position n, length m
   \s(name[n_m]) Substring of \m(name) from position n to position m
   \s(name[n]) or \s(name[n:]) Substring of \m(name) from position n to the end
   \s(name[n.]) The character at position n
\Ftablelook(s,&a,c) int Looks up tag in array of tag=value pairs, c = separator
\Ftime(date-time) hh:mm:ss Extracts the time from a free-format date-time string
\Ftodtosecs(hh:mm:ss) int Converts time of day to seconds since midnight
\Ftrim(s1,s2) txt s1 with all chars from s2 trimmed from the right.
\Funhexify(s) txt Decodes hexadecimal string s
\Funixtodospath(s) txt Unix pathname s is converted to DOS/Windows format
\Funtabify(s) txt Converts Tabs in s to spaces, assuming tab stops every 8 spaces
\Fupper(s1) txt Letters in s1 converted to uppercase
\Futcdate(s) txt Free-format date-time s converted to UTC (GMT) yyyymmdd hh:mm:ss
\Fverify(s1,s2,n) int Pos of 1st char in s2 starting at n that's not also in s1
\Fword(s1,n1,s2,s3,n2,n3)) txt Extracts word number n1 from string s1, many options
File Input/Output functions [see documentation]
\F_eof(n) int Returns 1 if channel n file pointer is at at end of file, 0 otherwise
\F_errmsg(n) txt Converts error code to associated error message text string
\F_getblock(n1,n2) txt Reads a block of n2 characters from channel n1 and returns it
\F_getchar(n) chr Reads one character from file open on channel n
\F_getline(n) txt Reads a line of text from file open on channel n
\F_handle(n) int Returns operating system's file handle for file open on channel n
\F_line(n) int Returns the current line number for the file open on channel n
\F_pos(n) int Returns the current character position for the file open on channel n
\F_putblock(n,s) int Writes string(s) to the file open on channel n
\F_putchar(n,c) int Writes character c to the file open on channel n
\F_putblock(n,s) int Write string(s) to the file open on channel n
\F_putline(n,s) int Like \F_putblock() but adds a line terminator
\F_status(n) int Returns open modes for channel n
Floating-point functions... many are superfluous since S-Expressions were added in C-Kermit 8.0
\Ffpabsolute(fp,d) fp Returns absolute value of floating-point number fp to d decimal places
\Ffpadd(fp1,fp2,d)) fp Returns sum of two floating-point numbers rounded to d decimal places
\Ffpcosine(f1,d) fp The cosine of angle f1 (in radians) to d decimal places
\Ffpdivide(f1,f2,d) fp Floating-point result of f1 divided by f2 to d places
\Ffpexp(f1,d) fp e (the base of natural logarithms) raised to the f1 power, to d places.
\Ffpint(f1) int The integer part of f1
\Ffplog10(f1,d) fp The base 10 logarithm of f1 to d places
\Ffplogn(f1,d) fp The natural logarithm of f1 to d places
\Ffpmaximum(f1,f2,d) fp The maximum f1 and f2 to d places
\Ffpminimum(f1,f2,d) fp The minimum f1 and f2 to d places
\Ffpmodulus(f1,f2,d) fp The modulus f1 and f2 to d places
\Ffpmultiply(f1,f2,d) fp The product f1 and f2 to d places
\Ffpraise(f1,f2,d) fp f1 raised to the power f2 to d places
\Ffpround((f1,d) fp f1 rounded to d decimal places
\Ffpsine(f1,d) fp The sine of angle f1 (in radians) to d decimal places
\Ffpsqrt(f1,d) fp The square root of f1 to d decimal places
\Ffpsubtract(fp1,fp2,d) fp f1 minus f2 to d places
\Ffptangent(f1,d) fp The tangent of angle f1 (in radians) to d decimal places

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