Hover mouse over each language to see its English name and links to pages in that language:
Shqip Albanian Krawitz  | عربى Arabic Kermit Project  | հայերեն Armenian (page withdrawn)  | Azərbaycanca Azerbaijani Krawitz Tabulators  | Беларускі Belarusian Hollerith profile Kermit Project E-Kermit Kermit 95's SSH Client  | বাঙালি Bengali Backus Krawitz  | Bosanski Bosnian Hollerith dissertation  | Български Bulgarian About Kermit Backus Krawitz  | Catalan Bulgarian Tabulators  | 中文 Chinese Simplified Kermit Project ENIAC Backus About Kermit Krawitz Grosch New Deal  | 繁體字 Chinese Traditional Kermit Project ENIAC About Kermit Hollerith profile Eckert Grosch Backus Krawitz IBM 610 New Deal  | Hrvatski Croatian Backus Krawitz  | Český Czech Using C-Kermit book Grosch Backus Krawitz  | Dansk Danish Hollerith profile Hollerith dissertation Eckert Krawitz Backus Grosch Sorters IBM 2501 card reader IBM card collators IBM card interpreter The Kermit Project About Kermit | Nederlands Dutch Kermit Project Hollerith profile Grosch Backus Tabulators Krawitz  | Eesti Estonian About Kermit Eckert Backus Krawitz  | فارسی Farsi Kermit Project Backus IBM SSEC  | Filipino Filipino ENIAC  | Suomi Finnish Kermit Project About Kermit Hollerith profile Hollerith dissertation Pantographic card punch Naval Observatory Backus Krawitz IBM card collators  | Français French Kermit Project About Kermit Hollerith profile Eckert Grosch Backus Krawitz Tabulators Sorters ENIAC IBM SSEC IBM 650 Naval Observatory Pantographic card punch New Deal  | ქართული Georgian 1890 Tabulator Krawitz  | Deutsch German Kermit Project Kermit 95's SSH Client About Kermit Hollerith profile Eckert Grosch Krawitz Backus Course Watson Lab Pupin Lab Tabulators IBM 407 ENIAC IBM SSEC IBM punch cards Columbia 1968  | Ελληνική Greek Kermit Project About Kermit Backus Krawitz IBM SSEC Tabulators  | Kreyòl Ayisyen Haitian Hollerith profile  | עִברִית Hebrew Kermit Project Hollerith profile Backus IBM SSEC New Deal  | हिंदी Hindi Kermit Project About Kermit Backus Krawitz  | Magyar Hungarian Backus Krawitz  | Íslenska Icelandic Hollerith profile  | Bahasa Indonesia Indonesian Kermit Project About Kermit Backus Krawitz  | Gaelige Irish ENIAC  | Italiano Italian Kermit Project About Kermit E-Kermit Hollerith profile Hollerith dissertation IBM Watson Lab at Columbia University Eckert Grosch Backus Krawitz Pantographic card punch Course Tabulators ENIAC IBM SSEC New Deal  | 日本語 Japanese Grosch Backus Krawitz  | latviešu valoda Latvian Backus  | 한국어 Korean Kermit Project Backus Krawitz New Deal  | Lietuvių Lithuanian Backus  | Македонски Macedonian Krawitz Hollerith profile Hollerith dissertation Tabulators Pantographic card punch  | Монгол Хэл Mongolian Tabulators  | Norsk (Bokmål) Norwegian (Bokmål or unspecified) Hollerith profile Hollerith dissertation 1890tabulator.html Pantographic card punch watsonlab.html Eckert Grosch Backus Tabulators Columbia Difference Tabulator 407.html simon.html IBM SSEC IBM CPC IBM NORC IBM 1403 print train IBM 029 keypunch IBM card interpreter portable.html CU's first PC lab Kermit Project About Kermit E-Kermit Columbia 1968  | Norsk (Nynorsk) Norwegian Kermit Project Hollerith dissertation  | Polski Polish Kermit Project E-Kermit Kermit 95's SSH Client Hollerith profile Eckert ENIAC IBM SSEC IBM 610 New Deal  | Português Portuguese Kermit Project Hollerith profile Backus  | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Punjabi Backus About Kermit  | Română Romanian Kermit Project About Kermit E-Kermit C-Kermit Case Study 8 1890tabulator.html Hollerith dissertation 1890 Tabulator ENIAC IBM NORC IBM 610 IBM 650 IBM SSEC Hollerith profile Eckert Backus Grosch Krawitz  | Русский Russian Columbia 1968 Kermit Project About Kermit E-Kermit Using C-Kermit book C-Kermit Case Study 9 What's a terminal? 1890tabulator.html Hollerith profile Eckert Naval Observatory WWII air almanac Table printer Grosch Backus Krawitz Tabulators 1890 Tabulator ENIAC IBM NORC IBM SSEC IBM 610 IBM 650 IBM 360/91 Punched cards IBM 1403 print train  | Sami Sami Hollerith dissertation  | Српски Serbian Hollerith profile Tabulators IBM SSEC Backus  | سنڌي Sindhi Krawitz  | Slovenčina Slovak Sorters About Kermit  | Slovenščina Slovenian Krawitz IBM SSEC  | Español Spanish Kermit Project About Kermit Kermit FTP client Hollerith profile Eckert Grosch Backus Krawitz Tabulators IBM SSEC New Deal  | Kiswahili Swahili eckert.html  | Svenska Swedish Kermit Project Hollerith dissertation Backus IBM 2501 card reader Punched cards IBM 029 keypunch IBM 1403 print train portable.html CU's first PC lab  | தமிழ் Tamil Backus ENIAC  | Татар Теле Tatar Kermit Project  | Türkçe Turkish Kermit Project Hollerith profile Backus  | Українська Ukrainian Kermit Project About Kermit E-Kermit Hollerith profile Grosch Backus Eckert Table printer Krawitz Punched cards interpreters.html Tabulators ENIAC IBM 610  | اردو Urdu Kermit Project E-Kermit eckert.html Krawitz  | O’zbekcha Uzbek Kermit Project About Kermit E-Kermit  | Tiếng Việt Vietnamese Backus E-Kermit
Skip ahead to table

Web Page Translations

Frank da Cruz
31 January 2019
Languages: 59   (see above)
Pages with translations:    44   (see below)
Total translations: 302  

Last updated:  Wed May 24 16:27:52 2023
I'm responsible for several popular websites, including:
The Kermit Project, formerly at Columbia University, now independent (the original site at Columbia still exists but has been "frozen" since 2011).

The New Deal in New York City. The hidden legacy of FDR's New Deal in NYC in photographs and text. Hosted at the Kermit Project website.

The History of Computing at Columbia University.

The 1968 student uprising at Columbia University (don't ask me why Columbia filed this under "computinghistory")

Each site has pages that have been translated into one or more languages other than English (sometimes more than 30, such as this one and this one).   Note: The language and page counts shown above reflect all the translations that were made, and do not account for links that have subsequently gone bad. If you encounter a translation link that doesn't work, please notify me.

Note: Each translation link pointed to a valid translation at the time it was submitted. But over time, links can expire, disappear, or redirect to unrelated pages. For example, as of 27 March 2023 nine out of the 30 links to translations of the Kermit Project Home page have gone bad (one of them was subsequently fixed). I made a new page, badlinks.html, to keep track of the expired links, but expanding this to all the other pages that have translations is a big job and will take time. The statistics at the top of this page refer to the original translations.

Guidelines for translators

Anyone who would like to translate any of the pages at any of these sites into a new language is welcome to do so. Normally the translation is hosted at the translator's site and linked to from the original page, as in this example, which has the language buttons on top and table of translation credits at the end.

If you would like to translate a page to a new language, send me email at the address above. Guidelines:  § Check the page you want to translate to make sure it hasn't already been translated into the same language.  § Translations should be done by a competent speaker of the given language, not Google Translate.  § The translated document should be in standard HTML (not Microsoft Word or other proprietary format).  § The link to the translated document should arrive at it directly, without any intermedediate steps such as signing in to Google or Facebook.  § If the original page contains references (to books or other websites), these do not need to be translated.  § It's OK to request linking to a commercial site, but please: no phishing or other hostile sites, no porn, no aggressive popups, etc.  § There is no charge for installing the links and credits, and no money can be paid by me for the translations.  § Your translated page should link back to the original page.  § Your translated page should announce its language in the <lang=xx> attribute, where xx is the ISO 6391-1 language code (see list).  § You should supply the following information about your translation so I can link to it:

  1. Name of language
  2. Link to your translation
  3. Name of translator
  4. Translator's organization or company
    (and let me know if you want me to include rel="nofollow" in the link)
See this example. Item 3 is optional if item 4 is included, and vice versa. Items 3 and 4 can also include links, e.g. to a personal page or company page.

If you want to translate a page but you don't have anywhere to host the translation, I'll be glad to host it myself.

Pages that have been translated as of the "updated" date above are shown in the table below. Click each link to see the languages each page has been translated to so far. Click a language name at the top to see which pages have been translated into that language. In the table, entries with green backgrounds have translations; if you click on the link in the first column, you'll see language buttons at the top of the page. Entries in italics with yellow backgrounds are popular pages that have no translations yet.

Index to pages

Disclaimer: Links to sites that host translations, which are in various countries governed by different laws, do not imply an endorsement of the site itself. The translations should be safe to visit but, as always, use caution when exploring unfamiliar sites. Also, note that the linked-to pages can disappear or change into something else at any time. If you notice a link that does not work, or that ends up at some page that is not a translation of the page you're visiting, please let me know by email.

Background color key:   
Column headings
Page with translations
No translations yet

kermitproject.org/: The Kermit Communications Software Project
Page and link Title Topic
index.html Kermit Project home page Overview and links to individual pages
kermit.html About Kermit The Kermit Project, sofware, and protocol.
ftpclient.html Kermit's scriptable FTP client For Unix, Windows, and other platforms
ek.html Embedded Kermit Kermit software for embedding
sshclient.html Kermit 95 for Windows K95's SSH Client
usingckermit.html Using C-Kermit Second Edition About the C-Kermit book
terminals.html What's a Terminal? What terminal emulators emulate
case08.html C-Kermit 7.0 Case Study 8 Kermit and Unicode
case09.html C-Kermit 7.0 Case Study 9 Printing from C-Kermit
ussr/index.html USSR Kermit Conference International Kermit conference in Moscow 1989

columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/: The History of Computing at Columbia University
Page and link Title Topic
Herman Hollerith (also see Punched-card equipment below)
hollerith profile.html Herman Hollerith The father of modern automated computing
hh/index.html An Electric Tabulating System Hollerith's Columbia PhD Dissertation (1890 Census)
ppunch1919.html Hollerith Pantographic card punch The first card punch (1890 census)
IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University 1945-1970
watsonlab.html Watson Laboratory Brief overview of Watson Laboratory
krawitz.html Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory 1949 article by Eleanor Krawitz
Wallace Eckert
eckert.html Wallace Eckert Pioneer in automated scientific computation
switch.html Eckert's switch box The first automated scientific calculations 1934
navalobservatory.html Wallace Eckert in WWII Eckert's time at the US Naval Observatory
almanac.html Naval Observatory Almanacs Automating the WWII Air and Nautical Almanacs
tableprinter.html Table printer The first "computer typesetting" 1945
Other Watson Lab personalities
backus.html John Backus Pioneer in computer programming languages
grosch.html Herb Grosch Computer pioneer and commentator
course.html Eric Hankam's 3-Week Course on Computing Pioneering open-enrollment computer course 1947-1957
jones.html Rebecca Jones Eckert's Star Measuring Machine
Early computers
eniac.html ENIAC (1946) How ENIAC was programmed mainly by women
ssec.html IBM SSEC (1948) Massive computer built at Watson Lab
cpc.html IBM Card Programmed Calculator (1949) IBM's first card-programmed commercial offering
norc.html IBM NORC (1954) The first super­computer, built at Watson Lab
610.html IBM 610 Auto-Point (1954) The first personal computer, also built at Watson Lab
650.html IBM 650 MDC (1954) The first mass-produced computer
Punched-card equipment
tabulator.html Tabulators (Accounting Machines) Precursors to modern computers
1890tabulator.html Hollerith's 1890 Census tabulator The first tabulator
cards.html IBM punch cards The version used starting in 1928
sorters.html Card sorters To put decks of punched cards in any desired order
firstpunch.html The first card punch Pantographic card punch - 1890 and 1900 censuses
oldpunch.html Old card punches 1890-1934
026.html IBM 026 key punch Introduced in 1949
029.html IBM 029 key punch Introduced in 1964
interpreters.html IBM Card Interpreters To print interpretation of punched codes on card
reproducers.html IBM Summary punches To extract selected information from a deck of cards
405.html IBM Tabulator (1934) Introduced in 1934, served in World War II
packard.html The Columbia Difference Calculator (1931) Custom-made by IBM for Columbia
407.html The IBM 407 (1949) IBM's last tabulator
collators.html IBM Collators To merge decks of punched cards
teletype.html Teletype The first electronic printing communicator
ibmradiotype.html IBM Radiotype Short-wave typewriter and its role in World War II
pupin.html Pupin Hall Where the Manhattan Project started
simon.html Simon "The Smallest Mechanical Brain in Existence" (1950)
7090.html IBM 7090/7094 coupled system Columbia's main computer 1963-68
36091.html IBM 360/75/91 coupled system Columbia's main computer 1968-1980
1403.html IBM 1403 line printer Biggest fastest high-volume printer of its time
chain.html IBM 1403 print train Novel print mechanism of the 1403
dec20.html The DECSYSTEM-20 Columbia's central academic computers 1977-88
pclab.html Columbia's first PC lab Engineering Terrace 1986
portable.html IBM Portable PC 1984 (30 pounds!) Required equipment for all Business School students

kermitproject.org/newdeal/: The New Deal in New York City
Page and link Title Topic
index.html NYC New Deal Home Page Links to NYC New Deal galleries and research
overview.html NYC New Deal overview FDR's New Deal and what it did in New York City
newnewdeal.html Now or Never: a NEW New Deal How to save the USA from self-destruction in 2021

Columbia University 1968 student uprising
Page and link Title Topic
index.html Columbia University 1968 The anti-war anti-racism student uprising, April 1968