Icon The Kermit Project   |   Now hosted by Panix.com
New York City USA   •   kermit@kermitproject.org
since 1981


   Versions 9.0–10.0: 2011-2023
Frank da Cruz
The Kermit Project, Bronx NY.
Email: fdc@columbia.edu
Last update: Mon Jun 17 14:58:06 2024 New York time

Current Beta-test version:   10.0      
Current released version:   9.0.302   20 August 2011   

Changes since version 8.0.207 of 1 January 2003 — In reverse chronological order (newest first)


3 July 2023: C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.10 for Unix and VMS, and (as Beta.05) for Microsoft Windows and IBM OS/2.

If you have a hardware/OS platform where hasn't been built yet, please try to build it and then send me the data for an entry in the C-Kermit 10.0 builds table.  Thanks!
Builds needed: Any Linux system not already listed in the Beta.09 Builds Table (currently 9 different Linux distributions out of MORE THAN 600), plus older non-Linux Unix OS's like BSDI, Unix V7, SVR3, 4.2BSD, 4.3BSD, IRIX, HPUX before 10.0, Plan 9 from Outer Space, QNX, SCO, Ultrix, OSF/1, Tru64, AIX, MINIX, NeXT, SINIX, ..., and non-Unix OS's like Stratus VOS, AOS/VS, OS-9...

In-between-Beta versions are uploaded from time to time, and can be downloaded from HERE. The changes are described in the "not released yet" section just below (if there is one).

Also see:

This Web page, which as of September 2023 would be about 245 pages long if printed, was originally a plain-text change log in chronological order (newest entries at the bottom). In May 2017 it was converted to HTML with a text-to-html Kermit script, and as of 27 July 2020 it has been rearranged so the latest information is at the top and the oldest at the bottom, and the formatting was improved by makeshift scripts and by hand. Since July 2020, this page is the only for C-Kermit since the 9.0 release.

Instructions for downloading and building C-Kermit 10.0 Beta tests →  UNIX    VMS    Windows

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.11 release candidate

April and June 2024
More fixes Steven M. Schweda, documented HERE, some of the specific to VMS (a.k.a. OpenVMS), others affecting all platforms. Mainly compliance issues, not functional ones.
24-26 March 2024
Various long-standing (but minor) problems solved by Steven M. Schweda, listed HERE. All warnings in the HP-UX builds have been eliminated. But on the downside, it has been verified that OpenSSL builds fail with Clang 16; C-Kermit's OpenSSL support needs to be modernized by a competent OpenSSL programmer.
21 March 2024
A few weeks ago Krzyszstof Mitco reported that building the 6 February pre-Beta-11 upload on a Macintosh with Clang 15 got a ton of Wdeprecated-non-prototype warnings in ckwart.c: "function definition without a prototype is deprecated". But all (or at least most) of those functions *did* have prototypes. Long story short, the problem was not the prototypes, but the function declarations themselves, 26 of them in ckwart.c and one in ckcpro.w. These all needed to be converted to the #ifdef CK_ANSIC .. #else .. #endif format used for declaring functions in the other modules. It might have been helpful if Clang had issued a less misleading warning message, like maybe "ANSI protototype for Non-ANSI function declaration". Especially since older Clang versions and (as far as I know) all gcc versions give no warnings at all. The updated code is in the Pretest builds area (on top):


6 February 2024
Minor changes to REMOTE STATUS code in new ckcfns.c routine nxthlp() to squelch some warnings in OpenBSD, and rearrangement of some statements that were out of order in a way that was noticed only by HP-UX.
5 February 2024
C-Kermit 10.0 Beta 10 and pre-Beta 11 appear to be quite solid; there have been 10,391 downloads of the tarballs since 3 July 2023 without a single bug report. Now, after a long hiatus, a Beta 11 candidate upload dated 2024-02-05 is available in the usual place:
Changes since last time:
  • Prototypes for system functions malloc(), getenv(), locate_srv_dns(), etc, were removed from Kermit header files, which caused build failure in Ubuntu Linux. Anyway there was no reason for them to be there since the prototypes should be picked up from the system header files.
  • For conformity with DECSYSTEM-20 Kermit, recently revived by Tom DeBellis, the C-Kermit server now responds to two new REMOTE commands from the client: REMOTE CDUP (tells the server to change directory one level up) and REMOTE STATUS (asks server for a status report). The status report looks like this:
    SERVER: C-Kermit 10.0 pre-Beta.11, 03 Feb 2024, NetBSD 10.0_RC3
    C-Kermit full version number: 10.0.408
    Hostname: panix1.panix.com (
    Server hardware: amd64 (64 bits)
    Server operating system family: UNIX
    Current directory on server: /net/u/1/f/fdc/beta11/
    Last file sent by server:
     /net/u/1/f/fdc/beta11/ascii.html 8440 20240202 20:23:34
    Last file received by server:
     /net/u/1/f/fdc/beta11/utf8.txt 343 20240204 08:26:43
    Filename length limit: 511
    Pathname length limit: 1024
  • Wart lives again!  Each of these required changes to the protocol, so I had to reinstate the ckcpro.w and ckwart.c modules to the source package and put targets for them back in the makefile because it turned out to be next to impossible to edit ckcpro.c directly.
Files affected in this edit: makefile, ckcker.h, ckcpro.w, ckwart.c, ckcmai.c, ckcfns.c, ckuusr.c, ckuus2.c, ckuus4.c, ckuus7.c. Tested so far only on Unix; should work on VMS and Windows but not tested there yet.

Also a new "generic server commands" sections was added to the Kermit file-transfer packet reference page, that includes the two new commands.

OpenSSL help needed
C-Kermit 10.0 has gone through a long testing phase with many Alphas and Betas. It's nearly ready for promotion to Release Candidate except for one thing: when built with OpenSSL 3 it gets warnings about deprecated functions. I know nothing about OpenSSL and neither does anybody else working on this release, but these warnings need to be fixed because in a year or two they will turn into fatal errors. And of course they should be fixed in a way that still works on platforms that have older OpenSSL versions installed. The "deprecated" functions are:
and the complaints come from ck_crp.c and ck_ssl.c.
24 September 2023
A new preBeta.11 upload dated 2023-09-24 in the usual place:
The SunOS 4.1.1 version didn't agree with ckbuildlog. Long story short, in SunOS C-Kermit didn't allocate large-enough text buffers for ckubuildlog; this is fixed and Solaris should be OK too but I have no way to test it there myself. Also a bit of finagling was needed to find out what the SunOS compiler was, since "cc -v" doesn't exist there, so now ckubuildlog fills it in.
20 September 2023
Fixes from Piotr Kolasiński for some confusion yesterday (mine) + new builds by Piotr for macOS (now warning-free) and OpenBSD 7.3, plus one by me for SunOS 4.1.1 running on a real Sun3, compiled with a non-ANSII compiler (Sun cc 1.22). New tarball dated 2023-09-20 uploaded to the C-Kermit 10.0 PreBeta archive.
19 September 2023
From Peter Eichhorn in Germany:
  • A fix for preprocessor directive (#ifdef, #endif, etc) that did not start on the left margin in ck_ssl.c and ckcnet.c (this is fatal in HP-UX 10 with the bundled compiler and also with other old C compilers).
From Piotr Kolasiński in Poland:
  • For mac OS: -Wdeprecated-non-prototype warnings for ftime() and utimes() have been eliminated.
  • A C-Kermit bug regarding "copy /append" has been fixed. The bug prevented the ckubuildlog script from working right on the Mac.
A new tarball dated 2023-09-19 has been uploaded to the C-Kermit 10.0 Beta Prestest builds archive.
17 September 2023
When doing an SSL build with Clang on Ubuntu, the following warning appeared: "ckuus7.c:14572:1: a function definition without a prototype is deprecated in all versions of C and is not supported in C2x [-Wdeprecated-non-prototype] sho_auth(cx) int cx; {". Turns out sho_auth() did have a prototype but did not have the required dual ANSI/pre-ANSI declaration. Fixed in ckuus7.c (not uploaded yet).
16 September 2023
C-Kermit 10.0's Beta.11 development cycle begins with 388 code adjustments by David Goodwin (C-Kermit for Windows) in 25 modules to eliminate compiler warnings when building the Windows version with the OpenWatcom 1.9 compiler. The warnings (including one error), number of occurrences, and brief description of each were:

  1. W202:     283   Symbol defined but not referenced
  2. W131:      79   No prototype found for function
  3. W118:       9   Label defined but not referenced
  4. I2002:      3   Note! (functionname) defined in (path)
  5. I2004:      3   Note! target conversion type is 'unsigned long *'
  6. I2003:      3   Note! target conversion type is 'long *'
  7. E1181:      3   Parameter 3 sign specifier mismatch
  8. W201:       2   Unreachable code
  9. W300:       1   Nested comment found

Here are the affected modules with the number of changes in each:

  1. ckcnet.c:  47
  2. ckuus6.c:  36
  3. ckuus3.c:  34
  4. ckuus7.c:  33
  5. ckuusr.c:  30
  6. ckcftp.c:  28
  7. ckuus4.c:  28
  8. ckctel.c:  23
  9. ckuus5.c:  22
 10. ckucmd.c:  21
 11. ckuath.c:  16
 12. ckuusx.c:  13
 13. ckudia.c:  11
 14. ckuusy.c:   8
 15. ckcmai.c:   8
 16. ckcsig.h:   5
 17. ckcfns.c:   5
 18. ckuscr.c:   5
 19. ckcpro.c:   4
 20. ckuus2.c:   3
 21. ckclib.c:   3
 22. ckcdeb.h:   2
 23. ckcfn3.c:   1
 24. ckcfn2.c:   1
 25. ckcxxx.h:   1

These were merged with some minor changes by me in ckcmai.c, ckcfns.c, and ckfn2.c. The result can be downloaded from the usual place:

David and I have already built it successfully on about 30 different platforms
10 September 2023
Since the July announcement of C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.10, I have had just about zero feedback and an equal number of build reports except the 25 Windows and OS/2 builds by David Goodwin, the VMS ones from SMS, and one macOS, plus the 90 I did myself on various Linuxes I have access to. I still have a list of runtime bugs to try to fix, but the top priority is to make sure that Beta.10 still builds on all the platforms where the earlier Betas built, because of the massive code changes in Beta.10 required by Clang. So please, send in build results for Mac OS / macOS, Raspberry Pi, Android, MINIX... SunOS, Solaris, SCO, AIX, IRIX, and whatever else you might have access to, that's not already on Beta.10 build list. And remember, on UNIX-based OS's, you should now be able to generate build reports automatically at the end of your compilation, as explained here. Thanks! —Frank
4 July 2023
24 Windows builds (plus one OS/2) added to the builds table.
The C-Kermit for Windows page totally overhauled for CKW Beta 5.

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.10, 3 July 2023      DOWNLOAD

3 July 2023
A last-minute correction to "make freebsd" in the makefile, and off we go!

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.10 is mainly focussed on "Buzzword 2.0 compliance", not new features or even very many bug fixes. Each change is noted below, down to the Beta.09 section. It also comes with a new utility, ckubuildlog, a script that (when you invoke it) automatically creates a a builds table entry, so when you build C-Kermit it's easy to to report the results.

2 July 2023
From David Goodwin: Fixed date in top line of ckctel.c (2003→2023), and in ckuus5.c for Windows and OS/2 only: #include "ckoath.h" for ck_crypt_ll_version() prototype to prevent crash on 64-bit Windows.

Also from David: ckcnet.c... for some reason the Windows NT 3.50 SDK #defines 'try' as '__try'.

VMS issue with Unicode unresolved: If I understand correctly OpenVMS 7.2 and later have some kind of support for Unicode on ODS-5 volumes, but only in its UCS-2 form, not UTF-8. I thought I would check this by sending a UTF-8 file from Linux to OpenVMS 8.4-2L3 with "set transfer character-set ucs2". I was surprised to see it was sent with utf8 as the transfer character set and thought this was a C-Kermit bug, but it's not. A comment at about line 7419 in ckuxla.c (function setxlatype()) says "If any of our charsets is Unicode we use Unicode functions even if TCS and FCS are the same because of BOM and byte swapping" (because UCS-2 files can have different markers and byte order depending on the platform), so when the source file is UTF-8, the transfer encoding is forced to UTF-8 also, no matter what transfer character-set has been set. Anyway, I don't even know if or how Unicode is supported on VMS. If I try to type the UTF-8 file on VMS, the non-ASCII characters are gibberish. If I convert it to UCS-2, the result is a different gibberish. But maybe that was because the disk was not an ODS-5 volume. If anybody cares and/or knows anything about this issue, feel free to contact me (email address at top).

1 July 2023
'make xxx -DV7MIN' or 'make linuxmin' warned about "implicit declaration of function 'urlparse'; fixed by adding the appropriate #ifdefs to ckcfnp.h and ckcdeb.h.

Minor changes from David Goodwin to ckcmai.c and ckcdeb.h for the forthcoming Beta.05 test release of C-Kermit for Windows.

28 June 2023
"make freebsd" makefile entry changed to eliminate the "<sys/timeb.h> deprecated" warning by adding KFLAG -DNOSYSTIMEBH in the cases where (a) <sys/timeb.h> does not exist, and (b) it exists but contains the word "deprecated".
27 June 2023
I fixed ckcfnp.h to not sprew out warnings about the prototype for locate_srv_dns() when building a no-TCP/IP or no-networking-at-all C-Kermit version. Plus... ckubuildlog to work (in case a VMS version of ckubuildlog is ever written):
Added new C macros, GETEXEDIR and HAVE_VN_EXEDIR, defined on systems where the getexedir() function is used, and the builtin variable "exedir" exists, respectively. (I chose functional names rather than things like OS2ORUNIXORVMS.)
Changed to call getexedir() on VMS as well as UNIX (according to GETEXEDIR).
Changed to enable builtin variable "exedir" according to HAVE_VN_EXEDIR instead of OS2ORUNIX.
Added getexedir() for VMS.
Changed to use revised NAM[L] macros from ckvrms.h.
Minor update to NAM[L] macros for simpler code and better consistency with non-Kermit code.
25 June 2023
ckubuildlog updated to work with HP-UX and to make greater efforts to find the compiler and version that was used to build the C-Kermit binary it's looking at. Thanks to Peter Eichhorn for working this out.
24 June 2023
From David Goodwin (who is in charge of the Windows and OS/2 versions of C-Kermit 10.0), in preparation for a (hopefully) joint release of C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.10 for Unix, VMS, and Windows (and maybe OS/2). The changes are:
Support statically linking des/cast rather than putting it in k95crypt.dll
Add WIN32ORUNIX define. On OS/2 or Windows, if CK_KERBEROS and NO_KERBEROS are undefined on the command line then enable all KRB stuff - this allows the windows build scripts to turn on kerberos features selectively based on the headers that could be found.
Don't define a prototype "int hash(char*)" on OS2 and Windows as it conflicts with SRP support
Bump windows beta number to match unix
Fix for building crypt dll when kerberos is enabled
Built-in SSH only provides SSH v2
Add Pathworks and SuperLAT to show features output as these features are not present in all builds (SuperLAT was presumably only available on x86, Pathworks was only on x86 and Alpha) Also add PTY support to the list of missing features when its not present
23 June 2023
  • When you download a C-Kermit 10.0 source code package (zip or tar) dated 23 June 2023 or later, it now includes the ckubuildlog script so it will be super-easy to get the build data and submit it for the C-Kermit 10.0 build log. Instructions: after unpacking the source-code tarball or zip file (target is the makefile target name, e.g. linux, freebsd, macos+ssl, etc):
    1. make target 2>log
    2. ./ckubuildlog
    3. send me the resulting target.txt file
    4. Done!
    Let's hope there will also be a ckvbuildlog.com some day for VMS!
  • Thanks to help from "Zero King" (Lin Dongyu), Jake Thompson, Jeff Altman, and Steven M. Schweda, every last one of the Clang 15 -Wdeprecated-non-prototype warnings has been eliminated, so C-Kermit is saved from extinction. The only remaining Clang warning is "*s++; -Wunused-value", which I refuse to "fix".
  • From Tony Nicholson: Fixed building C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.09 on Alpha with SSL3 (and the VSI OpenVMS patch kit for SSL3 on Alpha) due to an issue with Multinet TCP/IP headers and the select() function: ckcmai.c, ckcnet.c.
  • ckuus4.c:14296, sprintf(vvbuf,"%d",crc16); changed to "%ld".
  • COPYING.TXT and README.TXT were omitted from Beta.09 archives, restored as of this edit.
  • From Jeff Johnson: "Over in ckuus5.c around line 12445, mestring is using startup, which won't work after the executable is installed; "\\v(exedir)\\v(name), size: \\fsize(\\v(exedir)\\v(name))"; - (that is, using exedir instead of startup) seems like what was intended." (correct, fixed now). Also in ckcmai.c, the "Portions Copyright" ... that text should be separated from the preceding license text by a newline (done).
  • Also from Jeff Johnson (Beta.09):
    A quick bug to report, affecting IKSD, where restricting connections via negotiations is not actually working.

    To replicate, on the IKSD server side, you do both "SET TELOPT COM-PORT-CONTROL REQUIRED" and "SET TELOPT START-TLS REQUIRED" together.

    You'll see that an incoming connection without supporting those will not actually be disconnected - the connection continues on after the "terminating connection" message, where it should have stopped after the "Start-TLS refused" message.

        $ telnet 1649               
        Connected to
        Escape character is '^]'.
        Telnet Start-TLS refused.
        Internet Kermit Service ready at Mon May 15 06:25:55 2023
        C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.09, 09 May 2023

    Peer refuses TELNET DO COM-PORT-CONTROL negotiations - terminating connection Username: But the connection isn't terminated, and the login can continue, which isn't right. Tested on C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.09.

    The "Start-TLS refused" message is issued in tn_xdoopt(), ckctel.c(). case TELOPT_START_TLS: (two occurrences) in both cases, it closes the connection and returns -3 (= "connection closed by us") to its caller, which is tn_doop().

    Jeff's patch was applied.
  • And another from Jeff J:
    In short, if you have, in iksd.conf a long valid line and then a shorter invalid line, the syntax error message conflates them, example:
    Here is the configuration: SET AUTHENTICATION TLS RSA-KEY-FILE /etc/iks/key.pem DEBUG LOG /tmp/iksd.log
    And the buggy output:
    ?Not a command or macro name: "DEBUG"
    ?iksd.conf[7]: "DEBUG LOG /tmp/iksd.log SA-KEY-FILE /etc/iks/k...": Syntax error

    This was introduced by the addition of 9case to ckuus5.c around line 3408 in the sources. I'm also not exactly sure what the best fix would be here, but the simpliest solution I can think is just to ensure the whole buffer is NUL'd - I did this by adding the memset call at line 2550:

  • With peter eichhorn, fixed the "types incompatible in conditional expression" warning in ckuus3.c:4071, in a way that works in all hp-ux versions from 6.5 to 11.
  • Noted in passing... -DNOANSII builds no longer work on any modern platform. It used to be possible to #ifdef‑away all ANSI/POSIX features to simulate a pre-ANSI build on a newer platform, but newer compilers don't tolerate old C. I think it would be better to "be conservative in what you send ("demand" in this case), be liberal in what you accept from others" (Robustness principal, Jon Postel, "god of the Internet").
If anybody sent me any other corrections that are not addressed above, please let me knw.
13-14 May 2023
Corrected some problems in Minix builds reported by Liam Stitt:
  • In ckocon.c (the old pre-Internet CONNECT command module), the chkaes() function has only one argument, but the prototype specifies two because the copy of the same routine in the new CONNECT module, ckucns.c, had a second argument added at some point so C-Kermit, when in CONNECT mode, could handle certain ANSI escape sequences.
  • #include "ckuusr.h" was added to ckcfnp.h for Minix builds so the struct mtab[] typedef would be picked up.

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.09, 9 May 2023

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.09 was released 9 May 2023; the changes since Beta.08 are listed below. The majority of the work was not adding new features or even fixing bugs; it was "complying" with changes in the C language and its Unix programming environment, in particular making sure that all functions are declared in both ANSI format and K&R format (so C-Kermit can built on both new and old computers), and that every function has a prototype; this is an edict from the Clang people. The changes were massive but the only result is that C-Kermit should continue to compile successfully with forthcoming Clang releases on Clang-dominated platforms like macOS, FreeBSD, and OpenBSD even after the "C2x" cutover, and yet remain buildable on all the platforms where where it compiled and ran before: most or all Unixes (including decades-old ones like SunOS 4 and HP-UX 10.20), plus VMS back to at least version 5.4, and all releases of Microsoft Windows and NT and hopefully also IBM OS/2.

Special thanks to (alphabetically) Nelson Beebe, Peter Eichhorn, David Goodwin, and Steven M Schweda for their contributions in recent weeks.

One problem still must be resolved before C-Kermit 10.0 can be released:

  • Clang 15 and possibly later versions issue the following warning for function calls made via function pointers:

    warning: passing arguments to a function without a prototype is deprecated in all versions of C and is not supported in C2x [-Wdeprecated-non-prototype]

    so if this problem can't be fixed before C2x-ageddon, then C-Kermit won't be buildable by Clang. But the warning is bogus: how could Clang expect to find a prototype for a function whose name won't be known until runtime? Anyway, as of Beta.09 Clang *knows* that all C-Kermit's functions have prototypes, so there's no reason to make a fuss. Meanwhile it is apparently possible to squelch these warnings by accident somehow because "make linux+ssl" doesn't get them. I haven't yet been able to figure out why.
Various other warnings that are not potentially lethal should be looked at, for example:
  • Clang also complains about perfectly legal compound IF statements and/or complex IF conditions, and wants to have parens and/or brackets galore added for clarity. These statements were written by programmers who understood the rules of precedence of arithmetic and logical operators, and the code has been working correctly for decades. Editing hundreds of lines of complicated code to please bureaucrats is very likely to do more harm than good. The classic rule of software development and maintenance applies: "Don't fix what ain't broke"... To that should be added "Don't deliberately break things!")
  • Some OpenSSL 3 builds get six "implicit declaration" warnings; others get 25 "deprecated declarations". The SSL code needs work by someone who knows SSL APIs. Worse, builds with OpenSSL 3.02 and later can fail because they depend on some other package (libpam06-dev) that might not be installed.
  • Platform-specific warnings or failures need to be fixed by people who have those platforms, without breaking compilation on any other platform. I'm not inclined to make fixes that I can't test myself.
6 May 2023
A -DNOSPL ("no script programming language") build failed with implicit declarations of functions and undeclared variables. Turns out some of the code I added a few months ago to the TYPE and GREP commands that used script-language features like arrays was not guarded by #ifndef NOSPL..#endif. Fixed in ckuus3.c and ckuus6.c.

The C-Kermit macro name lookup functions mlook(), mxlook(), and mxxlook() all have a parameter of type sruct mtab[], which doesn't exist if NOSPL is defined; fixed by putting #ifdefs around their prototypes in ckcfnp.h.

Also in the same builds: "implicit declaration of function 'initproto'" in ckuus3.c. Of course initproto() *is* prototyped in ckcfnp.h and ckcfnp.h *has* been included by ckuus3.c. The reason for the complaint eludes me but I fixed it by putting an "extern VOID initproto(...)" in ckuus3.c:setproto().

For HP-UX 10 I added an explicit cast to this statement in ckuus3.c:
if ((CKFLOAT)result != fpresult) fpflag++;
I don't know why the complaint ("Types incompatible in conditional expression") comes only now after all these years. I have no way to test it; will find out tomorrow morning from Mr.HPUX in Germany, which is 7 hours later than the Bronx (the problem was resolved after the Beta.09 release, see notes above for May 13-14).

Finally (for today)... Unlike previous Beta09 previews, today's version once again supports customized builds with certain features deselected. See the "newbuilds table". Also it now identifies itself as Beta.09RC (Release Candidate for Beta.09).

Today's code as of 19:49 Bronx time is in the USUAL PLACE.

5 May 2023
ckuusx.c line 6195, fixed a semicolon-comma mixup in move() declaration (noticed by SMS while compiling on an old VAX with VMS 5.2). Ditto for ck_curpos at ckuusx.c:6386.

From David Goodwin (for the Windows version):

  • Move MAINTYPE/MAINNAME futher down in ckcdeb.h to where OS2ORWINDOWS is defined.
  • ckcuni.h: don't define a prototype for ck_isunicode() on NT.
  • ckuus7.c: fix semicolon-comma mixup in declaration of owwait().

To squelch warnings about non-declaration of wait() in OpenBSD, I added a test for the existence of <sys/wait.h> to the openbsd: and freebsd: makefile targets, with accompanying code around #include <sys/wait.h> in ckufio.c.

Finally, I built today's code successfully on a Sun 3 with SunOS 4.1 from 1990 — that's 33 years ago. No changes were needed and there were just a few harmless warnings. A fully functional executable was produced:

$ uname -a
SunOS three 4.1.1 1 sun3
$ ./wermit
C-Kermit 10.0 Pre-Beta.09, 05 May 2023, for SunOS 4.1
 Copyright (C) 1985, 2023,
  Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York.
  Open Source 3-clause BSD license since 2011.
Type ? or HELP for help.
(~/kermit/) C-Kermit>quit
Today's sources as of 21:04 New York time can be downloaded HERE. This should be regarded as Beta.09 release candidate so please give it a spin, or even a workout, and let me know of any problems. As you can see HERE, it's been built on a wide variety of platforms both old and new, but reports are needed for many more.
4 May 2023

From SMS:

  • ckuath.c binaryEqual() args a and b needed to be const for macOS.
  • Fixed a typo in a comment in ckvker.com.
I fixed a typo in ckcmai.c:2019: "ikslogin" in the ikslogin() non-ANSI declaration was misspelled as iksolgin, which broke pre-ANSIC builds (thanks to Peter Eichhorn for catching this).

I fixed the "make linux+ssl" and "linux+krb5" makefile targets to honor CC= and/or CC2= selectors on the make command line (previously they were hardwired for gcc).

And I removed the superfluous "extern char * pncvt();" at line 11053 of ckuus4.c in fneval(), case FN_PNCVT, that conflicted with the new prototype in ckcfnp.h. There are a also lot of other extern declarations for functions that also now have prototypes but that don't generate Clang warnings, so DFWAB.

1-3 May 2023
Reworked the "main() mess" in ckcmai.c, in which a pile of #ifdefs accounted for platforms where main() might return a different data type, or even have a different name, e.g. "Main()" in Windows. The declaration (which previously was SIXTY lines long) is now simply:
#ifdef CK_ANSIC
MAINNAME( int argc, char ** argv )
MAINNAME( argc, argv ) int argc; char **argv;
#endif /* CK_ANSIC */
where MAINTYPE and MAINNAME are declared in ckcdeb.h, where they can be easily edited in case any new "standards" appear. Thanks to SMS for help with this one, who also debugged the VMS builds and pointed out a couple duplications in the new prototypes header, ckcfnp.h, that caused trouble with some compilers.

Meanwhile Peter Eichhorn in München has an old HP-UX system where he can do K&R (i.e. Pre-ANSI-C) builds and found several errors, which have been corrected, mostly in punctuation (e.g. comma vs semicolon in prototypes), in ckutio.c, ckuus4.c, ckucmd.c, and ckclib.c, plus a typo (by me course) in the freebsd makefile entry where HAVE_HAVEWAITH should have been HAVE_WAITH.

These changes are in the "pretest" archive with a date/time-stamp of 2023-05-03 19:32:12 or later, CLICK HERE to download a tar or zip archive (the latest version is at the top, as always).

29 April 2023
The 27 April OpenBSD 7.2 build needed a special make command to circumvent the disappearance of sys/timeb.h; today's code detects its presence or absence automatically, so "make openbsd" is sufficient to build it on both older and newer OpenBSD systems. Also in OpenBSD, assorted warnings about implicit declaration of several curses functions are now cleared and it builds with no warnings.

Also "make freebsd" had 3 "implicit declaration of wait()" warnings, now cleared. It still warns that sys/timeb.h is deprecated; if anybody cares, see the makefile comments above the "freebsd" target.

The Clang 15 prototype problem with function pointers remains and I'm totally baffled (see yeterday's entry). It needs to be fixed (hopefully in Clang itself!).

Tne new builds table has been updated, and today's sources (dated 29 April) have been uploaded to the Beta pretest builds archive, dated 20230429.

28 April 2023
I did 32 successful builds of the 27 April code base on a variety of BSD and Linux systems, as shown in THIS TABLE. For each platform's default build, e.g. "make linux", compiled with Clang 15, I still get the 17 -Wdeprecated-non-prototype warnings for functions invoked via function pointers. The new development, however, is that if I do "make linux+ssl" on the same computer with the same compiler, I don't get those warnings! So far I can't figure out why, but these need to be fixed before the final release, otherwise the code will error out in the later-model Clang compilers.
27 April 2023
David Goodwin, who is in charge of the MS Windows and IBM OS/2 versions of C-Kermit 10, merged my sources of 18 April with his and made the following changes to my modules. As you can see see, he's in the middle of converting C-Kermit for Windows into a 64-bit application for platforms that support it (CLICK HERE to see David's progress log).
Include ckucmd.h as ckcfnp requires xxstrp
Itanium porting: Fixes for ANSI-C compiler (Visual C++ 2010 for Itanium isn't C99)
Feature: Support TLS SNI indication for https and telnets
NT 3.1 porting: __int64 isn't available in Visual C++ 1.0 32-bit edition
Windows is only 64bit when _WIN64 is defined (fixes NT on the DEC Alpha being picked up as 64bit)
Win64 porting: Fix missing prototype for zgperm (compiler assumes all parameters and return types are 32bit int if there is no prototype to say otherwise)
NT 3.1 porting: GetShortPathName doesn't exist there so we must supply our own
Win64 porting: Define intptr_t as an int for 32bit platforms that don't define it in their headers. Similar for DWORD_PTR.
Win64 porting: CK_TTYFD_T is intptr_t if available, else just an int
Fix missing semi-colon on NT (KUI)
shokeycode takes two parameters on OS/2 and NT
Win64 porting: Fix missing function prototypes to prevent pointer truncation
Win64 porting: ttyfd is now of type CK_TTYFD_T: On windows, handles to sockets/files/serial ports/etc are pointer size so ttyfd must be an __int64 on 64bit windows.
Win64 porting: saddrlen is just an int (socklen_t isn't avialable on Windows)
NT 3.1 porting: Comment about a bug so the affected code can be easily found in the future
Win64 porting: Fix missing prototype for GetLocalUser to avoid pointer truncation.
Win64 porting: socklen_t isn't available on windows
Win64 porting: ttyfd is now of type CK_TTYFD_T
Win64 porting: Fix missing prototypes to avoid pointer truncation
NT 3.1 porting: tidy up defines
Win64 porting: Some parameters on KuiSetProperty have changed to intptr_t so they can accept pointers on 64bit windows
Win64 porting: ttyfd is now of type CK_TTYFD_T
Win64 porting: Fix missing prototypes to avoid pointer truncation
Win64 porting: use _atoi64 on 64bit windows (HWND is a 64bit type there)
NT 3.1 porting: Call ckGetShortPathName instead of GetShortPathName
NT 3.1 porting: Call ckGetShortPathName instead of GetShortPathName
Fix "show terminal" not showing the "ask" auto-download option
Win64 porting: Add _WIN64 to the "show features" command - this is defined when building for 64bit windows (x86-64, Itanium, ARM64 and the unreleased 64bit Alpha port)
NT 3.1 porting: Add CKT_NT35 to the "show features" command - this flag is Set when targeting NT 3.50 (if both CKT_NT31 and CKT_NT35 are defined then runtime checks are used to handle API differences)
Itanium porting: Add "for Itanium CPUs" on Itanium
ARM porting: Add "for ARM CPUs" on 32bit ARM, and "for 64bit ARM CPUs" for 64bit ARM
Win64 porting: Add "for x86-64/AMD64 CPUs." for 64bit x86 systems
Win64 porting: KuiSetProperty now takes intptr_t parameters to avoid pointer truncation
NT 3.1 porting: Call ckGetShortPathName instead of GetShortPathName
Win64 porting: KuiSetProperty now takes intptr_t parameters to avoid pointer truncation

Meanwhile I was able to "make linux+ssl" on Ubuntu with Clang 15 with only the warnings regarding functions invoked via function pointers, explained in the previous entry. This required a one-line addition to ckcfnp.h. You can download today's source-code package HERE.

18 April 2023
I spent the past few days addressing Clang's hundreds of prototype-related complaints about nonstatic functions (I already took care of the static ones a while back):

ckcfns.c 23
ckcfn2.c 13
ckcfn3.c 25
ckcftp.c 92
ckcnet.c 16
ckcpro.c 2
ckctel.c 6
ckucmd.c 58
ckudia.c 15
ckupty.c 11
ckuscr.c 1
ckufio.c 68
ckutio.c 47
ckuusr.c 22
ckuus2.c 8
ckuus3.c 19
ckuus4.c 46
ckuus5.c 50
ckuus6.c 39
ckuus7.c 38
ckuusx.c 26
ckuusy.c 10
ckuxla.c 11
Summary: 646 warnings cleared in 23 modules. This is for "make linux" on Ubuntu 20.04.1 with Clang 15. The result also still builds with gcc on various Linux and BSD platforms. Still to be done: OpenSSL and Kerberos builds and other "custom" builds.

Each clearance involved creating a prototype where none existed before AND the function itself to have *both* K&R and ANSI definitions governed by #ifdef CK_ANSIC..#else..#endif, because C-Kermit does not — as a matter of principle — force users to "upgrade" their computer, OS, or compiler every time a new Kermit version comes out. So C-Kermit 10.0 *should* still be buildable on (e.g.) Unix V7, SVR3, 4.2BSD, SCO Xenix, and all the others where it has been built in the past. Any cases where it isn't should be fixed, that's what these beta tests are for.

Warnings not cleared: ckucmd.c (12), ckcftp.c (5). All of these warnings are like this:

ckucmd.c:1460:10: warning: passing arguments to a function without a 
prototype is deprecated in all versions of C and is not supported in C2x
        if ((*f)(zp,&zq,&atxn) < 0)     /* Convert */
Clang is complaining that there is no prototype for the "*f" function. Of course there isn't; 'f' is a variable containing the name of the function being called at runtime and "*f" is a function pointer. The Clang people can't be serious about this. If they don't take this warning away before the C2x cutover, every C program on the planet that uses function pointers will die in Clang shops. If anybody reading this has some insight on this issue, please send me email (address at the top of this page).

The code dated 16 April 2023 built successfully on Ubuntu 20.04.1 with clang 15.0.5 and 10.0.1; FreeBSD 13.1 with clang 13.0.0; SUSE 15.4 with clang 13.0.1; NetBSD 9.3 with gcc 7.5.0; Centos 9 with gcc 11.3.1; Debian 11 with gcc 10.2.1; Fedora 37 with gcc 12.2.1; and Oracle 9.1 with gcc 11.3.1. In most cases there were no warnings except the clang 15 ones noted above. The April 16th code base is available in the C-Kermit 10.0 Beta Pretest builds archive as of Tue Apr 18 20:15:51 2023 (NY time).

14 April 2023
I really do not see what Clang's problem is with the prototype and declaration of cl_int(), but as noted previously this warning will turn into a fatal error in Clang C2x, so the code had to be removed. Its only use was to catch interruption by Ctrl-C while executing command-line arguments and before entering the interactive command parser. Until a better solution presents itself, this can be re-enabled by building with a non-Clang compiler and adding KFLAGS=-DUSE_CL_INT to the make command line.
12 April 2023
Module Warnings cleared
ckuusr.c 22
ckuus2.c 8
ckuus3.c 19
ckuus6.c 39
ckuusx.c 26
ckuusy.c 10
124 "-Wdeprecated-non-prototype" warnings cleared in about four hours, so maybe it won't take months after all. A problem cropped up in ckuusy.c: a -Wdeprecated-non-prototype warning for cl_int() in ckuusy.c, even though it has a prototype and an ANSI declaration. The return type of this function is SIGTYP, which is typedef'd in the header files; I have yet to track this down but if not fixed, it will be fatal when Clang C2x comes out. Meanwhile, 473 "function without prototype" warnings to go, down from the original 692.
10 April 2023
Nothing to do with C-Kermit, but over the past week a major new release of Kermit-20 for the late lamented DECSYSTEM-20 was rolled out. Kermit-20 was the very first Kermit program. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place 29 April 1981 between two instances of Kermit-20 connected by null-modem cable between two DEC-20 serial ports; read about it HERE and read about the new release HERE.

Now that that's done (and some other things), today I purified another C-Kermit module, by hand of course: ckucmd.c, squelching 58 -Wdeprecated-non-prototype warnings from Clang 15 with 597 remaining. At this rate the job will be done after 321 more hours of work, so if I worked 8 hours a day on nothing else (fat chance!), that would be forty days.

Today's work revealed a new problem, the second one below:

  • Clang issues -Wdeprecated-non-prototype warnings for functions that don't have prototypes.
  • Clang issues -Wdeprecated-non-prototype warnings for functions that have prototypes but that have only a K&R-format declaration.
30 March 2023
Fixed the straggling function declarations in ckcmai.c and ckclib.c. The declaration of main() in ckcmai.c, in particular, is rather complicated since its return type varies by OS and version. I have no way of testing on non-Unix platforms. Aside from the bogus "*s++;" warning in ckclib.c, both modules built clean in Clang 15.
26 March 2023
I spent the day trying to change all the K&R-format function declarations in ckcmai.c and ckclib.c to the format shown in yesterday's entry, and making sure they match with the prototypes in the new ckcfnp.h header file (and in the process added 43 more prototypes to it). There is no way to automate this; too much variation in how the original functions were declared: comments, #ifdef'd symbols, line breaks, the order in which the arguments are listed, etc. An example of the latter will illustrate:

b8tob64(s,n,out,len) char * s,* out; int n, len; {

See how the data types are listed in a different order than the arguments? Who knew 30-some years ago the trouble this would cause?

After the changes I did the following builds on Ubuntu:

  • Made "linux" with gcc 9.4.0, no warnings or errors.
  • Made "linux-pedantic" with gcc 9.4.0, no warnings or errors.
  • Made "linux-clang" with Clang 10.0, no warnings except the bogus one about "*s++;"
And then with Clang 15:

Warnings before recent changes: 728
Total "no prototype" warnings: 692
Prototype warnings in ckcmai.c: 7
Prototype warnings in ckclib.c: 31
Warnings after changes: 698
Prototype warnings after changes: 662
Prototype warnings in ckcmai.c: 3
Prototype warnings in ckclib.c: 7
Difference: 30

So a full day's work on two modules out of a total of 43 for the Unix version of C-Kermit resulted in 30 fewer prototype warnings out of 682 and I still have to go back and find out about the other 10 that weren't squelched. For all 43 modules, this process will probably take a month.

25 March 2023
It turns out that the Clang warnings in yesterday's item indicated a problem after all, but not the one announced; in the majority of cases, the complained-about function *did* have an ANSI prototype, but its declaration was in K&R format. Thanks to Nelson Beebe for identifying the problem.

So the next step is to convert every single C-Kermit function declaration to be like this one:

static char *
#ifdef CK_ANSIC
xxlast(char *s, char c)
xxlast(s,c) char *s; char c;
#endif /* CK_ANSIC */
/* xxlast */ {

I can't simply change them all to ANSI format because C-Kermit still has to build on old platforms and/or pre-ANSI compilers. Quite a few functions are already declared this way, but quite another few are not. It'll be a big job. How big? According to "gdb info functions" the "make linux" version has 1472 functions.

The irony is, Clang versions up to 14 understood both kinds of declarations perfectly — prototypes or no prototypes — all the needed information is in each kind of function declaration. So the Clang people are deliberately breaking [mbtq]illions of existing programs.

24 March 2023
I added 435 non-static function prototypes for C-Kermit, which should have made a significant dent in the 692 "without a prototype" warnings issued by Clang 15 before I did this. The prototypes are in a new header file, ckcfnp.h, which is #included by all ckc*.c, cku*.c, and ckv*.c modules, and eventually also the Windows and OS/2 modules if needed there, well over 50 modules altogether between the three major OS families. This was a long and arduous process, complicated by the fact that many of the prototyped functions have typedef'd return types, such that for any given module, ckcfnp.h couldn't be #included until the other headers that did the typedefs had been digested. The work was done initially on NetBSD 9.3 with gcc 7.5.0. Once it seemed to be fully operational I moved it to Ubuntu 20.04.1 and gcc 9.40, worked out some glitches and then ran it through Clang 10.0.0-4, which uncovered a few more glitches that I fixed. In all cases, the prototypes were read and used by the compiler, evident from the fact that numerous #include statements had to be added or repositioned in many modules along the way.

Then I tried it with Clang 15.0.5 and got 692 "function without a prototype" warnings, only 35 fewer than before I did all this work. And yes, I was compiling the new modules; anyway it can be seen that Clang *did* read the ckcfnp.h file because sometimes it would find a conflict and complain as follows (note reference to ckcfnp.h):

ckuusr.c:8554:23: warning: a function declaration without a prototype is
deprecated in all versions of C and is treated as a zero-parameter prototype
in C2x, conflicting with a previous declaration [-Wdeprecated-non-prototype]
            char * result, * dosexp();
./ckcfnp.h:41:8: note: conflicting prototype is here
char * dosexp( char * );

Today's code is HERE.

19 March 2023
  • The GREP /ARRAY command didn't work at all because the supporting code was never written; now it is written and works as expected. dogrep(): ckuus6.c.
  • GREP /NAMEONLY was broken in Beta.08, now fixed. dogrep(): ckuus6.c.
  • Minor updates to the HELP GREP text: ckuus2.c.

The March 19 version is available for download HERE.

10 March 2023
Debug logs can be ridiculously long, largely because of all the debug statements in in ckstrlen() in ckclib.c. This routine can be considered debugged and correct after all these years so I commented out all its debug() calls. This makes debug logs about four times shorter, at least in the case I tested.
10 March 2023
Prior to this date I had direct access to only three platforms where I could build and test C-Kermit: Red Hat RHEL 6.10, NetBSD 9.3, and Ubuntu 20.4.1. Now I also can build and test on nine more: Centos 9, Debian 11, Fedora 37, Oracle Linux Server 9.1, Rocky 9.1, OpenSUSE Leap 15.4, FreeBSD 13.1, OpenBSD 7.2, and NetBSD 10.0 Beta. As of 20 March there are 205 successful builds in the builds table.
16 February 2023
Added client end of REMOTE STATUS, with which the client asks the server for information about the most recent file transfer (this was a feature of DECSYSTEM-20 Kermit that never made it into C-Kermit). The server end has yet to be written.

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.08 , 15 December 2022

15 December 2022
Nobody has ever reported a problem with "make linux+krb5-new" so I renamed the previous linux+krb5 target to linux+krb5-old and linux+krb5-new to linux+krb5 so Kerberos builds on Linux should be smoother from now on.

Kenji Rikitake noticed some funny business during builds from the Beta.07 tarball: I had written a new script to make the tarball and install it, but forgot to remove ckwart.c and ckcpro.w from the script's file list. This can cause some crazy compilation errors in some cases, messages from something called "ctangle", apparently part of TeX. I fixed the new script, which is in itself sufficient reason for the new Beta.

But a much better reason is that David Goodwin has a new Beta for Windows ready, so I'm making today's code a new Beta too: Beta.08 for VMS and Unix; Beta.04 for Windows, both dated 15 December 2022 and built from the same common code base. Beta.08's full version number is 10.0.402. CLICK HERE to see about the new Windows beta.

12 December 2022
  • COPY /INTERPRET and TYPE /INTERPRET added in September 2022 disappeared from C-Kermit at some point after that; an #else in ckcdeb.h had gone AWOL.
  • Added GREP /DISPLAY:n, that displays only the first n matching lines rather than all of them.
  • Added GREP /VERBATIM, which suppresses the normal intepretation of \-variables and functions in the search string and greps for the actual literal string given, something is is almost impossible to do with Unix or GNU grep, with all the overloading of shell and regular-expression syntax that comes into play when the search string contains any of []().*^$-\'. The closest you can come with GNU grep is grep -F 'searchstring' (note: single quotes), but even that doesn't work if the search string itself includes single quotes; see this page for the gory details.
  • Added GREP /MACRO:name (alias GREP /DEFINE:name) to assign the grep results (single line or multiple lines) to the macro whose name is given. As with DEFINE, any existing macro of the same name is overwritten by the GREP result, but in this case only if there is at least one match.
  • The C-Kermit 10.0 command reference was updated with the new GREP options.

Modules affected: ckuus5.c, ckuus6.c, ckuus2.c. Today's code builds normally with "make linux", etc, as well as with "make linux -DNOSPL" (which eliminates GREP /MACRO because NOSPL (No Script Programming Language) builds don't have macros). Today's code uploaded to HERE 2022-12-12-19:54:00.

11 December 2022
From Steven M Schweda:
  • Revived "make aixg", at least for IBM AIX 6.1: "The IBM-supplied <sys/ioctl.h> (/usr/include/sys/ioctl.h) needs a little help to avoid errors on 'struct winsize': took a new SMS makefile that has improved aix and aixg targets." And... "Problems with 'localtime()'... New work-around requires user to define (new) C macro: TMX_TIME_T. See replacement ckufio.c. A smarter scheme might be to use 'time_t' everyplace, and expect the user to typdef/#define it if his (obsolete?) environment fails to do so."

    The new AIX build is recorded in the Beta-07 builds table.


  • An extraneous '*/' removed from "/* #endif /* NETPTY */" in ckcdeb.h line 685, ignored in most builds but fatal in at least one.
  • SHOW FEATURES now includes (on the second line) the full pathname of the C-Kermit program and its size in bytes: ckuus5.c.
  • I added an internal varsval() function that, given the name of a \v(variable), returns its value as a string. I was going to use it in the SHOW FEATURES addition but another method turned out to be simpler.

Today's code builds ok on Ubuntu, RHEL, and NetBSD. I uploaded it to the semi-daily C-Kermit 10.0 Beta Pretest builds site just now (2022-12-11 16:23 EST).

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.07 , 07 December 2022

I've always had a rule that every change to C-Kermit must be backwards compatible so scripts and procedures written for an old version of C-Kermit will continue to function in the new one. But C-Kermit has a feature that has caused great consternation over the years, especially in its Windows version (formerly K95, now CKW), namely that "backslash-%" scalar variables\%1..\%9, \%a..\%z, and array references: \&a[]..\&z[] are evaluated recursively. This happened because C-Kermit's variable syntax and semantics were designed to be compatible with those of MS-DOS Kermit (which preceded it by several years) and an early MS-DOS Kermit contributor implemented its variables this way.

Problems occur mainly in DOS, Windows, and OS/2 because their pathnames contain backslashes, which is also Kermit's "escape" character that introduces variable names, and this causes no end of trouble. The problem is discussed and illustrated at length here. but manifests itself only when the value of a \%x or \&x[] variable includes one or more backslashes.

The irony is, I have NO IDEA if anybody actually uses the recursive evaluation feature. I suspect not! So changing the default behavior should have no effect, but Murphy's Law suggests otherwise. So I've made this change in Beta.07 and we'll see if anybody notices. Without it we might have timebombs going off for the rest of eternity.

If anyone is adversely affected, all they have to do is SET VARIABLE-EVALUATION RECURSIVE at the head of their scripts or, for that matter, just once in their C-Kermit initialization files. Also \frecurse(variablename) can be used on any kind of variable — not just \%x and \&x but also \m(x) ones — to extract its value recursively. Similarly, \fcontents(variablename) can be used to extract the value of any kind of variable without recursion.

The SET VARIABLE-EVALUATION command was added to C-Kermit in version 9.0, released in 2011.

Other changes...

06 December 2022
From Steven M Schweda:
  • ckcdeb.h, the section starting at line 1340: For (Open)VMS: simplification and future-proofing of the #ifdefs that decide whether the underlying architecture is 32 bits or 64 bits. Rather than assume 32 bits and then test for various 64-bit architectures (IA64, Itanium, etc), now it defaults to 64 bits for all architectures except VAX.
  • ckcnet.c line 14085:  if ( saddr.sin_addr.s_addr == (unsigned long) -1 ): a fix for the increasingly common warning:
       if ( saddr.sin_addr.s_addr == (unsigned long) -1
                ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ^  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    warning: "result of comparison of constant 18446744073709551615 with
    expression of type 'in_addr_t' (aka 'unsigned int') is always false".
    And the same thing again about 140 lines further down. This fixes (e.g.) the Wtautological-constant-out-of-range-compare warnings in macOS builds.

    Today's code uploaded to HERE, 17:44 New York time.

04 December 2022
Undid the inadvertant undoing of a bit in ckuath.c at the end of ck_krb4_is_installed_as_server(): "2022-12-01 SMS. Added return in case where ifndef KRB4."
03 December 2022
  • Yesterday's changes broke non-ANSI C compilation of ckuus2.c, ckuus4.c, ckuusx.c, discovered by Peter Eichhorn on HPUX, who also noticed that there was Yet Another redundant declaration of devname in ckutio.c. Fixes in today's upload.
  • Kerberos 5 builds were failing with vast amounts of warnings and errors. Turns out that back in September when I changed the BETATEST definition from being local to ckcmai.c, to global for all modules, I didn't realize that many years ago someone had put some experimental code into ckuath.c within #ifdef BETATEST..#endif, and suddenly now it awoke from its slumber and went rampaging. I changed the #ifdefs to something less collision-prone (KRB5_BETATEST) and the situation with Kerberos has settled down:

    Platform Make command Compiler Result Description
    Red Hat RHEL 6.1 make linux+krb5 gcc 4.4.7 Failed /usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lgssapi
    Red Hat RHEL 6.1 make linux+krb5-new gcc 4.4.7 OK No errors, no warnings
    Ubuntu 20.04.1 make linux+krb5 gcc 9.4.0 Failed "undefined reference to symbol 'krb5_c_encrypt@@k5crypto_3_MIT'"
    Ubuntu 20.04.1 make linux+krb5-new gcc 9.4.0 OK Warnings: 12 implicit declaration, 2 incompatible-pointer
    NetBSD 9.3 make netbsd+krb5 gcc 7.5.0 Failed Because it's Heimdal Kerberos, not MIT

    The xxxxxx-krb5-new targets are intended to do a better job of finding header files and libraries, and they seem to be doing that.

    When building with Clang, of course there are a LOT more warnings; for example "make linux+krb5" with Clang 10.0.0 yields 57 "Wdangling-else", 42 "Wparentheses", 42 "Wequality comparison", 17 "Wimplicit-function-declaration", 5 "Wpointer-sign", 3 "Wtautological-constant", and 1 "non-void function does not return a value in all control paths", of which only the final three would be of any real consequence. Clang 15 adds another 774 "Wdeprecated-non-prototype" warnings.

    I don't know enough (understatement) about Kerberos to fix substantive errors like "undefined reference to symbol 'krb5_c_encrypt@@k5crypto_3_MIT'", nor to finish the Heimdal code, but I'll do what I can about the warnings, especially the non-prototype ones, but only after Beta.07 is released becuase it's too big a last-minute change.

  • Another bit of fallout from the BETATEST definition was a piece of the SHOW TAPI command (ckuus5.c: showtapi()) was enclosed in #ifdef BETATEST..#endif, but this was just some additional verbosity in the response. Nobody would have noticed this unless they were actually using CKW to make phone calls. I changed this to TAPI_BETATEST.

Today's code uploaded to HERE, 20:16 New York time.

02 December 2022
Bits and pieces... Today's build (20221202) is HERE.
  • From SMS: new macos+ssl and macos+ssl-zlib targets plus an experimental macos+krb5+ssl target with some accompanying code changes. Kerberos builds on new macOS versions seem hopeless; Apple changed everything. Unfortunately the new Kerberos code changes broke all the other Kerberos builds so I rolled them back, but all three new makefile targets are still there.
  • "make netbsd-krb5" and "make netbsd-krb5-new" builds were failing immediately with a nonsensical error: "unknown type name 'jmp_buf' in 'typedef jmp_buf ckjmpbuf;'" because of an unwise choice of header-file directory search order; these builds still fail but for actual good reasons having to do with the Kerberos 5 code itself. This is on a Heimdal Keberos system, for which C-Kermit support was never completed; the same targets might build OK on NetBSD with MIT Kerberos.
  • Makefile: eliminated spaces after \ in continued lines and fixed target lines that started with spaces instead of tab; some 'make' programs are pretty unforgiving about these invisible errors.
  • Fixed duplicate declaration of devname in ckufio.c, noticeable only in FreeBSD, discovered by Nelson Beebe.
  • Some HELP message for C-Kermit for Windows (CKW) were improved by David Goodwin, plus some CKW-specific changes to ckcdeb.h.
  • Fixed two prototypes that were added to ckucmd.c without protection by #ifdef CK_ANSIC..#endif, noticed by Peter Eichhorn.
01 December 2022
Clang 15 warns of exactly 666 implicitly declared functions, i.e. functions lacking prototypes. The announced intention was to turn this warning into a fatal error in Clang 16 and maybe this is the case or maybe not, I can't seem to find a straight answer and don't have access to Clang 16. In any case it seems that it's better for C-Kermit's long-term health for every function to have a prototype. But of course this must be done in a way that does not break compilation with pre-ANSI K&R C compilers. So I obtained a list of all the non-prototyped functions from Clang 15, and then installed prototypes protected by #ifdef CK_ANSIC..#endif for (hopefully) all C-Kermit's static functions as a relatively easy first step. Compilation with clang 15 reduced the number of "non-prototype" warnings from 666 to 490. Modules changed: ckcnet.c, ckctel.c, ckucmd.c, ckudia.c, ckufio.c, ckutio.c, ckuus2.c, ckuus3.c, ckuus4.c, ckuus5.c, ckuus6.c, ckuusr.c, ckuusx.c, ckuusy.c, ckuxla.c.

Also (from David Goodwin in New Zealand, who is working on the Windows C-Kermit version), the "TLSv1_server_method deprecated" warnings have finally been eliminated in the xxx+ssl targets: "When building with OpenSSL 1.1.0 or newer, TLS_server_method() will be used instead of SSLv23_server_method(). For OpenSSL 1.0.2 and older it will function as before using SSLv23_server_method and maybe falling back to TLSv1_server_method. Seems to build fine with OpenSSL 1.1.1 — not really sure how to test it though, but given SSLv23_server_method was just #defined as TLS_server_method if it worked before it should still work now."

Today's build (20221201) is HERE.

29 November 2022
  • The Unix C-Kermit man page, ckuker.nr, was thoroughly revised for C-Kermit 10.0.
  • Thanks to Nelson Beebe I was able to install clang 15.0.5 on my Ubuntu box and try some builds, which are now listed in the builds table. "make linux-clang" gets 667 warnings; one "*s++;" and 666 "function definition without a prototype", warnings which will (or did) turn into a fatal error in clang 16 (it's not clear to me; see below). "make linux-clang-gnu89", on the other hand, gets only the one warning: "*s++;" which is bogus. The real question is... when clang switches "non-prototype" from warning to fatal error, will -std=gnu89 still let "non-compliant" programs build? In any case I intend to install the needed prototypes but it's not a straightforward task and is a HUGE amount of work.
27 November 2022
In ckucon.c (used only for Minix and a few other stragglers) "include ckcdeb.h" was fixed to be "#include ckcdeb.h"; somehow the '#' was lost in yesterday's edit. Also, added a minix3+select target to see if it can be built with the preferred ckucns.c select()-based CONNECT module.
26 November 2022
MINIX builds by Nelson Beebe and the University of Utah, using Clang masquerading as gcc 4.4.6 as the compiler, so it gets all the usual bogus warnings about "*s++;" and IF conditions that include both && and ||. Also: added -DNOIKSD to minix3 targets to avoid "undefined reference to crypt".
  • "make minix3"... the first build attempt since January for MINIX 3, which uses the old fork()-based ckucon.c CONNECT command module (which I had forgotten about), rather than the newer select()-based ckucns.c, revealed that it did not get its CR (carriage return) symbol references renamed to CK_CR, which was necessary because CR showed up in a Windows header file. This was done today. Meanwhile it might be worth checking whether MINIX 3 can use ckucns.c; if it has TCP/IP it must have select(), right?
  • Supplied a missing prototype for initfloat() in ckcmai.c.
  • "make minix3 -i -k" gets errors for undefined rlogin-related identifiers including rlog_inband, rlog_mode, rlog_oob, rlog_naws but I don't know how to fix this because I don't know -i -k means. So I added -DNORLOGIN to the minix3 target.
  • "make minix315" failed with all the same errors, so should be fixed next time around.
  • The "make minix340" build said:
    ./ckuver.h:526:9: warning: 'HERALD' macro redefined
    #define HERALD " Minix 3.4.0"
    ./ckuver.h:245:9: note: previous definition is here
    #define HERALD " 4.4BSD"
    I can't see how this could happen but I worked around it like this:
    #ifdef MINIX340
    #ifdef HERALD
    #undef HERALD
    #endif  /* HERALD */
    #define HERALD " Minix 3.4.0"
    #ifndef MINIX3
    #define MINIX3
    #endif /* MINIX3 */
    #endif /* MINIX340 */
    But there were other more serious errors that I don't know how to work around: implicit definition of ioctl() with related identifiers undeclared: TIOCFLUSH, TIOCGWINSZ; implicit definition of openpty(); <sys/timeb.h> not found. These can only be fixed by somebody who knows MINIX. Today's code uploaded to HERE, 20:12 New York time.
24 November 2022
A shortcoming of the linux+krb5-new target from two days ago was that there was no way to force it to link to an installed gssapi library that was not known to the linker; for example on my Ubuntu box, where it happens to be in /usr/lib//x86_64-linux-gnu/. Today's edition handles this sitution by looking in the /usr/lib/ tree for libgssapi_krb5 (or failing that, libgassapi) and then adding the directory where it was found to LD_LIBRARY_PATH. This involved some hairy shell-script-inside-of-makefile syntax which is a bit beyond me so decades-long Kermit friend Peter Eichhorn in Germany supplied the necessary notation. NEEDS TESTING! But even if it works perfectly for everybody, it introduces another problem: it's over 100 lines long... and it has to be ported to fifteen other xxx+krb5 targets, including the linux+krb5+ssl target. Also:
  • Restored missing linuxnd target (noticed by PeterE)
  • Fixed the garbled qnx16 target(ditto)

Today's version is available HERE, marked 2022-11-24.

23 November 2022
Added HAVE_GSSAPI, KRB4, and KRB5 to SHOW FEATURES display.
22 November 2022
"make linux+krb5" (to build C-Kermit with Kerberos 5 support) has been a big pain for-almost-ever. I spent most of today fixing this, at least on the two Linuxes I have direct access to: Ubuntu 20.04.1 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.10. Previously it failed hard on Ubuntu. There is a whole new and radically different makefile target for this, "make linux+krb5-new". It'll become the default Linux Krb5 build after I've had more feedback. The old target was full of hardwired pathnames for both header files and libraries. The new one still (unavoidably, I think) has some for header files, but libraries are now found by the linker (ln).

The hardest part was dealing with gssapi, it could be almost anywhere. If ln finds it with "-lgssapi_krb5" or "-lgssapi", all's well, and the symbol HAVE_GSSAPI is made available to the C and header files. Otherwise you don't get gssapi in the build. For example on my Ubuntu box, it happens to be in /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgssapi_krb5.so but the linker doesn't know about it, so C-Kermit builds with Kerberos 5 support that does not include gssapi. By the way, the reason it built OK on RHEL 6.10 is that it doesn't have gssapi.

Once the new target is more widely tested and any needed patches are applied, I can convert the other Kerberos 5 builds that are scattered throught the makefile.

Besides the makefile, ckcftp.c had to be changed to have #ifdef HAVE_GSSAPI...#endif around any gssapi-specific code. Also both ckuath.c and the makefile had to account for several possible locations for com_err.h. Nothing has been done yet about Heimdal Kerberos; I'm not qualified. Volunteers welcome!

Meanwhile, please do "make linux+krb5-new" builds on all different linuxes that have Kerberos 5 installed and send the me results for the builds table, along with any problem reports and/or patches. Thanks! Today's code is HERE, marked 2022-11-22.

21 November 2022
From David Cantrell, a patch to the makefile targets linux+krb5 and linux+krb5+ssl to so the linker can find the lib64 subdirectories and libcom_err.so. Current code uploaded to HERE 21 November 2022.
18 November 2022
Verified that "set host /server * 3000" / "set host xxx 3000" client-server connections still work between every combination of NetBSD, Ubuntu, and Windows. Read about this kind of connection HERE. No code changes were needed.
And from SMS:
  • New VMS build files ckvker.com and ckvker.mms with wart and ckcpro.w removed.
  • New Unix makefile with some straggling ckcpro.c references removed.
  • An updated hpux1000o+ssl target: "added some flexibility options in the main HP-UX + SSL rule to cope with a wandering zlib object library, whose location seems to be the user's choice (I saw no evidence of HP[E] supplying one.)"
16 November 2022
  • Got a functional SSL build on NetBSD 9.3 with OpenSSL 3.0.7. No errors, but "deprecated" warnings for these functions: TLSv1_server_method, DH_free, DH_new, DH_set0_pqg, PEM_read_bio_DHparams, RSA_free, RSA_generate_key_ex, RSA_new, and SSL_CTX_set_tmp_dh_callback.
  • For completeness, here are the functions that are flagged by SSL 1.1.1 as "implicitly declared" in ck_crp.c: des_set_random_generator_seed, des_new_random_key, des_ecb_encrypt, des_set_odd_parity, des_key_sched, des_ecb3_encrypt.
  • Added: <tab>*3.[0-9].[0-9]*) OPENSSLOPTION="-DOPENSSL_300" ;; to all makefile file targets that have corresponding clauses for earlier OpenSSL versions: freebsd, netbsd, solaris9g, hpux10/11, and linux. So far it's not used for anything but now  "#if(n)def OPENSSL_300" is available to anyone who might want to take care of the "deprecated" warnings in OpenSSL3. For TLSv1_server_method see: https://www.openssl.org/docs/manmaster/man3/TLSv1_server_method.html and for the others see: https://www.openssl.org/docs/man3.0/man7/migration_guide.html.
15 November 2022
(From SMS) In ck_ssl.h... Added #ifndef..#endif clauses around #define OPENSSL_098 and #define OPENSSL_100, and added a clause for OPENSSL_300. Numerous makefile changes for HPUX11 with OpenSSL. Today's code base uploaded to HERE.
13 November 2022
Increased size of errmsg buffer in ckudial.c about line 6602: ckdial(), and changed the "sprintf()" that constructs the error message to "ckmakmsg()". sprintf() and snprintf() are both either dangerous or likely elicit warnings; ckmakmsg() and ckmakxmsg() (defined in ckclib.c) are safe and portable replacements. Especially since there is no good way to test for the availability of snprintf() without using nonportable preprocessor constructions such as "#if _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500". There are seven more snprintf()s in C-Kermit code that could be converted but for now fall into the "don't fix what ain't broke" category.
12 November 2022
  • Added "check" target to makefile (at the end), from Nelson Beebe. Now you can do "make linux check" and get a success or failure indication at the end, and if the build succeeded, an ls -l listing of the result.
  • Fixed the dangling else in ckuu5.c line 6800.
  • HELP strings for HELP FUNCTION STRCPY, FILEINFO, DAYNAME, and MONTHNAME were longer than "the length '509' ISO C90 compilers are required to support"; I converted these into hmsga() arrays. ckuus2.c.
6 November 2022
  • Wart is no more!  Ever since C-Kermit was first written in 1985, the file-transfer protocol was was controlled by a state machine in a Lex-like module called ckcpro.w; 'w' for "Wart" which was a pun on a play on words. The "compiler" for ckcpro.w was ckwart.c, which produced ckcpro.c. Well, we haven't had to change the state machine much in recent years so there's really no need for all the confusion and side effects, e.g. like when you use gmake instead of make, or a build fails because there's still a ckcpro.o file (or worse. a wart executable) hanging around from a previous build on a different platform. So from now on, ckcpro.c is a SOURCE file, just like all the other ck*.c files, and can (and should) be edited directly. The makefile was modifed to skip all invocations and discussions of wart, and ckcpro.c was edited to not refer to preprocessor step.
  • OpenSSL 3.0.7... Tried building C-Kermit 10.0 pre-Beta.07 against penSSL 3.0.7 on Netbsd 9.3. Compilation succeeded but with 26 "deprecated" warnings. The link step failed with 224 references to 50 distinct undefined objects (see list) in the following modules: ckutio.c, ckuus3.c, ckuus7.c, ckcnet.c, ckcftp.c, ck_ssl.c. The undefined references are functions new to OpenSSL 3, so the fault seems to be in the testbed setup; David Goodwin says he can build with SSL 3.0.7 and does not get the undefined reference errors.
    Note: I got this build working November 16th.
  • Fixed a missing blank line in HELP SET TELNET text by supplying a missing comma in ckuus2.c.
5 November 2022
"make openbsd" on LibertyBSD 6.1 failed because an #include <sys/timeb.h> was encountered but there was no <sys/timeb.h>. Most instances of #include <sys/timeb.h> were protected by #ifndef NOSYSTIMEBH..#endif; I added the protection where it was missing: one spot in ckcdeb.h, two in ckufio.c.
4 November 2022: Clang considered harmful
From Clang 16.0.0git (In-Progress) Release Notes, Section Potentially Breaking Changes: "The -Wimplicit-function-declaration and -Wimplicit-int warnings now default to an error in C99, C11, and C17. As of C2x, support for implicit function declarations and implicit int has been removed, and the warning options will have no effect. Specifying -Wimplicit-int in C89 mode will now issue warnings instead of being a noop. NOTE: We recommend that projects using configure scripts verify that the results do not change before/after setting -Werror=implicit-function-declarations or -Wimplicit-int to avoid incompatibility with Clang 16".

This is a potentially earth-destroying change, and that's not hyperbole. You can't just decide to make previously correct programs uncompilable. The world depends on software to keep working. You can't expect every software developer to drop everything and change thousands or millions or billions of lines of CORRECT code to satisfy some arbitrary and capricious whim of some random organization (LLVM), that happens to have strong ties to Masters-Of-The-Universe companies like Apple, to invalidate the work of programmers who have been following the rules codified by legitimate standards authorities like ISO, POSIX, and ANSI for decades. Although existing software will continute to run, eventually it will need to be recompiled for replacement hardware that is increasingly likely to have Clang as its default or only C compiler; Clang will kill the compilation and the new hardware won't be able function. A medical device? A drawbridge? A traffic-light network? A nuclear power reactor? A mission-critical application on a corporate or government computer? That perhaps was developed by a contractor that no longer exists?

According to my rough count, C-Kermit has over 4000 function definitions. Of these about 2500 have no prototypes because their arguments are integers or they have no arguments. Imagine the risks inherent in "correcting" 2500 function declarations by hand, then weigh them against the benefits. The Clang folks should remember the Robustness Principle. It's fine to warn about things to enourage "good behavior" but far that's enough.

(Later it was suggested that Clang edict was not as draconian as it seemed because it could be overridden by including -std=c89 in the Clang invocation; I tried that and the compilation bombed instantly with "/ckcsig.h:52:9: typedef sigjmp_buf ckjmpbuf; error: unknown type name 'sigjmp_buf'"... so best to let sleeping dogs lie, no?)

3 November 2022:
  • ck_ssl.c: Changed four occurrences of "printf(ssl_err);" to printf("%s",ssl_err);, and one occurrence of "printf(prefix);" to printf("%s",prefix). There remains one warning: "TLSv1_server_method is deprecated" that needs fixing by an OpenSSL programmer.
  • Trying to build C-Kermit on Unix V7 from 1979 is hopeless, it's just too big. I kept adding -DNOxxx to deselect individual features but it was never enough. Finally tried to build a command-line-only version (no interactive commands): KFLAGS=-DNOICP (no interactive command parser). This hasn't been done for at least a decade, maybe two; to make it work I had to make changes (#ifdefs and #ifndefs) to ckcmai.c, ckuus[456xy].c, ckcdeb.h, ckcfns.c, ckcpro.w, ckucns.c, ckuscr.c, ckucmd.c, and the makefile.
  • -DNOICP was still not enough for V7. I added a new category to ckcdeb.h: V7MIN which not only has no interactive command commands but also no making network connections (-DNONET), no character-set conversion (-DNOCSETS), no spawning and interacticing with external processes (-DNOPTY), no debug or other logging, and only a minimum set of dialout modems (-DMINIDIAL) rather than the normal 72. -DV7MIN can be used not only with Unix V7 but also with any other target, e.g. Linux. Here are the results for Ubuntu x86_64:

    Make command KFLAGS Size Description
    make linux 2851200 Normal build
    make linux+ssl 3079056 Normal + OpenSSL
    make linux -DNOSPL 2321544 No script programming language
    make linux -DOICP 702264 No interactive command parser
    make linux -DV7MIN 402984 Minimum (about of normal build)
  • "make netbsd+ssl" got a ton of warnings about "implicit declaration of des_xxx" for various xxx's. I know beans about OpenSSL but I made a new makefile target netbsd+ssl-des ("plus SSL and minus DES") which left out the DES part and it built ok, except for a warning "TLSv1_server_method' is deprecated". The resulting binary was able to make a secure connection to https://kermitproject.org and execute various HTTP commands. Today's source code is HERE.
30 October 2022:
Wtmp and Syslog logging are no longer included by default because they are "deprecated" in macOS with other modern Unix varieties no doubt soon to follow; thus C-Kermit 10.0 builds would start failing at some point if I left this code active. So now if you want your copy of C-Kermit to include Wtmp logging (which is used only when C-Kermit is running as an Internet Kermit Service Daemon, IKSD) you have to include KFLAGS=‑DDOWTMP in your 'make' command; to include Syslog include KFLAGS=‑DDOWTMP; to include both: KFLAGS="‑DDOWTMP ‑DSYSLOG". Syslog logging is a little-known, little-used C-Kermit feature for logging authentication events, client/server events, and custom debugging.
30 October 2022:
Fixed -DNOSPL builds, so C-Kermit can once again be built without a script programming language. On Ubuntu x86-64, the default "make linux" build is 2860016 bytes. With -DNOSPL it's 1189808, 41.6% of the normal size. Space savings like this are necessary when building on ancient platforms where builds of big programs tend to fail. Changes:
  • ckcdeb.h: At line 62, changed #ifndef NOSPL to #ifdef NOSPL and #defined NOIKSD and NOLEARN if NOSPL was defined.
  • ckuusr.c: Put #ifndef NOSPL..#endif around the isinternalmacro() routine
  • ckuus3.c: in doprm() put case SCMD_VAR: in #ifndef NOSPL (2 occurrences)
  • ckuus6.c: Put "grep /array" code in #ifndef NOSPL; in dotake(), took extern char lasttakeline[]; out of #ifndef NOSPL.

The result still has TCP/IP networking and the (external) SSH client.

29 October 2022:
Changed makefile target v7 (Bell Labs Seventh Edition Unix, a.k.a. Unix V7) to include -DNOSYSLOG.
Changed ckcdeb.h in the #ifdef V7..#endif section at line 1132 to declare extern int errno for Unix V7 (1979) and V8 (1985).
28 October 2022:
I changed the default VARIABLE-EVALUATION setting from RECURSIVE (1) to SIMPLE (0) for C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.07: ckuusr.c, ckuus3.c.
26 October 2022:
ckutio.c at about line 15935, enclosed #includes of <stdarg.h> and <varargs.h> in #indef NOIKSD..#endif; otherwise KFLAGS=‑DNOIKSD builds fail.

ckcftp.c line 797:  #define CHECKCONN() if(!connected){printf(nocx);return(-9);}
changed to: #define CHECKCONN() if(!connected){printf("%s\n",nocx);return(-9);}

24 October 2022:
New documents:
    C-Kermit 10.0 Tutorial
    C-Kermit 10.0 Command Reference (about 7000 lines / 130 pages if printed)
This is the first time since the publication of "Using C-Kermit" 2nd Edition in 1997 that every single C-Kermit command and option is documented in one place.
21 October 2022:
Added CONVERT as a more-appropriate synonym for TRANSLATE (for converting the character encoding of a text file). Of course TRANSLATE still works.
20 October 2022:
Improved or fixed various HELP commands.

Comments welcome.

C-Kermit 10.0   (14 October 2022)   DOWNLOAD

18 October 2022: the Beta.06 download includes some extraneous files: ckcnet‑BEFORE‑NONET‑FIX.c, ckuus7‑beta02.c, ckuus7‑save.c, ckuus5‑sms.c, ckutiox.c, ckcdebu.h. They do harm but shouldn't be there; this will be corrected in the next beta.

About FTP and OpenSSL...
Apparently rumors of FTP's death have been exaggerated and — more to the point — that of Secure FTP (FTPS). It is still required, for example, by EDI providers such as BOLD VAN, so C-Kermit's OpenSSL support is a priority after all*. At this point, builds work on most platforms where it has been tried (Ubuntu, Debian, Red Hat, Fedora, Hurd, NetBSD, FreeBSD, and OpenVMS). In one case on Ubuntu, however, it failed with "openssl/comp.h: No such file or directory - #include <openssl/comp.h>". According to a report I found in Google, this is fixable by "sudo apt-get install libssl-dev". See this OpenSSL.org page about SSL and TLS, which explains that currently, SSL is really TLS (in OpenSSL, "After SSLv3, SSL was renamed to TLS"; also see RFC 7568). Note: FTPS is not to be confused with SFTP, which is SSH. A number of FTPS servers are available, both commericial and free. For example, the free FTPS server for Ubuntu is is called vsftpd and can be installed with "sudo apt install vsftpd". An example of a commercial FTPS server is Cerberus FTP Server 12.
* EDI = Electronic Data Interchange; VAN = Value Added Network; SSL = Secure Sockets Layer; TLS = Transport Layer Security.

Changes since Beta.05 (newest first)...

14 October 2022:
A change to "make install" in the makefile to allow the target directory for the Kermit binary to be specified on the 'make' command line, e.g. "env PREFIX=/usr/pkg make install" (Peter Eichhorn, Greg Troxel).

Listing the speeds in numeric order rather than "alphabetic" when '?' was typed (Oct 10) was the easy part. Making a numeric keyword table behave the same as an alphabetic one during interactive command entry — notably keyword completion when Esc or Tab was typed — was a major production. ckucmd.c now has a new routine, nlookup(), parallel to lookup(), plus a lot of new code in cmkey() to account for the differences between the two formats. A side benefit is that if more numeric tables are ever needed, adding adding them will be straightforward.

11 October 2022:
A fix to yesterday's item from SMS for Compaq C V6.4-005 on OpenVMS VAX V7.3, which doesn't tolerate array declarations with non-constant dimensions (these are a new feature of C99 from 2000.)
10 October 2022:
With the addition of so many new serial speeds, the result of "set speed ?" was a random pile of numbers:

C-Kermit>set speed ? Serial-port speed (bits per second), one of the following:
 1000000  134.5    1800     230400   300      4000000  57600    921600
 110      14400    19200    2400     3000000  460800   600      9600
 115200   150      200      2500000  3500000  4800     75
 1200     1500000  2000000  28800    38400    50       76800

Now it makes more sense:

C-Kermit>set speed ? Serial-port speed (bits per second), one of the following:
 50       150      1200     9600     38400    230400   1500000  3500000
 75       200      1800     14400    57600    460800   2000000  4000000
 110      300      2400     19200    76800    921600   2500000
 134.5    600      4800     28800    115200   1000000  3000000

The new code is in ckuus5.c, lines 1241-1278. If it causes trouble, it can be deselected at 'make' time with KFLAGS=‑DNOSORTSPEEDS.

6 October 2022:
ckutio.c changes from Pali Rohár to get at the higher serial speeds supported by newer UARTs.
  • ckutio.c ttsspd() was missing the new high-speed baud rates (thus they could be recognized by the command parser but not actually used). The new speeds are 500000, 576000, 614400, 921600, 1000000, 1152000, 1500000, 2000000, 2500000, 3000000, and 4000000.
  • Supplied a missing "return(1);" statement in the USETCSETSPEED case in ttsspd().
Why? Pali said "I need to transfer files over UART with highest possible speed. I'm developing software which is running on embedded devices and for transferring software I can use only UART (bootstrapping and debugging). My hardware supports baudrates up to 6000000 baud and also I have USB ↔ UART cables which support such high speeds. Modern hardware now supports UART at really high baudrates, so why not to use it for decreasing final transfer time? Bootloader U-Boot has support for kermit protocol and can receive files over UART at arbitrary baudrate supported by HW. So the only thing which I need is software on my computer which can configure UART tty device to higher speed and then send over it files via kermit protocol."

He also removed an extraneous semicolon from ckutio.c line 501: #define LOCK_DIR "/var/spool/locks";

5 October 2022:
  • The ability of C-Kermit's DIRECTORY command to handle multiple file specifications, e.g.:
    dir makefile README ck[cuvw_]*.[cwh]
    has been broken since C-Kermit 9.0 from 2011. Fixed now.
  • C-Kermit's TOUCH command (which has many options) has been totally nonfunctional since the same date. Also fixed now.
3 October 2022:
Patch from SMS for OpenSLL (ck_ssl.c):
*** 49,60 ****
  /* Different major/minor version or development version of OpenSSL
   * means ABI may break compatibility.
   * Modified by Adam Friedlander for OpenSSL >= 1.0.0
! #define COMPAT_VERSION_MASK 0xffff000f
  /* Different major/minor/fix/development (not patch) version of OpenSSL
   * means ABI may break compatibility. */
! #define COMPAT_VERSION_MASK 0xfffff00f  /* MNNFF00S,
major+minor+fix+status */
  #endif        /* OPENSSL_100 */

  #ifdef OPENSSL_098
--- 49,61 ----
  /* Different major/minor version or development version of OpenSSL
   * means ABI may break compatibility.
   * Modified by Adam Friedlander for OpenSSL >= 1.0.0
+  * (See  for OpenSSL version encoding details.)
! #define COMPAT_VERSION_MASK 0xfff0000f  /* MNNffppS, major+minor+status */
  /* Different major/minor/fix/development (not patch) version of OpenSSL
   * means ABI may break compatibility. */
! #define COMPAT_VERSION_MASK 0xfffff00f  /* MNNFFppS, major+minor+fix+status */
  #endif        /* OPENSSL_100 */
29 September 2022:
Patches from Greg Troxel (most of these were for packagers, not me):
  • ckuath.c at about line 5530:
                 if ((r = krb5_mk_rep(k5_context,
    +#ifdef HEIMDAL
    +                                  &auth_context,
    +#else /* HEIMDAL */
    +#endif /* HEIMDAL */
                                       &outbuf))) {
  • ckupty.c at about line 91:
    Always use termios, never sgtty.h.
    \todo Explain this more clearly.

    This patch appears to be regularizing the use of TERMIO, following the package's inclusion of mk/termcap.buildlink3.mk. This is contrary to upstream's approach which uses each systems's native libs. Therefore, this patch should not be submitted to upstream.

    and then a lot of "#define USE_TERMIO" directives removed. Since I don't understand this patch, instead of removing the directives I put them within "#ifndef TERMIO_PATCH..#endif, which is not defined, but can be if needed.
  • ckuusx.c at about line 100: "This patch needs an explanation, and perhaps trying to build without it." Pending an explanation, I made it conditional on "#ifndef NO_INCLUDE_BSD44_ERRNO..#endif, which is not defined, but can be if needed.
  • A *big*, complicated patch for the makefile:

    • Don't override DESTDIR
    • Don't override prefix
    • Don't install the mysterious kermit-sshsub
    • Don't install kermit.ini in bindir, because it doesn't belong there and because (yay!) it is empty, and people don't need empty templates
    • Use DESTDIR harder when installing
    • Get K5LIB, K5INC, SSLLIB and SSLINC from pkgsrc.

    And some other assorted patches:

    • s/-lgssapi/-lgssapi_krb5/ on netbsd+krb5*
    • Add $(LIBS) to link command on solaris2xg+openssl+zlib+pam+shadow
    • s@$(K5INC)/krb5@$(K5INC)/kerberosv5/ on solaris9g+krb5+ssl
    • On linux get HAVE_LIBCURSES and HAVE_CURSES from pkgsrc (with the curses include and library pathes coming from BUILDLINK_*FLAGS).

    This one is one is still in the in-basket.

Greg's patches can be seen here: https://www.kermitproject.org/ckpatches/filelist.html
28 September 2022:
A fatal compilation error, evident (so far) only on HP-UX 10: in ckuusr.c at line 12345, see this code:
        type_intrp = 0;                 /* Always start with this off */
#endif  /* TYPEINTERPRET */
Move it down about 13 lines, below "#endif /* UNICODE */".
This assignment statement is in the middle of a variable declaration list in the docmd() function. This should be an error everywhere but this code compiled cleanly on 25 different builds on other platforms, some of them with the strictest modern C compilers including clang and gcc -Wpedantic.

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.05 (27 September 2022)

27 September 2022:
  1. Moved BETATEST symbol definition from ckcmai.c to ckcdeb.h so it can be referenced in all C-Kermit modules, and moved #include ckcdeb.h higher up in in ckcmai.c, above the first #ifdef BETATEST reference.
  2. ckcdeb.h: Added NOSYSLOG to NODEPRECATED list (syslog is "deprecated" too).
  3. Updated the NEWS command.
  4. Changed version designation from Pre-Beta to Beta and version date to 27 September 2022.
  5. ckuus3.c 12328, printf %s missing an argument.
  6. ckuus5.c 8037, corrected printf %d to be %s.
  7. ckuus7.c 13110, corrected printf %ld to be %d.
26 September 2022:
  1. ckcdeb.h: Removed the arrow-key feature from all platforms except Windows. Support for the API that detected arrow-key strokes is disappearing from one libc after another, so I might as well do it now for everybody. It's a small change near the top of ckcdeb.h, which (despite its name) is C-Kermit's primary header file. I removed -DNOARROWKEYS from all the makefile targets (and android.mk) that included it because now it happens automatically. If your platform (e.g. NetBSD or VMS) supports the API and you want the feature back, build C-Kermit with KFLAGS=‑DDOARROWKEYS.
  2. ckcmai.c: Straightened out some confusion with the program herald. There are two routines: makever() in ckcmai.c, and herald() in ckuus5.c. makever() creates PART of the version string but doesn't print anything. herald() creates another part of the version string and then prints both parts and some other stuff, and it also defines the builtin \v(herald) variable. For a hard-to-explain reason, we needed to have the herald text and \v(herald) defined BEFORE the initialization file was executed, but then not printed until AFTER the command-line arguments were processed so "kermit -H" (skip printing the herald) still worked. This required moving chunks of code from herald() to makever(). Modules changed:  ckcmai.c, ckuus5.c, and ckuusy.c.
  3. ckcnet.c: "make xxx -DNORLOGIN" generated tons of errors. All the rlogin-related functions needed to be protected by #ifndef NORLOGIN..#endif. Lines 7180-7567: rlog_ini(), rlog_ctrl(), rlog_oob(), rlogoobh().
  4. ckuusx.c line 96: added prototypes for ck_tn_encrypting() and ck_tn_decrypting().
  5. ck_ssl.c ck_ssh_is_installed(): Added "return(0);" outside the #ifdefs to squelch "non-void function does not return a value" Clang warning.
  6. ckcnet.c: in http_security(), cipher = SSL_get_current_cipher(tls_http_con); needed to be: cipher = (SSL_CIPHER *)SSL_get_current_cipher(tls_http_con);
  7. ckuath.c: Added prototypes for encrypt_is_decrypting(), encrypt_request_end(), and get_crypt_table().
  8. ck_crp.c: about line 3876: removed "extern int encrypt_debug_mode;". It is not extern and it was already declared above.

With changes 4-8 listed above, SSL builds generate no errors or warnings in OpenSSL 1.1.1d-fips 11 Feb 2013 (Red Hat 6.1) nor in OpenSSL 1.1.1f 11 Feb 2020 (Ubuntu 20.4.1). A few warnings are generated in OpenSSL 1.1.f 31 Mar 2020 on NetBSD 9.2. In all three cases compilation and linking succeed and a C-Kermit executable is produced.

25 September 2022:
  • ckufio.c line 2486 "} else if errno {" should have been "} else if ( errno ) {" (fatal in AIX 15).
  • ckufio.c line 2474 "debug(F110,"zchki stat errmsg",ck_errstr(),""); final argument should have been 0.
  • ckctel.c lines 4679, 4681, 6014, 6221: fixes to address Clang 10.0.1 complaints about signed vs unsigned char in Telnet code (but why does it complain at all if it was given the "-funsigned-char" directive?). This was also a problem in VMS.
  • ckuusr.c: changed 'if (s == "")' to 'if (s == (char *)0)' to silence Clang warnings.
  • ckuus3.c SHOW DIAL: suppressed "dangling else" warnings from Clang.
  • ckuus4.c in SHOW X25, SHOW PAD, SHOW TCP, SHOW TELNET, SHOW NETBIOS, SHOW NETWORK, etc etc: suppressed 155 "dangling else" warnings from Clang.
  • ckuus5.c at line 6915 is "} else {" and Clang insists this is a dangling else. I just don't see it. This was the only Clang warning in ckuus5.c.
  • ckuus6.c, "fixed" 8 dangling else's (in quotes because "dangling else" was not a crime when C-Kermit was first written. The structure and symantics of the IF statement were clearly spelled out by Kernighan and Ritchie. What good is a programming language that changes out from under its installed software base?)  With all this C-Kermit compiles with gcc -Wpedantic with no errors or wanings and with Clang 10.0.1 without errors and almost without warnings (there is still this one but really, so what?).
24 September 2022:
  • Merged David Goodwin's Windows changes from the past several months into my code, a large change involving 26 files: ckcasc.h, ckcdeb.h, ckcfn2.c, ckcfns.c, ckcftp.c, ckcker.h, ckcmai.c, ckcnet.c, ckcpro.w, ckctel.c, ckcuni.h, ckuath.c, ckucmd.c, ckudia.c, ckuscr.c, ckuus2.c, ckuus3.c, ckuus4.c, ckuus5.c, ckuus6.c, ckuus7.c, ckuusr.c, ckuusr.h, ckuusx.c, ckuusy.c, ckuver.h. The changes are listed on David's change log, which is here: http://www.ext.zx.net.nz/software/notes/kermit95/#updates.
  • Arrow-key support... The C-Kermit command parser has a scrollback buffer, and at the C-Kermit prompt you could always (and still can) use Ctrl-P to scroll up (to recall previous commands) and Ctrl-N to scroll back down. In C-Kermit 8.0 (2004) I added the ability to do this also with with the Up-arrow and Down-arrow keys, as people might expect. This relied on a somewhat obscure API. A few years ago this API was "deprecated", at least in Glibc. Now it seems to have been totally removed in some Linux distributions, and as a consequence C-Kermit builds fail. So I have to remove this feature. Honestly, I have no idea how widespread the problem is, but I do know it's present in Linux (on some, but not all, distributions; for example I see no problems on Ubuntu 20.04.1) and in Android. So to start I'm removing it in Linux and Android:
    • Before removing it, builds OK on Ubuntu 20.04.3 and arrow keys work
    • make linux KFLAGS=‑DNOARROWKEYS builds OK and arrow keys don't work
    • ckcdeb.h has arrow-key ifdefs
    • but so does ckucmd.h, why?
      • Removed these from ckucmd.h
      • Built normally ok, arrow keys work ok.
      • Built again with NOARROWKEYS, ok, and arrow keys don't work.
      • So that clause did not need to be in ckucmd.h, so I removed it.
    • Added -DNOARROWKEYS for Linux.
    • If you want to build for Linux *with* arrow-key support, do "make linux KFLAGS=‑DOARROWKEYS".
    • Added -DNOARROWKEYS to android.mk.
  • ALPINE LINUX HELP NEEDED: A user of Alpine Linux (with musl libc) reports that this C-Kermit version, although it builds normally ("make linux") and without complaint, does not work right: command keystrokes are not echoed until the Enter key is pressed. But without -DNOARROWKEYS, it doesn't build at all because the "obscure API" isn't there. Can anybody with Alpine Linux lend a hand?
  • Added comments to ckucmd.[ch] about its misnomer (it's really for all platforms, not just Unix).
  • Added askmore() (more-prompting) to COPY /TOSCREEN.
  • SHOW FILE command: if download directory not defined, say "(your current directory)" instead of "(none)" (ckuusr.c).
  • Checked what happens if I give CK a SET SEND PACKET 10 command and then send a file: it works perfectly - S and F packets are not truncated but data packets are the requested length.
  • HELP FUNC EVALUATE... improved help text (ckuus4.c)
  • \v(herald) was wrong, I fixed it, ckuus5.c: herald() routine.
  • ckcfn2.c: logpkt() - added a comment explaining the packet-log format.
  • New builtin variable \v(fullversion) = "10.0.400 Beta.05"
  • Added discriptive comment heading to ckuus5.c: cmcvtdate()
  • Adjusted \fcvtdate() to report date only if format arg is negative.
  • Adjusted HELP FUNC CVTDATE accordingly.
  • Corrected a glitch in HELP DATE text: ckuus2.c.
  • Cleaned up NEWS command a bit but needs work: ckuus2.c.
19 September 2022:
  • Added new options to the COPY command: /TOSCREEN and /INTERPRET. Used together they do what TYPE /INTERPRET does everywhere except Windows: it displays a file on the screen with all its Kermit backslash-escapes replaced by their values, and it works in Windows. The code is mainly in ckuus6.c docopy().
  • I also fixed TYPE /INTERPRET so it clears the intepret bit after it finishes. Previously every subsequent TYPE command would act like it included an /INTERPRET switch.
  • Not C-Kermit specifically but I wrote a new document that updates the old and scattered information about Kermit packets: types, formats, encodings, block checks, short vs long, etc, everything in one place: https://www.kermitproject.org/kpackets.html.
17 September 2022:
ckcfns.c sdata():
  1. Even after the previous change, C-Kermit could send a long-format packet that was one byte too long; fixed in the obvious way.
  2. In tracking down this problem I also noticed that if I gave a SET RECEIVE PACKET-LENGTH or SET SEND PACKET-LENGTH command, this too could result in overlong packets in some cases. Fixed now.
14 September 2022:
ckcfns.c sdata():
  1. Reduced maximum send-packet data size (spsiz) for short packets from 94 to 90 to avoid edge cases which could cause the encoded packet length to be out of range, i.e. not a printable 7-bit US-ASCII character.
ckcfn2.c spack():
  1. Added code to check whether Long Packet capability had been negotiated before deciding to build a long packet.
  2. Corrected an off-by-two error in calculating whether the packet would be have to be in long format.
Before the previous two changes, file transfers from C-Kermit 10.0 (and some of the earlier 9.0.305 developement versions) to E-Kermit could fail. With the changes, they succeed. Also:
  1. Disabled TYPE /INTERPRET on Windows until we can figure out how to make it work.
  1. Changed the numeric version number from 1000000 to 1000400, where the last three digits reflect the monotonically increasing edit number.

23 August 2022:

  • I added a new option to the TYPE command: /INTERPRET. "type /interpret somefile.txt" displays the lines of the file with all Kermit backslash-escapes (variable references, etc) interpreted, i.e. replaced by their value. So for example, if you have a file hello.txt:
    Welcome to \v(herald):
    This message is coming to you from your C-Kermit initialization file:

    You can tell C-Kermit to "type /interpret hello.txt" and the result will be something like:

    Welcome to C-Kermit 10.0 OPEN SOURCE: Beta.05, 23 Aug 2022:
    This message is coming to you from your C-Kermit initialization file:
  • For the benefit of packagers who depended on the old version-number format, I reinstated C-Kermit's edit number, but not for public view. The new C-Kermit still announces itself as C-Kermit 10.0. To see the edit number use the new built-in variable: \v(fullversion):
    (~/beta05/) C-Kermit>show variable fullversion
     \v(fullversion) = 10.0.400 Beta.05
    (~/beta05/) C-Kermit>echo \v(fullversion)
     \v(fullversion) = 10.0.400 Beta.05
    (~/beta05/) C-Kermit>

    Furthermore, the filenames of the tar and zip archives will be cku400.*, not cku10.0.* as they have been since 10.0 Beta.01, for conformity with all previous releases when they were cku300, cku301, cku302, etc; see this page). Of course "400" could be "401" or any higher number as development progresses. Also the tar and zip archive filenames will include the edit number, as they did before the first C-Kermit 10.0 Beta test.

  • A bug that prevented C-Kermit for Windows (CKW) from including the Beta-test in the program herald (\v(herald)) was corrected.

19 August 2022: I removed all the code that supported special version numbers for (in chronological order) Mac Kermit (circa 1985), Kermit/2 (for OS/2), and Kermit 95 (for MS Windows). From now all C-Kermits will identify themselves in the same way, for example:

C-Kermit 10.0 OPEN SOURCE: Beta.05, 19 Aug 2022, for NetBSD 9.2 (64-bit)
17 August 2022: The second Beta test of C-Kermit for Windows (formerly known as Kermit 95) was released. This work was done by David Goodwin in New Zealand, and any changes he had to make to the non-Windows-specific modules will be incorporated into Beta.05.

Meanwhile more Beta.04 builds on platforms where it was tested previously would be most welcome: macOS (including old versions), HP-UX, MINIX, Solaris versions before 11, etc, not to mention platforms where it has not yet been tested at all: FreeBSD, OpenBSD, AIX, plus any discontinued OS's that are still running somewhere: IRIX, Tru64/Digital Unix, 4.xBSD, NeXTSTEP, System V, DG/UX, SCO, QNX, SINIX, SunOS, Xenix, etc etc).

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.04  (3 June 2022)

In the (now) time-honored tradition of releasing a second Beta just hours after the first, here is Beta.04 (the curse of the odd-numbered Betas?).

In Beta.03, two compilation errors that I fixed repeatedly — at least one of them fatal — somehow kept coming back. Senior confusion, no doubt... editing or uploading the wrong copy of the file. You can see why I'm anxious to get out of this business! The corrections for Beta.04 are:

  1. ckctel.c:
               strlen((CHAR *)request)); /* 2022-01-27 */

    should be:

               strlen((char *)request)); /* SMS 2022-06-03 */

    Note EVERY makefile target should include the equivalent of gcc/clang -funsigned-char if available. Has anybody ever actually used *signed* chars??? (I haven't changed the makefile targets myself yet, but readers are welcome to do this for their platforms and report the results so I can incorporate the change where it works.)

  2. ckuusx.c:
    ck_curpos(int row, col) {

    should be:

    ck_curpos(int row, int col) {

    At least one of these (#2) prevented successful compilation on at least one platform (Raspberry pi OS).

    Incidentally, I find myself confused about pre-ANSI function argument list syntax. I see several forms in ckuusx.c:

    1.  int ck_curpos(row, col) int row, col; {...}
    2.  int ck_curpos(row, col) int row, int col; {...}
    3.  int ck_curpos(row, col) int row; int col; {...}
    Only the first one seems to be causing trouble in C-Kermit, even though it was allowed in K&R C (see pp. 23, 24, 54, and 58 of the original 1978 C book). I see examples of (3) in the same book (e.g. pp. 60, 67, 78), but I don't see examples of (2) in the book, and yet when when (1) caused problems and was changed to (2) the problem went away. For Beta.04 I'm going to err on the side of not making too many changes.

    About *s++;

    I also have a report that constructions like "*s++;" generates "Result unused" warnings in Clang, e.g. in ckclib.c about line 3190, but I don't believe that these are a problem. See the "C Bible", Kernighan and Ritchie, The C Programming Language, Second Edition, Prentice Hall (1988), p.105. As one of the authors, Brian Kernighan, said in 1974, "The '*s' returns a character; the '++' increments the pointer so we'll get the next character next time around. As you can see, as we make things more efficient, we also make them less clear. But '*s++' is an idiom so common that you have to know it." In this case, were toodling through a string character by character in a loop. So the result is unused only once. There are countless instances of this usage in the code and I doubt that the risk of changing them is worth any perceived benefit.

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.03

C-Kermit is loaded with TCP/IP support code: Telnet, Rlogin, and FTP clients, Internet security methods including Kerberos and SSL, and on and on. This code serves little purpose in 2022 because there remain virtually no Telnet, Rlogin, or FTP servers to connect to, secure or otherwise. Thus it would seem desirable to be able to build a version of C-Kermit that includes no support at all for TCP/IP and its protocols and security methods and yet still can make SSH connections via the external ssh application. I spent the past three days on this; it required a massive reworking of the #if[n]def structure in ckcnet.c, ckctel.c, ckucmd.c, ckupty.c, ckutio.c, ckuus3.c, ckuus5.c, ckuus7.c, ckuusr.c, ckuusy.c, ck_ssl.c, as well as the ckcdeb.h header file (new -DNOTCPIP selector and improved -DNONET), and the makefile has corresponding new targets: "make linux-notcp" and "make netbsd-notcp".

The "-notcp" builds still include support for other networking methods like X.25, DECnet, etc, which are also pretty hard to find in 2022, so I also added "-nonet" builds for Linux and NetBSD to exclude built-in support for all forms of networking. All of the new targets compile successfully and produce runnable binaries in these configurations that can still make ssh connections:

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.03, 02 June 2022: default, nonet, and notcp builds on Linux and NetBSD.
OS and version Architecture Build Size Compiler Status Details
Linux Red Hat 6.10 x86_64 make linux 2401216 gcc 4.4.7 OK No errors or warnings
Linux Red Hat 6.10 x86_64 make linux-notcp 1949394 gcc 4.4.7 OK No errors or warnings
Linux Red Hat 6.10 x86_64 make linux-nonet 1918181 gcc 4.4.7 OK No errors or warnings
NetBSD 9.2 x86_64 make netbsd 2488936 gcc 7.5.0 OK No errors or warnings
NetBSD 9.2 x86_64 make netbsd-notcp 2030944 gcc 7.5.0 OK No errors or warnings
NetBSD 9.2 x86_64 make netbsd-nonet 2001544 gcc 7.5.0 OK No errors or warnings

Also, many of the compilation warnings in Beta.01-02 have been fixed in Beta.03:

  • ckuus2.c: improved "help function cvtdate" text; fixed an unquoted backslash in "help date" text. 21 May 2022.
  • ckuus2.c: clarified "help function stripx" text, 20 May 2022.
  • makefile: Added -DNOWTMP to macos target to suppress "deprecated" warnings, 19 May 2022.
  • makefile: Added "linux-pedanditic" and "netbsd-pedantic" targets to check for warnings I normally wouldn't see. 18 May 2022.
  • ckctel.c, about line 4669: case TELOPT_NEWENVIRON: type casts straightened out (again), 17 May 2022.
  • ckuusx.c, stanza starting at line 4168 slightly rearranged to squelch another warning, 17 May 2022.
  • ckuusx.c, declaration of ck_curpos() and accompanying comment were malformed, causing compilation failure, fixed 5 May 2022.
But some warnings remain. I wanted to get this Beta out today because I'll be pretty much "away from my desk" for the next couple weeks. Meanwhile the "install" and "uninstall" makefile targets will be improved to handle multilevel directories without depending on "mkdir -p" — which isn't portable — but not until after Beta.03.

Finally Beta.03 includes a new CKVKER.COM build procedure for VMS that Adds support for the VSI SSL3 product (from SMS).

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.01 16 May 2022 and Beta.02 17 May 2022

[Changes since Alpha.07]   [What's new in C-Kermit 10.0]

Beta.02 corrects two fatal syntax errors in non-ANSI-C builds affecting only HP-UX. The rest of this section applies to both Beta.01 and Beta.02.

The forthcoming new release of C-Kermit, expected "pretty soon" will be called 10.0 rather than 9.0.305, not so much because it's radically different from 9.0, but because (a) it's been over 10 years since the previous release and (b) it'll be my final release. Afterwards it can be further developed (or not) by the public via Github or whatever other collaborative Open-Source development methods supplant it. Meanwhile the previous test release, 9.0.305 Alpha.07, has proven to be quite stable. The new release should function normally on most modern Unix variations (and hopefully older ones as well), and also on VMS versions 5.4 through 8.4. I realize there are some as-yet unresolved issues on Solaris but there's nothing I can do about them without access.

I have an infinitely long To-Do list for C-Kermit but I think it's a good idea to release this version ASAP, simply because the last formal release (9.0.302) fails to build on so many platforms where it was perfectly OK eleven years ago, due to changes in the underlying APIs, shuffling around of header files on different platforms and OS distributions, and changes in the C language and/or compilers. In fact, previous releases WILL NOT BUILD on most modern Linuxes due to a backwards-incompatible change in glibc. And even when they do produce an executable, it is only after issuing reams of warnings about constructions that used to be perfectly legal. Unix and C badly need a "stability layer" to keep programs working over the long term.
During (and for decades prior to) the C-Kermit 9.0 development cycle in 2010-2011, I had direct access to over 200 different Unix and VMS platforms for development and test builds, not to mention the other OS families. Now I have access to exactly three: NetBSD, Red Hat Linux, and Ubuntu Linux. Before a proper new C-Kermit release can be made, I'll need help from users of the other Linux distributions, and of Mac OS X, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Minix, Android, and whatever other Unix varieties are still viable in the 2020s, plus (Open)VMS, as well OpenSSL and Kerberos (especially Heimdal) programmers if those security methods are to be carried forward.
The makefile has evolved from a single target (4.2BSD) in 1985 into a nearly 9000-line monster with (at this writing) over 750 targets. I haven't made any effort to "clean it up". The world is a big place, and who can say that there aren't still people out there running ancient versions of UNIX who might need a newer release of C-Kermit. Anyway it's like a Unix history museum. As is C-Kermit itself, with code to support all those ancient OS's: Bell Labs Unix V7, AT&T SVR3, 2.9BSD (16-bit!), Cray X/MP, DG/UX, DEC Ultrix, OSF/1, Venix, IX/370, NeXTstep, QNX, Xenix, DYNIX, SINIX, IRIX...
Almost all the changes noted in this document were made after the still-current release of Kermit 95 for Windows, 2.1.3 of 1 January 2011, which is based on C-Kermit; in fact it is the Windows version of C-Kermit, similar the Unix version and VMS version. Thus all the fixes and improvements described here are missing from K95 2.1.3 of 1 January 2011, but will magically appear in any new release based upon the current C-Kermit source code.

C-Kermit 10.0 Beta.01-02 changes since Alpha.07 DOWNLOAD

Aside from the new version number, the changes since Alpha.07 are modest.

▶ New features

  • Serial-port speed selections for 1000000, 2000000, 2500000, 3000000, 3500000, and 4000000 bps, suggested by Pali Rohár. The new high speeds have not been tested because I no longer have a computer with serial port.
  • New VDIRECTORY command with 1-letter synonym V, a convenient alias for the DIRECTORY command (and a familiar one to old DEC-20 hands) (the very first Kermit program was written on the DEC-20 in 1981).
  • New HELP COMPACT-SUBSTRING command to show the syntax for the compact substring notation that was added in C-Kermit 9.0.300.
  • New -DNODEPRECATED parameter for makefile KFLAGS to disinclude FTP, Telnet, and RLOGIN clients plus WTMP logging, all "deprecated" now. This saves only about 200K in the executable size.
  • New Makefile targets: New "list" target to list all targets and "count" target to show how many targets there are.

▶ Bugs fixed

  • (Beta.02 only) ckuusx.c, ckufio.c: correction of syntax errors affecting only non-ANSIC-C builds.
  • ckufio.c: Bug fixed affecting -DNOUUCP builds (such as Mac OS) when receiving a file in which C-Kermit created a bogus empty backup file (e.g. bug.txt.~1~). Reported and diagnosed by MacPorts port maintainer Lin Dongyu.
  • ckcfns.c, ckcfn2.c, ckcfn3.c, ckcpro.w: SET SEND PACKET-LENGTH applied to all packets when it should have applied only to Data packets, now it does details here.
  • ckuus3.c: Bug fixed in S-Expression parser; "if (xx = 0)" should have been "if (xx == 0)" (did you know that C-Kermit had a mini-LISP iterpreter built in?...  What day is Easter in 2033?)
  • ckcfns.c: The 'debug(F110,"sipkt rp","",rp);' statement in sipkt() had a bad argument list all these years.
  • Extraneous line in "help function tablelook" removed.
  • SET HOST command switch /TIMEOUT: was removed because the supporting code was never written.
  • Top-level DEBUG command that was added in C-Kermit 9.0 was removed because it never did anything and there was no help text for it.

▶ Compiler warnings hushed

... most of them issued only by the very picky Mac OS Clang compiler:
  • ckcftp.c: changed a long if-else-if.. (dangling else) sequence to a switch
  • ckctel.c: changed:
            strlen((CHAR *)request)); /* 2022-01-27 */
    in hopes of silencing some "Pointers are not assignment-compatible" and "Argument #1 is not the correct type" warnings on a platform I don't have access to (HP-UX).
  • ckcpro.w: fixed 1 dangling else
  • ckuusr.c: fixed 7 dangling elses
  • ckuus2.c: fixed 1 dangling else
  • ckuus3.c: fixed 10 dangling elses
  • ckuus4.c: fixed 67 dangling elses
  • ckuus5.c: fixed 1 dangling else
  • ckuus6.c: fixed 1 dangling else
  • ckuus7.c: fixed 1 dangling else
  • ckuusx.c: Fixed several dummy ck_curpos() declarations to suppress warnings.
  • ckuusx.c: fixed 2 extraneous parentheses and 1 dangling else
  • ckcfn2.c: fixed 1 dangling else
  • ckutio.c: fixed 1 dangling else
  • makefile: added -Wdeprecated-declarations to macos target (for logwtmp)
"Dangling else" is (or was) perfectly legal when used correctly; the C language was originally designed for use by people who knew what they were doing and was thoroughly documented by its authors, Kernighan and Ritchie, in a book (two really: original C and ANSI C). It makes no sense to keep changing this or any other programming language out from under all the millions of programs that have already been written in it.

C-Kermit 10.0: Brief summary of new features since 9.0.302

  • An essential adaptation to a change in Glibc 2.28 that broke C-Kermit and caused several major Linux distributions to drop it.
  • SET SPEED 1000000, 1500000, 2000000, 2500000, 3000000, 3500000, and 4000000 for high serial-port speeds on platforms that support them.
  • Numerous updates for VMS/OpenVMS operating systems from 5.4 to 8.4, so it is not orphaned.
  • Adaptation to Android (note) (build)
  • Unix only: New ability to run Kermit scripts in a pipeline, and to otherwise behave as a typical stdin/stdout/stderr program (example: the html script).
  • New CHANGE command for changing strings in external files. Like when you have a website with hundreds of pages in a whole directory tree that link to another website whose URL changed.
  • Unix makefile: new target make linux-nodeprecated to build C-Kermit without "deprecated" features such as FTP, Telnet, Rlogin, Wtmp logging, and (explained below) arrow-key support.
  • And... the guts of the command processor were almost totally rewritten to allow IF-command and function arguments to be entered in a natural way. Sounds scary but I tested the result by using it heavily over 17 months.
Other changes:
  • TOUCH /MODTIME:xxx, like the Unix 'touch' command, sets a file's date. Works on single files, multiple files, and directory trees; many selection criteria are available.
  • Locale support for date formats, day and month names, system error messages, currency notaion, sorting and collation behavior, etc, plus the new functions \fdayname() and \fmonthname() that return the full name of the given day or month in the locale's language: locale.html, remind.html.
  • New variables: \v(year) = current year, \v(month) = current month (three letters), and \v(nmonth) = current month (numeric) to complete the set that already included \v(date), \v(day), and \v(nday), with \v(date), \v(day), and \v(month) rendered according to locale.
  • New IF conditions: NEQ, LLE, LGE, BINARY, TEXT.
  • Parsing of some REMOTE commands were broken, now fixed.
  • New (ECHO xxx) command for use within LISP S-expressions.
  • New \ffileinfo() function to get all the information available about a given file, used by the Photogallery script.
  • DIRECTORY /BRIEF /EXCEPT:xxx fixed (required for Photogallery), e.g. "dir /brief /except:*-[tr].jpg /output:IMAGES *.jpg"
  • New \ffilecompare() function (tells whether two files are identical or differ, used in the renamejpgs script).
  • Some new date formats for \fcvtdate(): photogallery.html, remind.html.
  • In response to Unix full path names getting longer and longer all the time: Improved fullscreen file-transfer display to show user's login directory as ~/ and to truncate too-long lines from the left rather than the right.
  • The current directory shown in C-Kermit's default prompt now also uses ~/ notation to save space.
  • Numerous code changes to integrate with Kermit 95 source, a project that was active in 2013 but never completed. If you would like to have C-Kermit for Windows (previously known as Kermit 95 = K95) and you are a Windows programmer please (CLICK HERE) to see how you can help.
  • Numerous adaptations to newer OpenSSL versions, but more work is needed if anyone is actually going to make SSL connections with C-Kermit.
  • Countless fixes and adaptations to newer Unix platforms, libraries, and C compilers. Described below from HERE to HERE... about 2000 lines of text. And also in the abbreviated edit history found in the no-longer-appropriately named C-Kermit Daily Source Archive page. This type of pointless busy work will never end.
Reminder: details of each built-in function are shown by C-Kermit's HELP FUNCTION name command, e.g. "help function cvtdate" (or more briefly, "h fun cvtd").

Current and pending issues

Version number
The new version number, 10.0, is a change in format. Previous version numbers had three parts, e.g. 9.0.304 (major.minor.edit), the new one follows the modern two-part convention.

However, "10.0" also pushes the number of digits in the built-in \v(version) variable from six (90304) to seven (1000000) (built-in \v() variables go back to about C-Kermit 5A(178), 1992, 30 years ago at this writing). Scripts that use the \v(version) variable in comparisons, e.g.

if < \v(version) 900300 exit 1 "FATAL - C-Kermit 9.0.300 or later required."
should be sure to use the numeric comparison operators (=, <, <=, >, >=, !=) and not the lexical ones (LLT, LLE, LGT, LGE), which worked for version number comparisons until now because they were all six digits.

Future minor versions of C-Kermit should be 10.01, 10.02, etc (in case there might be more than ten of them), and the next major version should be 11.0. Note to future developers:  C-Kermit's version numbers and dates are set near the top of ckcmai.c.

Glibc conflicts
C-Kermit has to multiplex simultaneous keyboard and communications i/o. The code for this has evolved over nearly 40 years at this writing and it's rather complex. A big goal from the beginning was efficiency because in the early days Kermit might have been running on a very slow computer. Thus C-Kermit uses the buffered fopen()/getc() interface for less context switching than the bare metal open()/read() interface for each character. Kermit's approach was fine until I added support for arrow keys in version 8.0 in 2003. Arrow keys are different from regular keys in that they generate multiple bytes instead of a single byte. So when there is a keyboard event Kermit has to peek ahead in the keyboard buffer to tell the difference, and if it's an arrow key, then Kermit "does something" rather than just transmitting the byte sequence, e.g. recalls the previous command. So far so good. But the API for peeking ahead is apparently offensive to the glibc people, and they are intent on removing it. The first step took place with (I think) glibc 2.28 in 2018 and the result became manifest in 2021 as various Linux packagers like Debian and Ubuntu found that the then-current source C-Kermit code failed to compile. A workaround was found that fixed the problem, but the Gnu people don't approve of it and are determined to remove all possible ways of "poking around in stdio internals on *any* platform". They say that they will "consider" adding "musl-compatible __freadahead", whatever that is, maybe before they pull the plug on the current setup, maybe not. So the day will come when C-Kermit breaks again and then there will be four possibilities:

  1. Give up on arrow keys and rebuild C-Kermit with -DNOARROWKEYS (this has always been possible) or by adding -DNOARROWKEYS to the CFLAGS of any makefile target where glibc is used (e.g. Linux, Hurd, and perhaps FreeBSD and NetBSD).
  2. Change thousands of lines of code to do single-byte instead of buffered reads as the Gnu people suggest, which will kill performance on old and slow platforms;
  3. Take advantage of the new __readahead thing (if it's appropriate) but only on platforms that have it, keeping the original readahead method for those that don't, via #ifdefs;
  4. The Linux application packagers will drop C-Kermit again.

In the great scheme of things maybe arrow keys aren't so important, but who really knows? And then what happens when they change something else? The Gnu folks have a very narrow view. C-Kermit is not just a Linux program; in fact it predates Linux by six years. C-Kermit is portable among at least nine different operating system families and at least 190 different Unix varieties, the vast majority of which do not have Glibc. How can a total rewrite of C-Kermit's terminal i/o be tested on all those platforms? C-Kermit's code has been painfully, scrupulously designed to be portable among all those platforms. Most of them might be "legacy" now but that does not mean that they don't still exist and that people and companies and schools and government agencies don't depend on them for vital functions.

In my view it is a CRIME to change an API when unknown numbers of programs rely on it and unknown numbers of people could depend on those programs. The entire world increasingly depends on software written in C for Unix, and particularly Linux. The absolute TOP priority for any new release of Linux or C or its libraries must be to preserve backwards compatibility so existing programs continue to compile, link, and work. This was a priority back in the days when software (including compilers) was mainly written by paid professionals who were responsible to — and in touch with! — their users. Today's Wild West software culture is not an improvement. Meanwhile I added a new target to the makefile:

make linux-nodeprecated
do eliminate everything that has been deprecated (directly or indirectly) up to now: FTP, Telnet, Rlogin, Wtmp logging, and arrow-key support. I'm sure I must have missed a few; they can be added at the top of the ckcdeb.h file.
Security methods
For the major surviving Unix-based operating systems such as Linux, *BSD, and Mac OS, the main default makefile targets (e.g. "make linux") do NOT include any security features such as SSL or Kerberos and never have. Separate targets are provided for the desired kind of security code, e.g. "make linux+ssl", "make linux+krb5", "make linux+krb5+ssl". But C-Kermit's interfaces to OpenSSL, Kerberos, etc, are not necessarily up to date or even functional. SSL and Kerberos programmers are welcome to make fixes and I will incorporate them into subsequent 10.0 Betas. As of 10.0 Beta.01 these builds work on certain platforms but not on others, depending mainly on which SSL and Kerberos versions are installed on the host. Summary:
  • Kerberos IV and V support in Kermit should be up to date and solid, but many sites have switched from MIT Kerberos to Heimdal, which Kermit doesn't support, in which case builds such as "make linux+krb5" fail (some Heimdal code is present but evidently not enough).
  • Some adaptations to newer OpenSSL versions have been made but the target is moving too fast to keep up, and most builds such as "make linux+ssl" either fail or get tons of warnings.
  • Telnet and FTP servers secured by OpenSSL or Kerberos have vanished, and these were the whole reason that C-Kermit included these security methods.
  • The SSL and Kerberos code is still included in the source code if anybody cares to bring them up to date, presumably and preferably in a backwards-compatible way, so C-Kermit could be built with (e.g.) any version of OpenSSL, not just the latest one.
WTMP log
Apparently WTMP logging was "deprecated" in Macintosh OS at some point after C-Kermit 9.0 was released, resulting in "deprecated" warnings in ckufio.c. WTMP logging is (was) done when C-Kermit is running as a Kermit Internet Service Daemon (IKSD, similar to an FTP server but better) to log the sessions it hosted. Presumably WTMP will disappear some day and then C-Kermit builds will get fatal errors and compile time or link time. Kermit can be built without IKSD (and WTMP) by including -DNOIKSD in the KFLAGS. It can be built with IKSD but without WTMP via -DNOWTMP.
Internet Kermit Service Daemon
IKSD was secured by Kerberos or OpenSSL or any of C-Kermit's other built-in security methods, but since all of those are now in limbo, at least in terms of C-Kermit's interface to them, IKSD is no longer very useful. Still, it was a good idea and an even better one now in light of the retirement of FTP service. It could be revived using the external ssh client on the end that makes the connection (e.g. "ssh somehost.org 1649"), and an ssh server on TCP port 1649 that starts C-Kermit with the appropriate command-line options and with its stdin/out/err redirected to the ssh connection.
Terminal emulation
C-Kermit does not do terminal emulation. It simply writes incoming meterial to the screen, and passes your keystrokes along to the other computer. Terminal emulation is provided by the window in which C-Kermit is running. Normally this is not an issue, but one very handy feature that other terminal emulators (such as Kermit 95) have but C-Kermit lacks is key mapping , where you can assign any key or key combination (e.g. Alt-h, Ctrl-Alt-Shift-q, F1, Insert, etc) to send (or do) whatever you want. C-Kermit can't do that because it doesn't know what keys you actually pressed because either (a) your keyboard is connected to a different computer than the one where C-Kermit is running, or (b) there is no reliable and portable Unix API for obtaining key events and scan codes. C-Kermit does, however, have a SET KEY command, but it works only with ASCII keys (printable and control-characters).

Unlike all the other C-Kermit versions (Unix, VMS, etc) C-Kermit for Windows — previously known as Kermit 95 or simply K95 — does do terminal emulation because it is running on the same computer your keyboard and screen are connected to, so it can capture keycodes and write to video. Let's hope C-Kermit for Windows (CKW) can be released some day soon; if you're a Windows C programmer and would like to help out, CLICK HERE.

Error messages
C-Kermit's runtime error messages, especially those emanating from scripts, are particularly uninformative, as is the \v(lastcommand) variable. It's because some commands are executed by internally-defined macros composed of multiple commands, calling each other recursively. Also, a large chunk of code surrounded by { ... } in a script looks like a single command to the parser.
Text blocks
There has never been an intuitive way of assigning a multiline text block as the value of a macro. For example:

define sometext {
This is some text.
This is the second line.

The line above is empty.
  This line is indented.
This line is not.

"echo \m(sometext)" shows leading and interline spaces eliminated, and the lines themselves are gathered into a single comma-separated-list. A whole new data structure would be required to accommodate multiline text blocks.

Variable evaluation
For historical reasons all \%x variables and \&x[] arrays are evaluated recursively. This is almost never desired and can wreak havoc when a value is a DOS or Windows pathname in which the directory separator is backslash. A "set variable-evaluation" command was added in C-Kermit 9.0, with choices "recursive" (default) and "simple". The default can never be changed to "simple" because that could break countless scripts that actually take advantage of the original evaluation method. But if you are writing a script with no intention of recursing and want to avoid having your \%x and \&x[] variable values garbled, put:
if >= \v(version) 900000 set variable-evaluation simple
at the beginning of the script. That way if your script is processing external data that happens to contain any backslashes, nothing bad will happen. But if someone executes the same script with C-Kermit 8.0 or earlier the risk is still there. Of course your script could print a warning, or even require an appropriate C-Kermit version. Meanwhile even with recursion disabled globally you can still force recursion when needed with the \frecurse() function:
 s1 = name of \&x or \&x[] type variable
Returns the result of evaluating the variable recursively.
Minor bugs
TOUCH /MODTIME:datetime does not accept all different date-time formats, only numeric yyyy:mm:dd:hh:mm:ss or yyyy:mm:dd. The HELP TOUCH text was updated to say this.

C-Kermit 9.0.305 Alpha.07 24 January 2022

Only some minor changes this time, mainly to eliminate warnings from increasingly picky C compilers, e.g. "using the result of an assignment as a condition without parentheses" (which has always been perfectly legal), or "cast from pointer to integer of different size", etc. Some trouble with wait.h and time.h (where are they???): hopefully ameliorated, at least on some platforms. #include "ckuath.h" was omitted from three source files that needed it, and some ck_tn_enc_start/stop() routine references were misspelled, affecting only builds that included the optional SSL, Kerberos, or other security features.. A few missing text files were added to the tarball/zipfile so "make install" will work (not that you'd want to install an Alpha test, but somebody tried to and got the errors so...).

This version builds with MIT Kerberos 5 but not with Heimdal Kerberos. No work has been done on OpenSSL either, C-Kermit builds ok with it on some platforms, gets lots of warnings on others but still seems to work, and fails to build at all on others. Anyone who cares about this and can rectify the situation is welcome to pitch in!

C-Kermit 9.0.305 Alpha.06 15 December 2021

C-Kermit was first written in 1987 in the version of C that was specified in the then-current first edition of The C Programming Language by Kernighan and Ritchie (Prentice-Hall 1978). As the language became more and more standardized (or less and less, depending how you look at it: C89, C90, C95, C99, C11, C17, C2x... — as someone said, "The nice thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from")... it became possible to write the same code in different ways. For example, there was an "old way" and a "new way" to declare a function. In a later version of C, the compiler might complain if you did something the old way and, conversely, if you did the same thing the new way then compilation would fail with older compilers.

A central principal of C-Kermit development is to keep all new releases backwards compatible, not only in its command repertoire but also in its compilability on every platform where it could be compiled before no matter how dated its C compiler might be. This is accomplished with a huge number of #ifdefs in the code; for example, every function is declared two different ways so it can be compiled by both old and new compilers.

Backwards compatiblity was preserved through C-Kermit 9.0.302 of 2011. This was possible because the Internet was still open enough for developers to get access to hundreds of different platforms going back to the early 1980s (e.g. 4.2BSD Unix, Bell Research Unix v8, early Xenix versions). Those days are gone, and so now non-backwards compatible code can creep into C-Kermit unnoticed until compilation is attempted on some old platform that the developers have no access to.

After the publication of C-Kermit 9.0.305 Alpha.05 such a platform was encountered and numerous problems uncovered: unprotected ANSI-style function declarations, initialization of automatic arrays, and even the use of C++ features, such as // to introduce single-line comments. These were caught when Peter Eichhorn, Assyst GmbH, Aschheim-Dornach, Germany, C-Kermit's Mr. HP-UX since the late 1980s, who is responsible for most of the HP-UX makefile targets, started doing HP-UX builds for the first time since 2011. It turns out the HP-UX compiler (HP C 76.3 in this case) implements multiple C language definitions. By default it compiles in non-ANSI, non-optimizing, 1978 K&R C mode and complains loudly about any ANSI-C constructions it encounters, and then fails. A blessing in disguise, I'd say, since I no longer have access to any old-time machines or compilers to check backwards compatibility myself. So over the course of a week or two Peter found each problem (approximately one per day) and we fixed it. Hopefully, these fixes will allow builds on other pre-ANSI C platforms that C-Kermit has traditionally supported.

Meanwhile, two important notes:

  1. C-Kermit's Kerberos support is now officially "deprecated". MIT has indicated that it no longer serves any purpose since no Kerberized Telnet or FTP servers are known to still be in service. The code won't be removed, and if anybody (including myself) can fix a problem, it will be fixed.

  2. Similarly, C-Kermit's OpenSSL support is also deprecated because no Telnet-S or SFTP servers are known to be in use any more, so there is no practical use for this code, even if it works. Unlike Kerberos, OpenSSL keeps shifting and changing out from under C-Kermit so that C-Kermit has adapted to each new OpenSSL release while still working with all the earlier ones. If someone other than me wants to take this on, fine, but it should not be done in a way that would break backwards compatibility with earlier OpenSSL releases; plenty of sites are still running 0.9xxx OpenSSL versions. The code will be left in place with little expectation that anybody will use it.
Here are the changes in Alpha.06:
  • 15 Dec 2021:
    New makefile from Peter Eichhorn that enables successful compilation on both HP-UX 10.00 and 11.00. Makefile and main program dates changed 15 Dec 2021.
  • 10 Dec 2021:
    On HP-UX 10.00, error 'cc: "ckcuni.c", line 16153: warning 562: Redeclaration of "isunicode" with a different storage class specifier: "isunicode" will have internal linkage.' This suggests that the system header files have their own prototypes for some library routine or variable of the same name. So I changed all references to isunicode to ck_isunicode. Luckily C-Kermit has a command for that:
    change /list *.[ch] isunicode ck_isunicode
  • 9 Dec 2021:
    The hpux1000 makefile target (Hewlett-Packard Unix 10.00) build successfully for the first time, after much work. This was with HP C version 76.c and much assistance and detective work by Peter Eichhorn. A new directive -DNO_PTY_XOPEN_SOURCE was added to get arround problems caused by the #define _XOPEN_SOURCE 500 directive that was added in 2014 (several years after C-Kermit was last built on HP-UX 10.00), which in turn was added to get around some other problems.
    When building C-Kermit 9.0.305 Alpha.06 or later, if you get seemingly nonsensical error messages when compiling ckupty.c, add -DNO_PTY_XOPEN_SOURCE to the makefile target's KFLAGS and try again. If that doesn't do it, then remove pty support altogether with KFLAGS="-DNOPTY"; this also works with older C-Kermit versions, but it sacrifices C-Kermit's ability to make SSH connections.
  • 9 Dec 2021:
    ckuusy.c:1538: char xbuf[32] enlarged a bit to silence warnings.
  • 9 Dec 2021:
    ckcfns.c:3364: debug(F110,"sipkt rpar","",rp); had its last two arguments reversed.
  • 9 Dec 2021:
    ckuusr.c about line 7928 - changed this:
    char * tags[] = { "_whi", "_for", "_sw_", "_if_" };
    to this:
    static char * tags[] = { "_whi", "_for", "_sw_", "_if_" };
    In its earlier form, this statement would not be understood by a pre-ANSI C compiler, in which initialization of automatic arrays was not supported. This change is OK because the tags[] array is not referenced in any other modules.
  • 8 Dec 2021:
    Removed a Ctrl‑G character that was accidentally inserted into ckupty.c, and one remaining old-school formfeed (Ctrl‑L) in ckcfn2, found by Peter Eichhorn. Plus: Minor type or dimension mismatches between original and extern array declarations.
  • 7 Dec 2021:
    ckuusr.c: Enclose #include "ckuath.h" in #ifdef CK_AUTHENTICATION .. #endif. Given the 10+ modules that #include "ckuath.h" it might have made more sense to check this in ckuath.h itself, but all the modules bracketed the #include with ifdef CK_AUTHENTICATION..#endkf; ckuusr.c is the only one that didn't, and this caused failure in a non-ANSI compilation.
  • 7 Dec 2021:
    ckuus3.c: removed 19 C++-style single-line comments (//), which blow up old C compilers (or, in this case, modern ones operating in non-ANSI K&R) mode. (A pty is a psuedoterminal; Kermit's pty support is the basis of its SSH command, which lets you make secure SSH connections from C-Kermit to another computer; it also lets C-Kermit make a connection to a local application, such as Bash or EMACS.)

C-Kermit 9.0.305 Alpha.05 14 November 2021

As of December 6, 2021, 56 builds are listed in this table; 48 of them successful, 8 of them failed.

  • 16 Nov 2021:
    Tony Nicholson reports clean builds of the November 14 code on:
    • macOS Catalina (10.15.7) x86_64 using "make macos"
    • macOS Monterey (12.0.1) arm64 using "make macos"
    • OpenVMS VAX V7.3 with Process Software Multinet 5.5 TCP/IP using @CKVKER "O"
    • OpenVMS Alpha V8.4-2L1 with Process Software Multinet 5.5 TCP/IP using @CKVKER "O"
    • Raspberry PiOS-32 Buster (Debian 10) using "make linux"

    These are in addition to the succesful builds in the 14 November entry just below.
  • 14 Nov 2021:
    From William Bader:
    "Fedora 34 doesn't have the Heimdal version of kerberos, and ckuath.c had some sections that needed an ifdef." I applied the diff but result does not build on NetBSD: "com_err.h: No such file or directory".
    Couldn't build in on Ubuntu because I don't have krb5 installed.
    Build failed on Red Hat: "/usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lgssapi".
    I'm not super concerned about Kerberos or SSL because I have no evidence that anybody is using them in C-Kermit.

    From Steven Schweda:
    Removed the "#if 0" command in ckcdeb.h about line 6149, which is now extraneous. He also suggested removing the '#include "ckodir.h"' from ckuus6.c, but let's not do that until until we can once again check C-Kermit builds on MS Windows. He also suggested the printing of the MAXPATHLEN value in "show features" but it's not doing any harm, and until and unless CKMAXPATH can be 100% certified as the same thing, let's leave it in so at least we can check in case of any further confusion. Also he noticed some variations in the file permissions, now fixed. No functional changes.

    From Tony Nicholson:
    I've confirmed a few file transfers using the new version against CP/M Kermit-80 v4.11 and PDP-11 T3.63 running under RSTS/E V10.1 (which has some extra fixes by Johnny Billquist on top of Brian Nelson's last version from the Kermit Archive). I'm using a USB to serial adapter (FTDI chipset) on my Mac minis to connect up via a LAT terminal server for my CP/M and PDP-11 tinkering as well as Kermit's built-in Telnet too.

    Kenji Rikitake reports clean builds of the November 7th upload on:
    • macOS 11.6.1 x86_64 with Xcode 13.1 (with the new target "make macos")
    • Ubuntu Linux 21.10 x86_64
    • Raspberry Pi OS kernel 5.10.63-v7l+ on Raspberry Pi 4B

    Steven Schweda reports clean builds on:
    • OpenVMS 8.4 on HP rx2600 IA64 (no SSL)
    • OpenVMS 8.4-2L3 on HP rx2660 IA64 (both with no SSL and vendor-supplied SSL 111 V1.1-1L based on OpenSSL 1.1.1l).

    William Bader got a clean build on:
    • Fedora 34 with non-Heimdal (MIT?) Kerberos

    I get clean builds (without SSL or Kerberos) on:
    • Red Hat Linux 6.1
    • Ubuntu Linux 20.04.1
    • NetBSD 9.2
  • 7 Nov 2021:
    From Tony Nicholson: a newline was required in ckutio.c at about line 2493 to indicate an empty statement. A patch to ckudia.c at line 4995 that I missed. For VMS, ckvker.mms was missing from the Zip file.
  • 6 Nov 2021:
    From Tony Nicholson in Australia, who put a great deal of effort into clearing warnings from Apple's LLVM Clang C compiler that I don't get with gcc, notably tons of "add explicit braces to avoid dangling else". The original code is correct and complies with the definition of the C language, but is now considered dangerous by zealots. Also several warnings about constructions like while (c = *s++) { ... }: "place parentheses around the assignment to silence this warning". What I don't understand is how large segments of the world's economy can be based on software written in a language that keeps changing out from underneath it.
    • makefile: Entirely new entries for macOS (new new name for Mac OS X and OS X). Use "make macos" on newer macOS versions; use "make macosx" for older ones. I'm not sure exactly where the cutoff is. Also an error in the linux entry where one of the "if test" clauses was missing the "if".
    • ckcftp.c: xx.os_specific = NUL; → xx.os_specific = ""; at about line 12575.
    • ckcmai.c: Added #include multinet_root:[multinet.include.sys]time.h For VMS systems with Multinet TCP/IP, instead of <time.h> and then don't comment out
    • ckcuni.c: Typo corrected at line 8268... if (c && 0xff80) should have been if (c & 0xff80).
    • ckucns.c: xx.typ = 0; xx.dsp = XYFZ_A; xx.os_specific = NUL; → xx.typ = 0; xx.dsp = XYFZ_A; xx.os_specific = ""; at line 469.
    • ckcdia.c: if (lbuf && *lbuf) → if (strlen(lbuf) > 0) at line 4994.
    • ckcdia.c: Several corrections in the "mymdmtype" section.
    • ckuusr.c: Added missing "#include ckuath.h" for Kerberos builds.
    • ckuus6.c: Supplied a missing %s for printf("?Modtime error on backup file:") about line 6303.
    • ckuusx.c: For newer macOS's in the termcap-related #ifdefs starting around line 30, #include <curses.h>.
    • ckutio.c: added missing semicolon after "for (p = ttname; isdigit(*p); p++)" at line 2490 (but I had already done that)
    • In several modules the only change was an insertion of a blank line; I left those as-was: ckuus2.c ckcpro.w.
    Tony says, "I've managed to eliminate all but two warnings when compiled under macOS Catalina (10.15.7) on a x86_64 Mac mini, and under macOS Monterey (12.0.1) on an arm64 Mac mini. The remaining warnings are to do with use of a deprecated logwtmp() routine — still present in the current version of macOS."
  • 6 Nov 2021:
    From Steven Schweda, patches for: Compaq OpenVMS VAX V7.3, VSI OpenVMS AXP V8.4-2L1, andVSI OpenVMS V8.4-2L3 for Integrity, sent via Tony:
    1. An entirely new ckvker.com (DCL build procedure, the "VMS makefile").
    2. An entirely new ckvfio.c module.
    3. ckcdeb.h: A comment about the definition of MAXPATHLEN (or lack of it) on VMS, clarifying a previous comment that is still there but "#ifdef 0"'d.
    4. ckctel.c: Two references to MAXPATHLEN changed to CKMAXPATH (explained in ckcdeb.h comment).
    5. ckufio.c: A reference to MAXPATHLEN in a comment at line 7436 changed to CKMAXPATH.
    6. ckuus3.c: Two reference to MAXPATHLEN in a stanza around line 12200 changed to CKMAXPATH.
    7. ckuus4.c: An allusion to MAXPATHLEN appears in a comment about line 64; I clarified that this section applies only for Kermit 95 for MS Windows and IBM OS/2 and didn't change it because OS/2-specific modules probably still use MAXPATHLEN rather than CKMAXPATH but we can deal with that if ever development on K95 resumes. Also, two references to MAXPATHLEN around line 10420 were changed to CKMAXPATH. A misplaced #endif matching #ifndef VMS at line 13942 was moved two statements down, where it should have been.
    8. in ckuus5.c at about line 10344 in the SHOW FEATURES code; Steven changed MAXPATHLEN to CKMAXPATH, but I left the original and then added a new one for CKMAXPATH; this might be more helpful for troubleshooting.
    9. ckuus6.c: "???" by #include ckodir.h in an OS/2-Windows-specific section, same as in item 7 above. Changed all 17 other occurrences of MAXPATHLEN to CKMAXPATH.
    10. Corrected two misspellings of "weird" in comments.
  • 1 Nov 2021:
    From Tony Nicholson, in ckcdeb.h, about line 6143:
    #ifndef MAXPATHLEN
    def MAXPATHLEN 1024
    #endif  /* MAXPATHLEN */
    should have been:
    #ifndef MAXPATHLEN
    #define MAXPATHLEN 1024
    #endif  /* MAXPATHLEN */
    How'd that happen!

  • 26-29 Oct 2021:
    Bug: Reported by Jacques Charreyron: when C-Kermit was told to SET SEND PACKET-LENGTH 10 (by mistake, as it happens), the file that was sent (very slowly) arrived with its name truncated.

    Background: The SET SEND PACKET-LENGTH command is a relic of the days files were transferred over extremely sensitive and unreliable connections such as a noisy telephone line before the days of high-speed flow-controlled error-correcting modems (let alone the Internet). The longer a packet, the greater the chance of corruption by noise. The SET SEND PACKET-LENGTH command was a way to force a file through at a cost in efficiency.

    Analysis: This feature was implemented with insufficient thought: it limited the length of ALL sent packets including the "administrative" ones like those used for feature negotiation at the beginning of the transfer and for the filename. It doesn't matter what length file data packets are because each one carries just a piece of the file, and they are all reassembled by the receiver. But the protocol does not allow feature-negotiation strings or filenames to be split up over multiple packets. Maybe it should have.

    So now C-Kermit has been changed to apply the SEND PACKET-LENGTH setting only to outbound file Data packets. This is a rather fundamental change that, in a sense, has an impact on the definition of the protocol if only by making explicit the difference between administrative and data packets.

    The feature negotiation packets are about 30 characters (bytes) long and have never presented a problem. However, a filename can be any length at all. If it is longer than about 90 characters, it can be sent only in a long packet with prior permission from the file receiver, allowing file names up to about 9000 characters in length. If the filename is longer than the negotiated limit, even with today's fix, it is truncated. The fix, however, means that if the receiving Kermit doesn't support long packets, filenames longer than about 88 characters are truncated. This hardly ever happens in practice because filenames are rarely that long.

    But the story doesn't stop there because the file receiver can (but is not required to) send the name under which it stores the incoming file, perhaps including the path, so the user knows exactly how to find it on the receiving computer. This might be considerably longer than the original if it includes a path, such as:

    (That's a typical path on one of the computers I use.) The pathname can also be included in the sender's filename packet if you SEND /PATHNAMES:ABSOLUTE. But apparently nobody does this in combination with SET SEND PATHNAME-LENGTH because I have never received a complaint.

    The fact that it took 40 years for this problem to surface does not suggest a looming crisis and anyway, it's too late to change the protocol. Meanwhile, if we start having problems with very long filenames, various approaches are possible, such as:

    • Do nothing; let long names be truncated. This could result in files overwriting each other; for example, a series of files whose names have the same first 100 characters, followed by a serial number. Overwriting in a case like this can be avoided with an appropriate SET FILE COLLISION command on the receiving end.

    • Have the file sender convert too-long names into shorter names that are likely unique; for example, random sequences of letters and digits. In this case the user would have to pay attention to Kermit's messages to be able to identify the file on the receiving end, or to LOG TRANSACTIONS to have a record.

    Disposition: C-Kermit code was changed to make the SET SEND PACKET-LENGTH value apply only to outbound Data packets. Modules affected: ckcfns.c, ckcfn2.c, ckcfn3.c, ckcpro.w.

  • 13 Oct 2021:
    Changed "%d" in sprintf(vvbuf,"%d",crc16); in nvlook() to "%ld" to agree with type change of crc16 from int to long on 8 Oct 2020. ckuusr.c.

  • 13 Oct 2021:
    Added serial-port speed of 1500000 bps (1.5MHz), from Elad Lahav. Enabled for Linux and QNX. ckcdeb.h, ckutio.c, ckuus3.c.

  • 13 Oct 2021:
    Ao Huang noticed a problem when sending a binary file over a Telnet connection using XMODEM external protocol via the sx application: if the data contains a 0xff byte (which is also Telnet IAC), it is doubled as it should be, but the next byte is skipped. Fixed in ckutio.c ttptycmd() about line 14998.

  • 30 Sep 2021:
    From Sébastien Villemot; a printw() statement was changed to fputs() to avoid gcc -Wformat -Werror=format-security warning on Debian. ckuusx.c,
  • 8 May 2021:
    From Kenji Rikitake, for modern Macintoshes (say, after Mac OS X 10.12?): in ckuusx.c in the termcap-related #ifdefs starting around line 30, #include <term.h>.

C-Kermit 9.0.305 Alpha.04 14 September 2021

The following C-Kermit source files specific to the VMS version:


in my working directory on Unix had lines terminated in CRLF (Carriage Return and Line Feed), which is appropriate for VMS, but not on a Unix file system. The install script created a Zip file that converted *all* source files to VMS format, but since these were already in VMS format and the zip program wasn't smart enough to recognize this, the copies of these files in the Zip archive were corrupted. Thanks to David Hittner for noticing and diagnosing the problem. 14 Sep 2021.

Also corrected a number warnings from the VMS C compiler reported by David Hittner, who is attempting to revive C-Kermit for VMS, including the new x86-64 version:

  • Reference to uninitialized 'ss' variable in a debug() statement in ckclib.c cksplit().
  • The MAXPATHLEN symbol came up undefined in ckuus4 fneval() so I added a catch-all definition for it in ckcdeb.h for when, after including all the other header files where it should be defined, it's still not defined. I arbitrarily chose 1024 as the value; this might need tuning. This change also fixes an error in the declaration of chgsourcedir[] in ckuus6.c
  • Variable "linkname" not declared in ckuus4.c fneval for \ffileinfo(). This is not surprising since VMS doesn't have file links. Rearranged the code so looking for a link happens only in Unix.
  • ckuus5.c evalmacroarg() changed from int to VOID because it doesn't return a value.
  • ckuus6.c domydir() CHANGE command code error message "not a text file" was missing the filname argument.
  • ckuus6.c domydir() CHANGE command code symbol STRDIRSEP was not defined for VMS -- an oversight; fixed in ckcdeb.h.
  • ckuus6.c domydir() CHANGE command code modtime error message too many arguments; added missing %s.
  • ckuus6.c boolexp(): another missing conversion specifier in a printf.
  • ckvtio.c ttflui(): "while ((n--) && xx_inc(2) >= 0) ; /* Ignore Warning - see comments */" (see comment in source code).
Updated version and date info in ckcmai.c. 14 Sep 2021

C-Kermit 9.0.305 Alpha.03  (THIS ONE WASN'T UPLOADED)

  • The "extern int errno;" declaration included by default for many non-Glibc Unixes has become a big problem. So I added a symbol DCL_ERRNO that can be defined in any desired makefile target, otherwise the declaration is omitted except on some old platforms where it has always been needed (e.g. some old Cray supercomputers). In the "linux" makefile target (which is supposed to work for ALL versions of Linux back to Day Zero), I added a stanza to check whether errno was declared in any header file and then only if it is not, to include DCL_ERRNO in the compilation flags at make time. This is in case any old, old Linux releases did not declare it (which I doubt) but anyway now this stanza can be added to other targets where errno might or might not be declared in the header files, or in any other anomolous cases. Or you can just include it in your 'make' command:

        make targetname KFLAGS=‑DDCL_ERRNO

    Note that -DDCL_ERRNO results in "extern int errno;", and so is mainly appropriate for old platforms where errno is, indeed, an integer. In any case, after the special cases (CRAY, STRATUS, glibc), if DCL_ERRNO is not defined then we "#include <errno.h>". Modules affected: ckcdeb.h, makefile, 7 October 2020.

  • Removed "extern int errno.h" conditionalized for VMS from ckcfns.c because this was already handled in ckcdeb.h, which is included by every C-Kermit module. Note that many other modules already include errno.h: ckcftp.c, ckcnet.c, ckcnet.h, ckuath.c, ckucmd.c, ckucns.c, ckucon.c, ckufio.c, ckupty.h, ckutio.c, ckuus4.c, ckuus6.c, ckuus7.c, ckuusx.c. Better not to touch these unless conflicts arise, and rely on the header file's normal protection against multiple inclusion. ckcfns.c, 8 Oct 2020.
  • In the code for the SET SSL CIPHER-LIST and SHOW AUTHENTICATION commands, changed the SSL_METHOD function from TLSv1_method() to SSLv23_method(). Patch from "$NetBSD: patch-ckuus3.c,v 1.1 2020/04/08 15:22:07 rhialto Exp $". ckuus3.c, ckuus7.c, 8 Oct 2020.
  • Changed extern int crc16 to extern long crc16 in ckuus4.c. Patch from "$NetBSD: patch-ckuus4.c,v 1.1 2019/04/11 02:21:09 mrg Exp $".
  • Updated ckuusr.c edit number and date, because ckuus3.c and ckuus7.c are just two of nine parts of what was originally a single module. 8 Oct 2020.
  • Updated C-Kermit's date and Alpha level. ckcmai.c, 8 Oct 2020.

C-Kermit 9.0.305 Alpha.02 19 September 2020

From Sébastien Villemot (Debian): Remove clauses from the linux+krb5, linux+ssl, and linux+krb5+ssl makefile targets that tested to see if an executable was actually created, because they violate Debian policy. makefile, 18 September 2020.

From Sébastien Villemot (Debian): Add another "else if" to the search for the Kerberos 5 com_err library for Multiarch systems. makefile, 18 September 2020.

Addressed warnings issued by gcc 9.3.0 on Ubuntu 20.04.1:

  1. sprintf() into a buffer declared to be 10 bytes long when values could (but never would) overflow it: function hhmmss(); increased the buffer size to 60. ckclib.c, 18 Sep 2020. NOTE: there were many warnings like this. In almost every case the code prechecked the length of data to be moved into the buffer. These warnings forced me to make buffers bigger unnecessarily. But why don't I just use snprintf()?  Because C-Kermit is supposed to build on hundreds of different platforms, some dating back to before there was an snprintf().
  2. Same thing for obuf[] in function shuffledate() (six times) and once for tmpbuf[] in function cmcvtdate(). ckucmd.c, 18 Sep 2020.
  3. Same thing for xbuf[] in a debug clause in doinput() (even though the warning was erroneous because it claimed the buffer size was 9 when it was 24). ckuus4.c, 18 Sep 2020.
  4. Same thing for dbuf[] in function domydir(). ckuus6.c, 18 Sep 2020.
  5. Complaints about implicit definitions of tgetent(), tgetstr(), tputs(), and tgoto() in the curses-related routines fxdinit(), ck_termset(), ck_curpos(). See notes below. I had the prototypes commented out because they caused problems on some platforms. Uncommenting causes disaster on Red Hat, NetBSD, etc. I had to add a clause to the linux target that looks in /etc/issue for "Ubuntu" or "Debian" and if found defines a special symbol, NEEDCURSESPROTOTYPES. makefile, 18 Sep 2020.
  6. getslot() needed a prototype. ckuusx, 18 Sep 2020.
  7. Within getslot() ftruncate() needed a cast to void. ckuusx, 18 Sep 2020.
  8. The ages-old dilemma... what type is main()? Haven't had this complaint in decades. Replaced the #ifdef mess with something much simpler: if it's OS/2 or Windows, void; otherwise int, period. ckwart.c, 18 Sep 2020.
  9. Another sprintf() buffer issue corrected in snddir(). ckcfns.c, 18 Sep 2020.
  10. Implicit declaration of openpty(). I never needed to declare it before. Ubuntu says I need to include <pty.h>. I added a new stanza to the Linux target to include <pty.h> if it exists. makefile, 18 Sep 2020. (this should also eliminate the warning from pty_getpty() in ckupty.c)
  11. Commented out "system(ttname);", which raised an implicit declaration complaint. I can't even imagine what this statement was supposed to do. ttopen() in ckutio.c, 18 Sep 2020.
  12. Bogus complaint about how I was using the return value of link() in ttlock(). Recoded it. ckutio.c, 18 Sep 2020.
  13. Fixed a write() statement in zclose() and ftruncate() call in logwtmp() to not ignore their return values. ckufio.c, 18 Sep 2020.
  14. Added #include <sys/wait.h> within #ifdef __NetBSD__ .. #endif. (even though "man 2 wait" says "<wait.h>". ckufio.c, 19 Sep 2020.
  15. Added #include <util.h> to __NetBSD__ section of ckcdeb.h to fix implicit declaration warning for openpty() in ckupty.c and ckupty.c. 19 Sep 2020.
  16. Updated version to 9.0.305 Alpha.02 and updated EDITDATE and EDITNDATE. ckcmai.c, 19 Sep 2020.
  17. Increased yyyymmdd[] buffer length in cmcvtdate(): ckucmd.c, 19 Sep 2020.
  18. Doubled the size of linebuf[] in domydir() because one sprintf() was putting some extra stuff in it. ckuus6.c, 19 Sep 2020.
  19. Added #ifdefs relating to openpty() to ckcdeb.h because openpty() is used in several modules. Tested only in Linux and NetBSD. 19 Sep 2020.
  20. Casting to void did not suppress some "return value ignored" warnings — write(), ftruncate() — so I did "dummy = xxx();". getslot(), ckuusx.c, 19 Sep 2020.
The result builds with no warnings or errors on NetBSD 9.0, Red Hat 6.1, and Ubuntu 20.04.1. It also builds on Red Hat 6.1 with OpenSSL 1.0.1 with one minor warning, which is OK for now because a lot of work on the OpenSSL support is on the agenda, most notably adaptation to OpenSSL 1.1, which is not compatible with 1.0 (which, as I recall, was supposed to have an API that would be stable for all eternity).

9.0.305 Alpha.01 24 Jul 2020

Alpha test for an emergency C-Kermit release because GNU removed the symbol "__FILE_defined" (which Kermit uses on glibc systems for stdin buffer-peeking) from its stdio headers, thus breaking C-Kermit builds on all platforms that use glibc. C-Kermit was pulled from at least the Debian and Ubuntu distributions because of this, as opposed to (say) contacting me so I could address the problem; I found out about it from Debian and Ubuntu users who found that C-Kermit had silently disappeared from apt-get libraries. The small change added to this Alpha version allows C-Kermit to be built in the normal way ("make linux"). Operational testing is needed on all glibc systems, and then hopefully C-Kermit can be added back to the distributions again, and it will also have a lot of new features, improvements, and fixes since the last release, 9.0.302 in August 2011.

Modules changed:  ckucmd.c, ckcmai.c.
Date: 24 Jul 2020.

Platform No security OpenSSL Kerberos 5
Red Hat Linux 6.1 / OpenSSL 1.0.1e OK (no warnings) OK (no warnings) (libs not installed)
NetBSD 9.0 / OpenSSL 1.1.1d OK (no warnings) Fails (many warnings) (libs not installed)
Ubuntu Linux 20.04.1 / OpenSSL 1.1.1f OK (many warnings) Fails (many warnings) (libs not installed)

Note:  This version was placed back in the Debian distribution 17 September 2020, but "will take some time before the package hits the Debian repositories because it needs to get manually approved, since it is a package reintroduction. Further updates will be much faster."

9.0.304 Dev.24 25 Apr 2020

Under certain circumstances, the CHANGE command could cause a segmentation fault. Diagnosis: a variable (k) was incremented before it was initialized. - domydir(), ckuus6.c, 25 April 2020.

The cmcvtdate() routine in ckucmd.c has been there since 2000 (C-Kermit 7.0); its purpose is to parse free-format date-times (possibly including offests and/or timezones) and convert them into canonical local-timezone date-times. It's used by the DATE command and also by any other command than can parse date-times, and by the script language \fcvtdate() function. Among the many formats I thought it was supposed to understand is the one used in Apache weblogs: yyyy:mm:dd:hh:mm:ss. Apparently this has never worked. I changed the cmcvtdate() routine (and thus the DATE command and the \fcvtdate() function) to preprocess its argument and strip the colons from any dates in this format before proceeding. ckucmd.c, ckcmai.c, 25 Apr 2020.

9.0.304 Dev.23 4 Sep 2018 (announced 31 Jan 2020)

It was annoying me that constructions like:

if \findex(not rated,\m(line)) {
    .line := \freplace(\m(line),not rated,sin ranking)

failed with a message like "?<ERROR:MISSING_ARG:\findex()>". This has been the case forever. The standard advice was to work around in ways like this:

.x := \findex(not rated,\m(line))
if x .line := \freplace(\m(line),not rated, sin ranking)
if \findex(not\32rated,\m(line)) {
    .line := \freplace(\m(line),not rated, sin ranking)
.notrated = not rated
if \findex(\m(notrated),\m(line)) {
    .line := \freplace(\m(line),not rated, sin ranking)

The IF command expects a keyword, a symbol, a number, or a "field", and therefore breaks on the first space. This is not a problem only with the IF command, nor only with the \findex() function; the same thing happens in any context where a "word" is expected and you include a \function() invocation that has spaces in its argument list. A universal fix was required at the very deepest level of the command parser: a state machine that recognizes function calls and prevents any blanks contained in their argument lists from triggering a premature word break. Now you can write function calls consistently in any context, no matter whether they contain spaces or not. The new code was added to gtword() and setatm() in ckucmd.c, enclosed in #ifdef FUNCTIONTEST..#endif, which is defined at the top of the file. 3-4 September 2018. By the way, doing this revealed significant unnecessary duplication of effort between gtword() and setatm(), not worth fixing at this late date.

CHANGE /COUNT:variablename always set the variable to 0 or 1, where it should have set it to the number of changes that it made. Diagnosis: it was sharing too much code with DIRECTORY /COUNT. Fixed in ckuus6.c, 8 May 2017.

Changed copyright year to 2018. ckcmai.c, 10 August 2018.

CHANGE command: Got rid of the "Would create temp file" message, it overwhelms all the other feedback. ckuus6.c, 10 August 2018.

\fpictureinfo(s[,&a]) apparently never has worked for getting the orientation of a JPG that comes straight out of a camera (or certain cameras). The reason I never noticed this is that I almost always run every image in a gallery through Photoshop first. Kermit only looks at the ImageLength (i.e. height) and ImageWidth Exif items, but in the camera's files they are the same for all orientations; the actual orientation is given by the Exif Orientation tag. Photoshop uses this to orient the picture properly when loading it, and sets the width and height correctly on writing it out.

But there is nothing Kermit can do about this; even if I could figure out how to find the Orientation tag, what would I do with it? Eventually it dawned on me that the right place to handle this (to fix the problem when it occurs in the Photogallery script) was on the Imagemagick command line. Simply adding -auto-orient did the trick. Photogallery 2.14, 21 Jul 2017. No changes to Kermit. But if there were an EXIF library for Unix...

Fixed Lisp (ROUND -5.6666 2), it was losing the minus sign (result 5.67 instead of -5.67). ckcklib.c, 19 July 2017.

Added a new option to \freplace(): a 5th argument specifying "word mode", meaning that the target string will be replaced only if it's a "word", i.e. surrounded by whitespace or punctuation, etc, so as to avoid the case where the target word happens to also be a substring of other words. For example, changing the word "a" to the word "the" without changing all the other letter a's to "the". That would be simple enough but I also wanted to handle things like replacing "--" by &mdash; and "..." by &hellip; (for the html-to-text script). Added 4 new routines — isalphanum(string), cisalphanum(char), nonalphanum(string), cnonalphanum(string) — which the \freplace() code uses to check the context of the target string. All of the new code is in #ifdef RPLWORDMODE..#endif, so can easily be deselected if necessary. ckuus[24].c, 5-7 Oct 2017.

Simplified "hints" given after a GET command failed. ckuus5.c, 8 Oct 2017.

I used this C-Kermit version myself continuously for 17 months with a ton of heavy-duty scripting and a great deal of testing on NetBSD and Red Hat Linux, finally installed it on the FTP server and announced it. 31 January 2020

9.0.304 Dev.22

Fixed \fcode() to not throw errors if given an empty string (or nothing at all) as an argument. ckuus4.c, 22 Apr 2017.

In the parser for DO command (macro invocation)… Prior to C-Kermit 9.0.304 Dev.22, cmtxt() was called in all cases with zzstring. But this fouled up the identification of macro arguments when their values contained grouping characters such as doublequotes and braces. I changed the cmtxt() evaluation function pointer from zzstring to NULL, so we get a correct list of arguments, and then changed xwords (which was a big mess) to evaluate each one. I made a new evalmacroargument() routine for this, because xwords() needed to do this in about five places. ckuusr.c, ckuus5.c, 24 Apr 2017.

Added a new routine newerrmsg(s); that prints an error message, and if it's from a command file, it shows the line number where the command started and the first part of the command (hence the need for snprintf(), to make the assembled message fit on one line). While working on xwords() I realized that the whole big mess was totally unnecessary now that I have the cksplit() C-Kermit library function, so I replaced the mess (or at least the "if (macro)" parts of it) with a single ckpslit() call. ckuusr.c, ckuus5.c, 25 Apr 2017.

The resulting Kermit program had big problems running production scripts, so the next few edits are to aid in tracking them down.

Added HAVE_SNPRINTF macro to ckcdeb.h so we can use snprintf() safely in conditionals. True for Linux, Mac OS X, and *BSD but others can be added easily. ckcdeb.h, 25 Apr 2017.

When used for macro arguments, cksplit() was using '\' as a quote character, and thus variable names were not being recognized. I added a new cksplit() argument for this, and it works, but now cksplit doesn't split the string into words. That was because 'while (c = *ss++ && !flag)' should have been 'while ((c = *ss++) && !flag)', now it is, all OK, except it didn't set the macro arguments. This goes back to when I decided to allow any number of macro args, instead of just 10, and created the macro argument vector \&_[]. For arguments 1-9, you also have to do addmac() for each argument, which I did. Really there should not be duplicate lists, but that's for another day. ckclib.c, 26 Apr 2017.

Fixed a bug in cksplit(), it wasn't filling the notsep[] string array, which could have affected CSV, TSV, or ALL include sets. ckclib.c, 26 Apr 2017.

newerrmsg() reveals that that the new "Definition is circular or too deep" errors are at the beginning of FOR and WHILE loops, but the loops still sort of work. This almost certainly is because FOR and WHILE are internally defined macros that have not been passed through command parser. Debugging continues…

Fixed a bad debug() statement in the FOPEN (or FREAD?) code that was added in Dev.21 that could cause segfaults on certain platforms. ckuus7.c, 26 Apr 2017.

The FOR, WHILE, IF, and SWITCH commands are defined in ckuus5.c like this:

/* WHILE macro */
char *whil_def[] = { "_assign _whi\\v(cmdlevel) {_getargs,",
":_..inc,\\%1,\\%2,goto _..inc,:_..bot,_putargs},",
"_define break goto _..bot, _define continue goto _..inc,",
"do _whi\\v(cmdlevel),_assign _whi\\v(cmdlevel)",

It seemed to me that the easiest way to fix the problem with the built-in macros would be parse them the same way they were parsed before. I moved the internal-macro check to a routine, isinternalmacro(). It works by checking the macro name. We have to stick to the discipline that internal macros have names starting with '_' followed by 3 unique characters. For WHILE the "master macro" is '_while', and the generated macros are _whi2, whi3, etc, where the number indicates the execution stack level (so we can have nested loops). ckuus5.c, ckuusr.c, 27 Apr 2017.

Then in ckuusr.c where the cmtxt() call was changed to not use zzstring, put the zzstring call back if it's an internal macro, in theory undoing the original change to dodo() but only for internal macros. After some serious juggling of the quoting levels in the internal WHILE macro definition, it worked. At least for my test script, and for the HTML script. ckuus5.c, ckuusr.c, 27 Apr 2017.

Now to fix the other internal macro definitions… I fixed foz_def (the macro to use when the loop variable is a macro rather than a \%x variable), now it works too. ckuus5.c, 27 Apr 2017.

A problem with FOR was noted where the loop variable disappears inside the loop: "for \%i 99 99 1 { echo [\%i] }" printed "[]" instead of "[99]". Fixed by adjusting the quoting in for_def. ckuus5.c, 28 Apr 2017.

The IF command (also implemented as an internal macro) was adjusted the same way. ckuus5.c, 28 Apr 2017.

The next problem comes up when running the text-to-html script on this update notes file: it gets errors like "?<ERROR:MISSING_ARG:\farraylook()>". This problem was not in Kermit but in the script: \m(line) was being passed as an argument to a macro, and the line contained the string "\farraylook()". The argument is seen as \%1 from the macro's point of view and therefore evaluated recursively. The solution is to refer to this argument as \fcontents(\%1). No wonder the Kermit programming never caught on! I forgot about this, even though it was standard advice for (for example) passing Windows pathnames as arguments to macros. Anyway, with this change the html script runs without complaint and productes the correct result. April 28, 2017.

But running other long, complex production scripts, a new problem came up: when a macro passes one (or more) of its arguments to another macro, the other macro gets an empty value for it. dodo():

  • Makes a new macro level (maclvl) and a new command level (cmdlvl).
  • Initializes the new cmdlvl stack frame.
  • Initializes the return value for this level to NULL.
  • Deletes any old macro arguments (\%1-\%9) at this level.
  • Calls xwords() to get the new argument list.

Suppose macro A has been called with an argument \%1, and then invokes macro B with that same argument. Macro B gets "\%1" rather than the value of \%1, but since it is at a new level, \%1 does not have a value. Previously, these variables were evaluated in docmd() case XXDO, before dodo() was called, therefore they received the values from level where the macro was invoked. Now they are evaluated after dodo() starts a new macro level, but in the new level zzstring() doesn't find any definitions for the \%1-9 variables. The solution is not exactly elegant:


but it's the only safe way to do it, because it is only in this place that we know that (say) \%1 is on the macro invocation's argument list and not in some other context. ckuus5.c, 29 Apr 2017.

In running the suite of script-language torture tests, most of them (the ones published on the website) give the same results in previous and new C-Kermit. An incompatibility was noted in the 'demo' script:

ask \%x { Type 3 numbers separated by spaces or an empty line to quit:  }
if not def \%x break
smallest \%x

In old Kermit, the 'smallest' macro saw three arguments; the new Kermit sees only one. I think the old behavior was too much magic; the new behavior is proper. From now on, if you want a macro to receive 3 arguments, you'll have to call it with three arguments. Or recode the macro to \fsplit() any compound arguments.

The S-Expression torture test gets errors now that it didn't before, but the errors are correct: e.g.

?Not defined - "c"
?sexp[37]: "(++ a 1 b 1 c 1 d)": Syntax error'

?Too few operands - "/ 2"
?sexp[110]: "(/ 2) ----} - c a))  t2 t1)..."

?Too few operands - "++"
?sexp[189]: "(++)  ate result) f (objective \%1) ..."

Added FOPEN /STDOUT and FOPEN /STDERR. This allows a Kermit script to be fully pipeable. A minor wrinkle here was to not actually close any of these if the script contained an FCLOSE for them. ckcker.h, ckuus[27].c, 30 Apr 2017.

The SWITCH command internal macro definition needed another adjustment. ckuus5.c, 30 Apr 2017.

9.0.304 Dev.21

April 19, 2017: Coming back to the code after a year of not touching it. If there are still any C-Kermit users out there, they don't seem to have any issues. Nevertheless, I do believe there are problems with the OpenSSL support. But I'm really not qualified or equipped to deal with them.

It was bothering me that in Unix, you can't pipe a command or shell script to the kind of Kermit script that is designed to read from a file whose name specified on the command line; that is, that has an FOPEN /READ command in it. If FOPEN had a way to "open" standard input, then if no filename was given on the command line, FOPEN could accommodate:

if defined \%1 fopen /read \%c \%1
else fopen /stdin \%c
if fail ...

So using this code, you could run a script "averages" in either of two ways:

average list               # The 'list' file contains a list of numbers
someprogram | average      # 'someprogram' outputs a list of numbers

Code was added to support this. To see the C-Kermit changes search for "stdin" (case-independent) in ckuus7.c. It's not super-elegant, codewise, but I didn't want to totally redesign the data structures. Nothing was done for stdout or stderr, but they could follow the same path if there's ever a need. UNIX only for now, but could probably be adapted to VMS or Windows without much trouble. ckcker.h, ckuus2.c, ckuus7.c, 19 Apr 2017.

Added switches for GETC… GETC /TIMEOUT:sec (so as not to have to SET ASK-TIMER before and after), /QUIET (so as not to see "?Timed out" message), and GETC /CHECK to see if anything is waiting to be read in the standard input stream (what it actually does is checks to see if stdin is a terminal; normally it won't have anything waiting if it is, and if it isn't, that means stdin is being piped to C-Kermit (or, more usefully, a C-Kermit script). This way a script can be written that can read its input from a disk file whose name is given on the command line, or have its input piped from another program, and still be able to give a usage message if no filename was given and nothing was piped. ckuus6.c, ckuus2.c, 21 Apr 2017.

Here's how to write a script that reads from a file if a filename was given or, if not, reads from stdin:

  if defined \%1 {                # filename given on command line
      fopen /read \%c \%1
      if fail exit 1
  } else {                        # No command-line argument given
      fopen /stdin \%c
      if fail exit 1              # Open failed (shouldn't happen)
      getc /check                 # Check if stdin is redirected.
      if fail exit 1 \m(usage)    # If not exit with usage message.
For this purpose, it turns out that IF NOT BACKGROUND works just as well as GETC /CHECK followed by IF FAIL. IF BACKGROUND is true not only if the program is running in the background, but also if its standard input is a pipe.

Updated makefile dates. makefile, 27 Apr 2016.

Updated Dev version and dates, plus added comments about how to do this. ckcmai.c, 27 Apr 2016.

LISP subsystem changes in April 2017

Fixed the LISP ECHO command to always do unquoting itself, so UNQUOTE is only necessary for things like creating a string valued variable in Lisp that can be referenced in the Kermit domain:

(setq a (unquote '(This is a Lisp string constant)))
show macro a
This is a Lisp string constant

We still need the inverse of Unquote, say REQUOTE or DOQUOTE or ADDQUOTE or IMPORT, whose argument is a variable containing a Kermit string, which returns the equivalent Lisp string. Like QUOTE, but evaluates the operand first.

The sexp torture test still runs correctly.

Meanwhile I think there is a lot of redundant or unused code in dosexp().

Explanation for docs:

Everything in an S-Expression is an operator, a variable name, a numerical constant, or a string constant. Strings in Lisp are represented as '(contents of string). The ECHO operator understands these and outputs them without the syntax, but it also understands regular Kermit strings, so you can use Kermit variables

Kermit variables that start with backslash like \%a, \v(date), etc, don't look like Lisp variables so they have to be quoted: (echo '(\%a) '(\v(date)))

Now do we need other string functions like CAR, CADDR, and CONCAT?

(End of April 27, 2016, notes)

Added UNQUOTE command to deal with Lisp string constants like:

'(this is a string)

so they can be echoed without the syntax, or exported into Kermit land. Also fixed bug where dosexp() could return a previous value if the current one was empty. ckuus3.c, 26 Apr 2016.

There was no way to print stuff within S-Expression code, so I added an ECHO command that takes any number of arguments to be printed in series, but unlike the mainline ECHO command, this one evaluates each element in its argument list as an S-expression, or if it is not an S-Expression, then as a macro. Literal strings and Kermit backslash items (variables, function calls) must be entered as Lisp quoted strings:

(echo '(\fupper(abcdefg)))

which prints "ABCDEFG".

This example shows how Kermit code can be transformed to all Lisp:

define a three plus four is
  define b 3
  define c 4
  increment b c
  echo \m(a) \m(b)

Results in "three plus four is 7". The more-compact all-Lisp version gives the same result:

(setq b 3 c 4)
  (echo '(three plus four is) (+ b c))

Thus the main utility of the S-expression ECHO directive is to be able to print macro named variables (i.e. variables whose names don't start with backslash) without enclosing them in \m(). Or to put it another way, to be able to write LISP code that prints results in regular Lisp syntax without having to leave the Lisp environment. ckuus3.c, 25 Apr 2015.

\fcvtdate(string,code)… code is a number or a variable with an integer value. Function args that must be numeric can be given as macro names without the \m(xxx) notation, i.e. just xxx, but that didn't work with \fcvtcate():

for i 1 6 1 { echo \m(i). \fcvtdate(,i) }

Now it does. ckuus4.c, 23 Mar 2016.

Fixed HELP SEXP to also show ROUND with optional second argument. ckuus2.c, 24 Apr 2016.


I got a report that the photogallery script could not create files in Mac OS X. Sure enough, C-Kermit 9.0.304 got an error every time it tried to create a file. This happened in both zchko() ("check if file can be created") and in zopeno() ("open file for output"), whichever was called first, even though the code in these routines had not changed, probably in decades. I couldn't take a debug log either because that required opening a file. The user who reported the problem discovered that if she created the desired file first outside of Kermit, then Kermit could open it for output. It seems that ever since 1985, I have been calling open() with just O_WRONLY. Evidently that's not good enough any more in recent Mac OS X releases; experimentation shows I have to use O_WRONLY|O_CREAT, but then I also have to put perms, so I put 0600. I made this change in both zchko() and zopeno(). Tests OK in Mac OS X 10.10.5, NetBSD 6.1.5, Solaris 9, and Linux RHEL6.6. ckufio.c, 16 Feb 2016.


As noted, Dev.17 dumped core immediately upon startup on certain 64-bit platforms such as Ubuntu 15.04 and Mac OS X 10.11. Since I don't have access to these platforms I asked Mark Sapiro to look at the changes I made and try to narrow them down. He found that these did the trick:

--- cku304.17/ckucmd.h  2016-02-03 11:28:00.000000000 -0800
+++ cku304.18x/ckucmd.h 2016-02-04 17:54:33.872465535 -0800
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@
#define HLPBL  100                     /* Help string buffer length */
#ifdef CK_64BIT

-#define ATMBL 163808                  /* Command atom buffer length */
+#define ATMBL 20470                   /* Command atom buffer length */
#define ATMBL 10238                    /* Command atom buffer length */
#endif /* CK_64BIT */

@@ -122,7 +122,7 @@
#ifdef CK_64BIT

-#define CMDBL 8388608
+#define CMDBL 65500
#define CMDBL 32763
#endif /* CK_64BIT */

So I put back my changes from to ckcdeb.h, ckcker.h, ckucmd.h, and ckuusr.h, from Feb 3, and then made the adjustments just above. I suspect the segfaults occurred when a bunch of these very large buffers were malloc'd in cmsetup() upon program startup. Time will tell if the new values are safe. ckucmd.c, 5 Feb 2016.

Updated locale documentation on the website in locale.html, 5 Feb 2016.

Added new format code 6 to \fcvtdate() for "dd fullmonthname yyyy hh:mm:ss". This prints the monthname from the Locale, or if there is no Locale or it is disabled, the full monthname in English. ckucmd.c, 5 Feb 2016.

In doing this, I noticed that if I included any command that referenced the locale in a kerbang script or any other script invoked on the command line, that the locale wasn't used. I moved the initialization of the locale a bit higher up in the program start code. ckcmai.c, 5 Feb 2016.

Added locale support to \fcvtdate() so month name comes out in the desired language in formats where an "English month name" was previously returned. Works OK in Red Hat EL6.6, but localized dates aren't supported on the other platforms I have access to (Solaris 9, various NetBSD versions). As a start, I always use 3-letter short month abbreviations, even though some countries might use longer ones. If anybody cares about this, they will let me know. But this way, all date formats that have textual month names come out in the same format and dates in the same format are always the same length. ckucmd.c, 5 Feb 2016.


Fixed four debug() statements that had a string as the final parameter instead of a number, noticed by gcc on NetBSD 7. ckuusx.c, ckudia.c, 4 Feb 2016.

Mark Sapiro says Dev.17 segfaults immediately on startup on Ubuntu 15.04. Asked him for a debug log. Meanwhile I checked the tarball, rebuilt from it, all OK on 64-bit Linux RHEL6 and on 32-bit NetBSD 6.1.5. Built on NebBSD 7.0 also, no problem there except a few new warnings. Backed off the 64-bit size changes. ckcdeb.h, ckcker.h, ckucmd.h, ckuusr.h, 4 Feb 2016.


Added missing "help xmessage" text. ckuus2.c, 3 Feb 2016.

The command "date 29-feb-1996 +1year" failed with "?Base day out of range". Fixed in ckucmd.c, 3 Feb 2016.

Removed misleading display of Z_MAXCHAN from SHOW FEATURES because in Unix we don't use this symbol; we get the real maximum number of open files from sysconf(). ckuus5.c, 3 Feb 2016.

Changed definitions of sizes of things (command buffers, packet buffers, etc) to be much bigger on 64-bit architectures. This will allow bigger script programs, bigger packet buffers (and thus conceivably faster file transfers), more macros, more variables, longer values of variables, etc. The bigger sizes are dependent on the symbol CK_64BIT, which is set in ckcdeb.h based on what it can figure out from compiler builtins, header files, etc, but can also be set on the CC command line in case ckcdeb.h doesn't pick it up. ckcdeb.h, ckcker.h, ckucmd.h, ckuusr.h, 3 Feb 2016.

Added __x86_64 to the symbols looked for when defining CK_64BIT. ckcdeb.h, 3 Feb 2016.

Added __x86_64 to the symbols looked for and displayed by SHOW FEATURES. ckuus5.c, 3 Feb 2016.

Mark Sapiro also noticed that the "localarray" stresstest revealed that if an array (say \%a[]) was declared as local in a macro, but the same array was NOT declared at any higher level, then the array persisted even after the macro returned, instead of disappearing as it should. Fixed in popclvl(): ckuus5.c, 3 Feb 2016.

Mark Sapiro reported C-Kermit crashing on some platforms but not others when evaluating any rounding operation in an S-expression, e.g. (round 1.75). My mistake, I had sprintf() writing into a buffer that was too short. I know I should use snprintf() but it's not portable and it would be a big deal to enumerate all the platforms where it's available and where it's not and tailor the code accordingly, so I just made the buffer (more than) big enough, barring any misbehaving printf() format interpreters. ckround(): ckclib.c, 3 Feb 2016.

Used STRDIRSEP in the CHANGE code to keep it portable, in case C-Kermit is ever built on any non-Unix platform again (WARNING, VMS will still require some special code). ckuus6.c, 2 Feb 2016

We have always had DIRSEP and ISDIRSEP macros for referring to directory separators in the code, e.g. '/' for Unix, ':' for AOS/VS, '>' for VOS, '\' for OS-9, etc, but we needed a string version, so I added STRDIRSEP analogs for each DIRSEP (like "/" for '/') so we could use them as arguments to ckindex(), ckstrncat(), etc. ckcdeb.h, 2 Feb 2016.

In adding the /BACKUP switch, something caused a core dump when using /MODTIME:PRESERVE, a bad value in the "generic permissions" field of the zsattr struct when going to copy the modtime and perms from the original file to the backup file. It's because I wasn't initializing all the struct members. I changed zsattr() to defend itself against out-range-values, clarified the calling convenstions for zstime() in the opening comments (if you are not setting attribute blah, then set blah.len = 0 in the argument struct), and I fixed the struct initializations in the calling code. ckuus6.c, ckufio.c, 2 Feb 2016.

Added a /BACKUP:directory switch for CHANGE. ckuus6.c, 1 Feb 2016.

Added a /DESTINATION:directory switch for CHANGE. Some problems I had doing this revealed an error in domydir()… For reasons too hard to explain the DIRECTORY command sets a global flag "diractive" to let the command parsing routine cmifi2() know that a DIRECTORY command is in progress, and therefore to do some special things in that case when a wildcard expansion includes directory names. Later on I added TOUCH and CHANGE commands to domydir(), because writing separate routines would have meant duplicating tons of code. BUT… The "diractive" flag should NOT be set when the command is TOUCH or CHANGE. Once that was fixed, the rest was pretty straightforward. ckuus6.c, 1 Feb 2016.

I discovered that the CHANGE command didn't work on Linux. This opened a whole big can of worms, read on…

CHANGE command failed on platforms like Linux where fputs() did not return 0 on success. Fixed in ckuus6.c, 29 Jan 2016.

But after this fix it still didn't work if I did not have en environment variable defined that said what directory to use for temporary files because the \v(tmpdir) variable was not falling back correctly. In Unix, first it tried the environment variables CK_TMP, TMPDIR, TEMP, and TMP, in that order, and if nothing turned up it tried /tmp/. Then if the resulting value doesn't end in a directory separator, one is tacked on. There were a couple mistakes in the code causing the /tmp/ part to be skipped, and tacking '/' onto the null string, thus setting the temporary directory to be the root directory, resulting in big trouble when writing temporary files, e.g. in the FTP GET command, the CHANGE command, who knows what else. Fixed in ckuus4.c, 29 Jan 2016.

Another problem with this was that the temporary directory might be referenced before it was defined, e.g. in an FTP GET command. Remedied by "invoking" \v(tmpdir) before any commands are processed. ckcmai.c, 29 Jan 2016.

And Yet Another Problem was that the SET TEMP-DIRECTORY command simply did not work. Plus it didn't store its argument as a full pathname, so it would not work after the user CD'd to someplace else. ckuus3.c, 29 Jan 2016.

A related problem was that IF WRITEABLE didn't work when given a directory name. Fixed in ckufio.c, 29 Jan 2016.

Another problem was that there was no SHOW TEMP-DIRECTORY command. Every SET should have a SHOW. Fixed in ckuusr.h, ckuusr.c, 29 Jan 2016.

Updated HELP SET TEMP-DIRECTORY text. ckuus2.c, 29 Jan 2016.

Added TMP-DIRECTORY as an invisible synonym for TEMP-DIRECTORY in the SET and SHOW commands. ckuusr.c, 29 Jan 2016.


Updated copyright year to 2016. ckcmai.c, 18 Jan 2016.

Made a new "linux" target for the makefile. Kept the previous one available as "linux-2015". The feature tests in the old one looked for libraries in specific places, like "if test -f /usr/lib64/libncurses.so.5" which is stupid because there is an endless number of places where Linux packagers will dream up to put them, especially for multiarchitecture distributions. Well, who really knows where the libraries are, and what the library search path is? ld, right? So now instead of looking in 20 different places for (say) libncurses under several different names, we just ask ld if it can find it and if so — and if we also can identify the corresponding header file (if any) — then we set the appropriate HAVE_BLAH feature flags. makefile, 18 Jan 2016.

Mark Sapiro noticed that "OK" is no longer a valid IF condition (it was a synonym for SUCCESS), which is true; I removed it years ago because of some conflict but didn't make a note of it, can't remember the reason, but IF OK still showed up in HELP IF. Removed it in ckuus2.c, and put a new version of the iftest script in the script library. 31 Dec 2015.


Patches from Bernard Spil for LibreSSL: "Currently Kermit fails to build when openssl libraries have been built without SSLv3 are used (configure —no-ssl2 —nossl3). This has surfaced when building with the latest LibreSSL 2.3. In addition, there are issues with LibreSSL as it does not support SSL compression nor perl EGD as entropy source. Attached patches address all these issues. These can be improved upon by using only SSLv23_ methods or even TLS_ methods and setting SSL_CTX_set_options(ctx, SSL_OP_NO_SSL2 | SSL_OP_NO_SSL3) but I've tried to make the patches minimally intrusive. OpenSSL 1.1.0 will deprecate SSLv23_ methods and introduces compatible TLS_ methods." ckssl.h, ck_ssl.h, ck_ssl.c, ckcftp.c, ckupty.c. Built OK on NetBSD 6.1.5 with OpenSSL 1.0.1e and Linux RHEL6.6 with 1.0.1k, and also on both without SSL selected, but with some warnings; in functions 'tls_is_anon' and 'tls_is_krb5': "assignment discards qualifiers from pointer target type".

Updated dates and Dev number, ckuus5.c, ckcmai.c.

Trying to build C-Kermit on Red Hat RHEL6 it failed at link time because it couldn't find libncurses. It was really hard to track this one down because all the symptoms were totally misleading. The real problem was that ncurses.h was not installed on the system, and the elaborate checking in the linux targe of the makefile didn't allow for the case when the libraries were installed but the header file not. After fixing the makefile it compiles and links correctly without curses support. Also fixed a large number rule lines that started with spaces in stead of Tab. makefile, 17 Dec 2015.

  NOTE FOR DOCS: If C-Kermit builds silently but the result has no curses
  support, it means that lib[n]ncurses is missing OR [n]curses.h is missing.
  There should be a way to issue a message from the makefile but I couldn't
  find it (echo, @echo, etc, none of them worked).


Two closing braces were missing in ck_ssl.c at line 2207, which prevented Dev.13 from being built with OpenSSL support. 10 Oct 2015.


Compiles, links, and runs OK with "make netbsd+ssl" except for these warnings:

ck_ssl.c: In function 'ssl_display_connect_details':
ck_ssl.c:1089:12: warning: assignment discards qualifiers from pointer target type
ck_ssl.c: In function 'tls_is_anon':
ck_ssl.c:3139:12: warning: assignment discards qualifiers from pointer target type
ck_ssl.c: In function 'tls_is_krb5':
ck_ssl.c:3189:12: warning: assignment discards qualifiers from pointer target type

Resulting binary connects with TLS 1.0 to https://www.google.com.

From Jake Thompson: "ckcftp.c is currently set up to allow only SSL 3.0 by default when using AUTH SSL/AUTH TLS, and no later versions (SSLv3_client_method). After the POODLE vulnerability, most sites have disabled SSL 3.0, allowing only TLS 1.0 or later. The attached patch changes ckcftp.c to allow TLS 1.0 and later only by default, adding a new bug option use-ssl-v3 in order to downgrade to SSL 3.0 if needed. ck_ssl.c looks like it may need similar changes; I haven't looked extensively." I applied Jake's patch to ckcftp.c, and the analogous patches to ssl_tn_init() and ssl_http_init() in ck_ssl.c, with improved structure and debug logging. 5 Feb 2015.

Apropos of the previous item, SHOW FUNCTIONS is not very useful. It gives a list of all the functions, period. But if I wanted to find only the functions that have to do with PIDs, it would be nice to be able to include a string to match the function names, as in "show function pid". Other examples include "show func info", "sho func code", "sho fun date", etc. This was added doshow() ckuus5.c, with a special function code parameter value added to kwdhelp() in ckucmd.c and new HELP FUNCTION text in ckuus2.c. It's not really pattern matching, just a substring. Anything more ambitious would have required a rewrite of kwdhelp(). 5 Feb 2015.

Changed \fgetpidinfo() to \fpidinfo() to be easier to find, but left the original name as an invisible synonym. ckuusr.c, 5 Feb 2015.

Edward Berner noticed that K95 built with Open Watcom was crashing because of "inconsistent extern declarations of vmode". vmode is declared BYTE vmode = VCMD; in ckoco2.c and referenced as extern BYTE in all but two cko*.c modules, but as extern int in all cku*.c modules except cko[tf]io.c. BYTE is not a known type to mainline C-Kermit code. However, all references to vmode in mainline code are within #ifdef OS2. Fixed in ckofio.c, ckotio.c, ckuus3.c, ckuus6.c, ckuus7.c, ckuusx.c, 5 Feb 2015.

Edward also reported a similar problem with marginbot, but in my sources all declarations are consistent (int). But he is working with 2003 source code, probably it's fixed.

SET LOGIN USER xxx did not evaluate xxx if it was a variable. If there was ever a reason for this I can't recall it. Fixed in ckuus3.c, 5 Feb 2015.


Fixed the previous fix. ckufio.c 9.0.220, 12 Jan 2015.

Updated copyright year to 2015. ckcmai.c, 11 Jan 2015.

On QNX 4.25 an FTP GET command always failed with a segmentation fault. In fact, this would happen in any Unix version of C-Kermit that has NOUUCP defined, such as Mac OS X. The code in the #ifdef NOUUCP section of zchko() was wrong, clobbering the variable (x) that held the length of filename string. I fixed zchko to not do that. ckufio.c 9.0.219, 11 Jan 2015.


I received reports from both Alan Jones and Harold Baldwin around the same time that REMOTE commands were getting "?Not confirmed" parse errors in C-Kermit 9.0.302 and later. Incredibly, this was broken long ago in remcfm(); see the comment there in ckuus7.c about line 7177. The problem was that I commented out the test for an empty cmtxt() result string. Apparently at least 10 years have passed without anybody noticing and reporting this (it works right in K95 2.1.3 from 2003). Fixed in ckuus7.c, 3 Nov 2014.

Updated HELP SET FILE text to mention that SET FILE COLLISION OVERWRITE doesn't work for a server unless it has also been told to ENABLE DELETE. ckuus2.c, 3 Nov 2014.

The photogallery script documentation contains a hint that didn't work, namely that to create a list of the names of all the non-thumbnail, non-resized original image files, use:

directory /brief /except:*-[tr].jpg /output:somefile *.jpg

This did not work; the /EXCEPT switch was ignored whenever the /BRIEF switch was included in a DIRECTORY command. Fixed in domydir() by moving two lines of code to where they always should have been. ckuus6.c, 3 Nov 2014.


From Mark Wooding: Fix inconsistent declarations of a couple variables across modules; he actually reported a bunch of them but all the serious ones (int vs long or off_t) had been fixed in 2005 with the introduction of CK_OFF_T, and the only two that needed fixing were char * vs char [] (prevcmd and cmdfil). ckucmd.c, ckuusy.c, 23 Feb 2014.

From Mark Wooding: supply default "(none)" value for \v(dialmsg). ckuus4.c, 23 Feb 2014.

From Mark Wooding: add #define _XOPEN_SOURCE 500, #include <stdlib.h> in the PTY module, "Needed along with -DHAVE_PTMX for working ptys". Also fixed a debug() statement that had a string argument that should have been an int. ckupty.c, 23 Feb 2014.

From Ian Beckwith, updates to the Debian Linux MULTIARCH support. "I've checked through the patched makefile, every library is checked in /usr/lib/$(MULTIARCH)/, except for libdes425, which isn't in debian." These changes are presently in Debian testing for amd64, armel, armhf, i386, kfreebsd-amd64, kfreebsd-i386, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390x, sparc. makefile, 23 Feb 2014.

Documentation for MULTIARCH:


From my to-do list.... I noticed a while back that \fsplit(s,&a,,TSV) could mess up if the data fields contained grouping characters like parens, quotes, brackets, or braces. \fsplit() and \fword() are handled by cksplit(), which is designed to allow grouping, nesting, quoting, recursion, and so on (for parsing such things as complex LISP S-expressions and Comma-separated lists full of quoting) and I guess some of that code was being executed for TSVs. Rather than mess with the existing code and possibly break something else, I added a chunk of new code at the beginning of the byte loop in cksplit() to handle TSVs, which are extremely simple, and so the new code is too. And also way more efficient. Seems to work right, and other things like LISP programs still work. ckclib.c, 31 Jan 2014.


Updated version number and date and copyright date. ckcmai.c and many other modules. 20 January 2014.

Fixed core dump that happened only in Solaris (as far as I know) with "ftp open kermitproject.org" (which should have been "ftp.kermitproject.org"). The problem was that perror() was being called with a pointer to an empty string, which should be OK but apparently is not in Solaris. ckcftp.c, 20 January 2014.

Various minor touch-ups to HELP, NEWS, VERSION text. ckuus[r2].c, 20 Jan 2014.

Added CHECK LOCALE. ckuus3.c, 20 Jan 2014.

Fixed an aggregrate array initialization (not legal in non-ANSI). ckuus4.c, 20 Jan 2014.

From David Goodwin: Remove all references to K95 registration and time-limited demo versions, and fix a couple minor compilation problems for the Windows version. ckcmai.c, ckcpro.w, ckucmd.c, ckuus[34rx].c, ckuusr.h, 20 Jan 2014.

Corrected HELP SHIFT text, which previously said it affected only arguments 1..9, but really affects all arguments, no matter how many. ckuus2.c, 17 Dec 2013.

Got rid of the "ok" keyword as an IF condition. OK was an undocumented and invisible synonym for SUCCESS, but this has bitten me too many times, when I create a variable named OK and use it as a "lazy IF condition" as in:

.ok = 0
if match \&a[i] img_[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9].jpg .ok = 1
else if match \&a[i] img_[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9].jpg .ok = 1
else if match \&a[i] dscf[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9].jpg .ok = 1
else if match \&a[i] scan[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9].jpg .ok = 1
if not ok exit 1 "\&a[i]: Not a recognized image file name"

ckuus6.c, 17 Dec 2013.

For Unix only, changed default prompt to show "~/" instead of the full home path, which these days can get ridiculously long. So now, for example, "(/hmt/sirius1/prv0/kd/fdc/) C-Kermit>" becomes "(~/) C-Kermit>". If I'm cd'd to the "src" directory of my home directory, it's "(~/src/) C-Kermit>". If my current directory is not in my home tree, its full path is shown as before. ckuus5.c (definition of ckprompt), 17 Dec 2013.

Reported by Christoph Sievers… the following sequence:

ftp open 12345 /USER:fu /PASSWORD:bar /NOINIT

is supposed to allow a secure FTP connection to proceed without the question:

Warning: Server didn't provide a certificate
Continue? (Y/N)

but the question was coming out anyway. Jeff noticed that the FTP/SSL code was missing an IF clause that was present in the TELNET/SSL code. Fixed in ckcftp.c, 17 Dec 2013.

The TOUCH command was dumping core because of a clever optimization I put in the code at some point, probably not too long ago or I would have noticed it. Fixed the problem by removing the optimization. ckuus6.c, 17 Dec 2013.


Branding of C-Kermit for Windows… I removed the special version numbering for C-Kermit for Windows (nee K95) so now it should show the regular C-Kermit version herald. Changed \v(program) to always be "C-Kermit", not "K-95", "K/2", etc. Changed default prompt for Windows and OS/2 to [dir] C-Kermit>. Added "IF WINDOWS" and made "IF K-95" an invisible synonym for it. Performed a rather massive edit on the help text module to remove references to Kermit 95. Builds OK in Unix but so far I don't have a way to test it in Windows. ckcmai.c, ckuus2.c, ckuus4.c, ckuus5.c, ckuus6.c, 6 Dec 2013.

DIR /ARRAY:&a *.jpg doesn't work right if only one file matches: it creates the array with dimension 1, but element 1 is empty. But it works OK if two or more files match. This is because the code to load the array is executed only if we sort the result, a step which we cleverly skip if there is only one file in the listing. For that matter, DIR /NOSORT /ARRAY:&a *.* doesn't work at all, no matter how many files match. It turns out a lot of code is in the sorting block that doesn't actually have anything to do with sorting. So I changed domydir() so it the "xsort" flag (which selects this code) is always on, and added a new flag that says whether we actually call the sort routine, which was safer than reorganizing a ton of code. ckuus6.c, 6 Dec 2013.

Changed ckstrcmp(), which is used by the DIRECTORY command, the ARRAY /SORT command, the \fstrcmp() function, and who knows what else (this function is called from 261 different places in C-Kermit), to use the collating sequence of the current locale, which works as long as the character set is single-byte (e.g. ISO-8859-1 or KOI8). The way I did it is not pretty, but there is no standard locale-aware string comparison function that has the options that ckstrcmp() has (and uses), and as far as I can tell there is no standard way to compare two characters according to the locale, only two NUL-terminated strings. So I turn each character into a string and compare them with strcoll(). I can't just compare the strings directly because (a) strcoll() doesn't allow the comparison of pieces of strings and (b) there is no case-independent version of strcoll(). The new code is within #ifdef HAVE_LOCALE..#endif, but some adjustments might be needed if strcoll() (circa 1989) is not found everywhere that locales are found. Anyway, now non-ASCII filenames and arrays (except in multibyte character sets like UTF8) will sort correctly if the locale has the required collating sequence; otherwise they come out as before. ckclib.c, 6 Dec 2013.

In the same vein… Lazy IF Conditions, in which a variable name can be used as an IF condition as long as it evaluates to a number (0 being false, nonzero being true)… The error message given when the variable (or other random string) did not have a numeric value, or any value at all, was less than informative. Now it prints the variable name, which is a good trick because it had already been wiped out in the act of trying to evaluate it. ckuus6.c, 6 Dec 2013.

Another fundamental change to the parser. Script writers might have noticed that an innocent-looking statement like:

if equ \%a xx echo "Dos equis"

would work correctly sometimes and others would get a parse error, depending on whether the variable (\%a in this case) had a non-empty definition. The normal workaround is to write it like this:

if equ "\%a" "xx" echo "Dos equis"

but that shouldn't be necessary, since the parser knows that (a) the statement does not have a syntax error and (b) it has evaluated a variable that has an empty (or no) value, in which case it should simply return an empty string instead of a failure code. I ran several of my huge production scripts with this change with no ill effects, and in fact it let me track down several long-elusive problems in the scripts. ckucmd.c, 6 Dec 2013.

A major annoyance with C-Kermit scripts is that when a command fails, we often get no clue about which command it was or where it was. This happens when the command issues its own error message (e.g. "?Text required") and returns -9 to the parser to indicate an error message was already printed (on the assumption that the user just typed the bad command and so knows what it is). In the cases where the command did not already issue an error message, the parser already echoed the command that failed. I changed the parser to do this in the -9 case too. ckuus5.c, 6 Dec 2013.

(Another problem in this area is just too hard to fix, namely that when the parser is executing a script and a command fails, the parser often has no idea which line of the script file the failing command came from. That's because when reading a script file, the parser concatenates each {...} block into a single line, so when a command within the block fails, the parser only knows the line number of the first line of the block.)

From Jake Thompson: Fixed a typo in applying diffs to ckcsig.h. Fixed some locale-related #ifdefs in ckuusr.h and ckuus5.c. Also added the ability to suppress locale support at compile time via -DNOLOCALE (ckcdeb.h). 6 Dec 2013.


Built OK on NetBSD 6.1.2. Built OK on RHEL4. Could not build with SSL on NetBSD because "can't open config file: /etc/openssl/openssl.cnf". Built OK on Linux with OpenSSL 0.9.7a but for some reason a ton of "passing arg ... from incompatible pointer type" messages came out of DES_*() function invocations, which didn't happen before. Built OK on Solaris 9 without SSL, and with OpenSSL 0.9.8q (with no warnings, but this one doesn't have DES). 24 Nov 2013.

Commented out calls to shoreg(). ckuus[r5].c, 24 Nov 2013.

Changed program name in Windows from "Kermit 95" to "C-Kermit". ckcmai.c, 24 Nov 2013.

Removed or updated numerous references to Columbia University, many modules, 24 Nov 2013.

Changes to make current C-Kermit source code integrate with Kermit 95 code, from from Jake Thompson, 21 Nov 2013:

  • Inconsistent declarations of nzxpand() in Unix and Windows, ckcdeb.h.
  • Extraneous prototype of ckcgetc() in ckcker.h.
  • Duplicate definition of __inline int in ckcsig.h.
  • Similar issues in ckcuni.h.
  • Windows OpenSSL doesn't have X509_to_user() or X509_userok(), ck_ssl.c.
  • No longer necessary to #include ckosslc.h and ckossl.h in ck_ssl.c.
  • zgfs_link and linkname not implemented in K95: ckuus4.c.
  • Include ckodir.h for MAXPATHLEN in ckuus[46].c.
  • chkaes() calling sequence is different in K95: ckuusr.h.

Each change marked with "[jt] 2013/11/21". 24 Nov 2013.

Android changes from Jake Thompson, 17 Nov 2013:

  • Disable locales in android.mk
  • Disable "format string checks" in the ndk-build invocation, android.txt.

Updated HELP FUNCTION PICTUREINFO. ckuus2.c, 15 Oct 2013.

\fpictureinfo() problem from 17 Sep 2013 was because I was using a tail anchor ($) on the pattern but had not set the ckmatch() opts bit saying so. Removed the tail anchor. Also changed the function to return 3 ("square") if width == height (so it's kind of like a bit mask). ckuus4.c, 15 Oct 2013.

The documentation had the sense of the second argument to \fdayname() and \fmonthname() backwards. Fixed in locale.html, 15 Oct 2013.

\fdayname(\v(nday)) would fail if executed on Sunday because \v(nday) numbers days 0 (Sunday) to 6 (Saturday), whereas \fdayname() wants 1 (Monday) through 7 (Sunday). Also, \fdayname(,1) would return "Jan" if today was Sunday. Fixed by allowing both 0 and 7 to mean Sunday. All the other day numbers agree. ckuus4.c, 15 Oct 2013.

If the CHANGE command was used repeatedly, eventually C-Kermit would get a memory allocation error. A dynamic buffer was not being freed. Fixed in ckuus6.c, 15 Oct 2013.

Changed CHANGE message to put spaces around the "->" so it doesn't get intepreted by the terminal emulator as part of a URL. ckuus6.c, 11 Oct 2013.

\fpictureinfo() was checking the filename against a pattern and failing on no match, sometimes incorrectly. I took out the filename check, since the next thing it does is check the internal structure of the file. ckuus4.c, 17 Sep 2013.

ckuus5.c:597:29: warning: missing terminating " character <- fixed 3 Sep 2013.

NetBSD 6.1, man 3 time: "In NetBSD 6.0 the time_t type was changed to be 64 bits wide, including on 32-bit machines, making rollover a concern for the far distant future only. Note however that any code making the incorrect assumption that time_t is the same as long will fail on 32-bit machines in 2038." C-Kermit builds OK but warns:

ckcmai.c:(.text+0x1e92): warning: warning: reference to compatibility
time(); include <time.h> for correct reference

Did this and all's OK. But it might have repercussions elsewhere. ckcmai.c, 3 Sep 2013.

Added clarification to HELP CHANGE about string format. ckuus2.c, 3 Sep 2013.

Changed CHANGE /SIMULATE to list files that would NOT be changed only if the /VERBOSE switch was included. ckuus6.c, 4 Aug 2013.

The CHANGE command would indicate failure even when there was no error. Fixed in ckuus6.c, 4 Aug 2013.


A new command-line options, —nolocale, was added to disable use of the locale by forcing the "C" locale. Ditto if the environment variable K_NOLOCALE is set to a nonzero integer value. ckuusr.h, ckuusy.c, ckcmai.c, 24 Jul 2013.

Developed, built and tested on NetBSD with English, Spanish, and German. Built and tested OK on Linux RHEL5 with the same languages. Built OK on Solaris 9, which supports the locale APIs, but does not have any locales installed except en_US. 24 Jul 2013.

CAUTION: Except where C-Kermit is explicitly dealing with multibyte character sets, such as in file transfer and in the terminal emulator, there is no special support for multibyte character sets such as UTF-8, Shift-JIS, etc. So while \fupper(), \flower(), and \fcapitalize() can work with ISO-8859-1, KOI-8, and other single-byte character sets, they won't work with UTF-8 because they are just byte loops, unless the underlying isupper, tolower, etc, functions (or macros, or whatever they are) do some magic. Ditto for Shift-JIS, Japanese EUC, etc.

Added HELP text for \fmonthame() and \fdayname(). ckuus2.c, 24 Jul 2013.

Added \fmonthame(), like \fdayname() but for months. ckuusr.h, ckuus4.c, 24 Jul 2013.

Added locale_monthame(month,fc), like locale_dayame(day,fc) but for months. ckutio.c, 24 Jul 2013.

Added \fdayname(date,fc), where date can be any free-format date/time string, with or without the time, or omitted to give the name of the current day. fc is a function code: 0 to return the name in full, nonzero to abbreviate it according to the locale; if fc is omitted, the abbreviated form is returned. The full or abbreviated day name is returned in the language and character set specified or implied by the locale if the underlying platform is configured for it; otherwise they come out in English. These routines builds upon all of the date-time code that was added in 2003, particularly cmcvtdate(), the free-format date parser, and mjd(), that calculates a Modifed Julian Date, from which the day of the week can be derived by a simple modulus. This function pretty much supersedes \fday() (which returns only the 3-letter English day name), but \fday() remains available for compatibility. ckuusr.h, ckuus4.c, 24 Jul 2013.

Put a locale_dayname() function in ckutio.c. This is compiled if HAVE_LOCALE is defined and NO_LOCALE is not defined. HAVE_LOCALE is defined for BSD44 and POSIX, VMS, OS/2, and Windows. These definitions can be adjusted if necessary in ckcdeb.h and NO_LOCALE can be included on the make command line to override in case of trouble. ckcdeb.h, ckutio.c, 23 Jul 2013.

Added \v(year), which evaluates to the current year, e.g. 2013. Mainly because I keep expecting it to be there. Also \v(month) (three-letter month abbreviation, English) and \v(nmonth) (2-digit month number, 01-12). ckuusr.h, ckuus4.c, 22 Jul 2013.

Note that \v(month) and \v(day) are not ideal — abbreviations, not full names, and English only. I added \v(month) and \v(nmonth) only for symmetry with \v(day) and \v(nday). These shortcomings are remedied in the next items.

Until now there was no straightforward way to extract a field from a date-time string. As a start, I added a new output format, 5, for \fcvtdate(), to make the result be numeric with fields delimited by ':', for example: 2013:07:22:15:19:43. Any desired field can be extracted with \fword(), for example to get the current year: \fword(\fcvtdate(,5),1), or for the current month \fword(\fcvtdate(,5),2). And so on. Since each field is numeric, it can index into tables of (say) month names or day names in the desired language and character-set. ckucmd.c, 22 Jul 2013.

CHANGE works by copying each file to a temporary directory, making changes to the copy, and then renaming the copy over the original file. It was doing this for all files, even when they weren't actually changed (i.e. did not contain string1). Also if \v(tmpdir) was defined to be a directory that did not exist, the CHANGE command didn't try to create it. Both fixed in ckuus6.c, 22 Jul 2013.

Added HELP CHANGE text. ckuus2.c, 22 Jul 2013.

Suppose you want to do something to all the files whose names match a certain pattern and that contain a certain string or text that matches a certain pattern. For example, in a website with thousands of html files, all the ones that contain links to a site that disappeared. How to get a list of such files? I added an /ARRAY:&x switch to Kermit's GREP command for this. Then after the GREP command the resulting array can be accessed in a loop to process the desired files — delete, rename, transfer, etc. Element 0 of the array tells now many files contained a match and how many elements are in the array (1-based). ckuus6.c, 22 Jul 2013.

Updated SUPPORT command text. ckuus2.c, 3 May 2013.

Added a CHANGE command that's part of the DIRECTORY / TOUCH family, with most of the same file-selection switches:

CHANGE /switches filespec string1 [ string2 ]


CHANGE /RECURSIVE ~/web/*.html http://www.oldsite.com http://www.newsite.com

The syntax of the command is a little annoying because Unix users would expect the filespec to come last, but the command shares a vast amount of parsing and execution code with DIRECTORY and TOUCH, which I didn't want to duplicate.

CHANGE-specific switches:

/CASE:{ON,OFF} - Honor/Ignore alphabetic case when searching for string1
/MODTIME:{PRESERVE,UPDATE} - Modtime for changed file
/SIMULATE - Say which files would be changed without changing them.

ckuusr.[ch], ckuus6.c, 3 May 2013.

Built on Linux RH 5.9 x86_64, 18 Apr 2013.

But when doing the Kerberos+SSL build:

 -L/usr/kerberos/lib -L/usr/local/ssl/

lib -lssl -ldes425 -lpam -lz -lcrypto -lgssapi_krb5 -lkrb5 -lk5crypto -lcom_err -lncurses -lutil -lresolv -lcrypt -lm

?OpenSSL libraries do not match required version:

  • C-Kermit built with OpenSSL 1.0.1c 10 May 2012
  • Version found OpenSSL 0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 01 Jul 2008 OpenSSL versions prior to 1.0.0 must be the same. Set LD_LIBRARY_PATH for OpenSSL 1.0.1c 10 May 2012. Or rebuild C-Kermit from source on this computer to make versions agree. C-Kermit makefile target: linux+krb5+ssl Or if that is what you did then try to find out why the program loader (image activator) is choosing a different OpenSSL library than the one specified in the build.

Looked into making ==, if >, etc, work with strings, as one might expect from other languages like Javascript. Turned out to be unworkable because these constructions accept not only numeric constants and numeric-valued variables, but also arithmetic expressions. The idea would have been that if either of the two operands was non-numeric once evaluated, lexical comparison would be done instead of arithmetic comparison. The fly in the ointment is something like this:

if > x*(x+1) 2000 ...

When the arithmetic comparison operators are used, Kermit knows that the operands must be numbers, so any non-numeric strings like 'x' in the example above are automatically treated as macros and evaluated. But if we check first to see if the string is non-numeric, it will be, and the same evaluation will not be done, and the operands will be compared as strings, giving a result that could only be right by accident.

For convenience, two new IF conditions have been added: IF BINARY filename succeeds if the named file is a binary file (meaning that it would be transferred in binary mode by Kermit): an executable program, an object file, an image file, etc. IF TEXT filename succeeds if the named file is a text file, such as the file you are reading, or program source code, or an HTML or XML file, etc, regardless of the character encoding. If the file is a directory, both IF TEXT and IF BINARY fail. If the file is a link, the result reflects the contents of the linked-to file. ckuus[26].c, 17 Apr 2013.

Added a 9th element to the \ffileinfo() result array: analysis of contents of the file, if it is a regular file (not a directory or a link):

text:7bit      7-bit text (e.g. ASCII, ISO 646)
text:utf8      Unicode 8-bit Transformation Format (UTF-8)
text:ucs2      Raw Unicode
text:8bit      8-bit text (e.g. ISO 8859-1, Windows CP 1252)
text:unknown   Text, unknown encoding
binary         Binary (e.g. an executable, object, or image file)

This analysis is performed using the same file scanner that is used during file transfer to set up text mode versus binary mode, and to set up the character-set conversion if possible. If the file is not a regular file, the 9th element is empty. Suppose the array is \&a[]. Then:

if equ "\fleft(\&a[9],4)" "text"  (or if equ "\fword(\&a[9],1) "text")


if neq "\&a[9]" "binary"

the file is a text file, not a binary file, a directory file, or a link. This is useful if you don't care about the encoding. ckuus4.c, 16 Apr 2013.

Sure enough the next day this caught mistakes in TWO of my overnight cron job scripts: One was "if not <misspelled variable name>". The other was "if neq ...". There is no "if neq". Added IF NEQ, IF LLE, IF LGE, since even I expected them to be there. ckuus[26].c, 16 Apr 2016.


Built on NetBSD 5.1.2, Solaris 9, FreeBSD 6.4, SCO OSR6.0.0, Linux Slackware 13.37.0, Linux RHEL5 (64-bit), Linux RHEL4 32-bit (with and without OpenSSL), all with no complaints.a

Changed references in C-Kermit help text from kermit.columbia.edu to www.kermitproject.org. ckuus2.c, 15 Apr 2013.

Here is an incompatible change: Noticed that "if lkjlkjlkj" (where lkjlkjlkj is just some gibberish) did not produce an error. The token following IF is supposed to be a keyword, a number, a variable that evaluates to a number, or the name of a macro whose value is a number. A string of gibberish is none of these, but the code in this case would treat the gibberish as "false" (i.e. as the name of a macro whose value was 0) and proceed to not execute the statement (or worse, if there were an ELSE part, it would execute it). I would hope that nobody ever noticed, much less relied on, this undocumented misfeature. Fixed in boolexp(), ckuus6.c, 15 Apr 2013.

Added IF FUNCTION name, to test if the given built-in function is available. The name can be entered as name, \fname(), \\fname, or any combination, e.g. "if function left", "if func \fleft()", "if func left()", etc. ckuus[26].c, 15 Apr 2013.

Added \ffilecompare(file1,file2) function. Returns 0 if the contents of the two files is identical, 1 if they differ, and -1 on any kind of error (file not found, etc). ckuus[24].c, 15 Apr 2013.

Discovered that TOUCH /MODTIME could, in some cases, destroy an existing file, oops. Fixed in domydir(), ckuus6.c , 15 Apr 2013.

Fixed \fpictureinof() to handle Unix filenames with tilde notation. Also checked to make sure that no other \functions() had this problem. ckuus4.c, 15 Apr 2013.

Added a third element to the \fpictureinfo() result array: the "date taken", if any, recorded by the camera or scanner. This is done in the dumbest possible way, without attempting to parse the Exif structure; Kermit simply scans the first 8K of the JPG file looking for valid date-time strings, and keeps the earliest one found. ckuus4.c, 14 Apr 2013.

Looking at this in more detail… C-Kermit says DO KERMIT, WILL KERMIT. Remote says WILL KERMIT, DON'T KERMIT. In other words the remote is saying "I will do Kermit, I refuse to negotiate about Kermit". As soon as C-Kermit receives WILL KERMIT, it sends SB KERMIT SOP to tell the remote what its Kermit-protocol start-of-packet character is; this is required by RFC2840. The remote is required to respond with *its* start-of-packet character, but it never does, since its WILL KERMIT was in error. So upon receiving DONT Kermit I turned off the flag that said the other Kermit supports and will use the Kermit option. This allows the connection to be made to the Synchronet Telnet server without forcing the user to SET TELNET WAIT OFF or (even more obscure) SET TELOPT KERMIT REFUSE REFUSE. ckctel.c, 12 Apr 2013.

Lawrence Woodman reported that with SET TELNET WAIT OFF, if C-Kermit telnets to a site that doesn't properly respond to all Telnet negotions, such as b4bbs.sampsa.com (running Synchronet BBS software), the initial connection works OK (Kermit doesn't wait), but then after escaping back and connecting again, TELNET WAIT switches back to ON. This is evidently because of the TELNET KERMIT negotiations, which require waiting. But it occurs to me that nobody is using the TELNET KERMIT option due to lack of support for it, so if the user says SET TELNET WAIT OFF, this should not be overriden silently. (In fact, C-Kermit said WILL KERMIT, the remote said DONT KERMIT, so I think the problem is deeper, because for some reason C-Kermit was sending SB REQ_STOP even though the Telnet KERMIT option was not negotiated, but let's come back to this if there is ever any reason to.) I fixed the problem by not sending SB_STOP_REQ is SET TELNET WAIT is OFF. ckctel.c, line 2238, 9 Apr 2013.


Made a new function \ffileinfo(name,&a) that populates the specified array with 7 or 8 elements:

 1. the file's name;
 2. the full path of the directory where the file resides;
 3. the file's modification date-time yyyymmdd hh:mm:ss;
 4. platform-specific permissions string, e.g. "drwxrwxr-x" or "RWED,RWE,RE,E";
 5. platform-specific permissions code, e.g. an octal number like 40775;
 6. the file's size in bytes;
 7. file type: 1=regular file; 2=executable; 3=directory; 4=link; 0=unknown.
 8. (if filename is link) name of linked-to file.

ckuusr.h, ckuus[24].c, 14 Mar 2013.

ziperm() and zgperm() did not work in Unix for filespecs that used tilde notation, e.g. ~/kermit/ckuusr.h. Fixed in ckufio.c, 14 Mar 2013.

Added SET EXIT MESSAGE { ON, OFF, STDOUT, STDERR }, so the text (if any) from an EXIT command (e.g. EXIT 1 "File not found") can be supressed, printed normally, or sent to stderr. Added EXIT MESSAGE status to SHOW EXIT and updated HELP SET EXIT. ckuus[235].c, 13 Mar 2013.


Since Oct 2006 C-Kermit has had a very handy TOUCH command, much more useful that Unix's because of all the file-selection options (switches) that go with it, the same, in fact, as the DIRECTORY command, even though a few of them (such as /OUTPUT) don't make much sense with TOUCH. But one thing that Kermit TOUCH can't do that Unix touch can is to set the file's mod time to an arbitrary date-time. Up until now, Kermit TOUCH can only give it the current date-time. To add this capability in a sensible way, I started by giving TOUCH its own switch table. In doing this I also corrected a long-standing error in the original DIRECTORY switch table, in which one of the keywords, /FOLLOWLINKS, was out of order, which could have resulted in spurious parse errors or failures. ckuusr.h, ckuus6.c, 12 Mar 2013.

Added TOUCH /MODTIME:xxx, allowing a specific date-time to be set; xxx is a free-format date and/or time as described by "HELP DATE". This works both for all existing files that are selected by the switches and wildcard patterns, or for a single nonexistent file, i.e. to create a new file with a given modification date-time. Also added TOUCH /LIST, which lists the files that were touched, and and TOUCH /SIMULATE which lists the files that would be touched without actually touching them. ckuus6.c, 12 Mar 2013.

New HELP TOUCH text. ckuus2.c, 12 Mar 2013.

Fixed HELP INCREMENT and HELP DECREMENT to clarify that the operations use integer arithmetic and the result is always an integer. ckuus2.c, 13 Mar 2013.

A large manufacturing company upgraded from MS-DOS Kermit to Kermit 95 because new PCs were installed that could no longer use MS-DOS Kermit. These PCs are used to control Cincinnati (now MAG IAS) machines (press brakes, composite tape layers, etc), which use their own implementation of Kermit protocol to exchange data with the PC. Where MS-DOS Kermit had been working fine in this capacity for some 20 years, K95 failed consistently after the 13th packet. The Cincinnati machines are quite old and (from the standpoint of their communications) quite primitive, communicating over a serial port at 19.2Kbps with no flow control. When receiving a file, they buffer the incoming file data and when the buffer fills, they "turn around" to write out the buffer, but this takes a long time. The difference between MS-DOS Kermit and K95 (and C-Kermit for that matter, which runs the same protocol code) is that packet timeouts in MS-DOS Kermit are fixed, whereas those in C-Kermit/K95 are dynamic, varying according to the characteristics of the transfer in progress. In this case the first 12 ACKs were received promptly so K95's timeout reduced itself to an interval shorter than the time needed by the machine to write out its buffer. K95 resent the packet at a time when the machine was not prepared to receive it and matters went downhill from there. The resolution was to tell K95 to use a longer timout interval, and to make it fixed, not dynamic:


This raised two issues:

 1. This feature was implemented in C-Kermit 6.0.192 from 1996, and
    as such is documented in "Using C-Kermit", but not online, so it
    took me quite a while to find it even though it's my own creation.

 2. It's not documented in the brake.html page, which discusses how to
    use Kermit software with Cincinnati CNC machines.

 3. A long fixed timeout should have been included in the ROBUST command.

I updated the ROBUST command in ckuus5.c, and updated the brake.html page on the new Kermit website. 12 Mar 2013.

The change of Nov 2 still needs work. Modern Unix servers tend to have ever-longer pathnames so even with the previous change we're still seeing the truncated pathnames on the file transfer display of the sender which is less than helpful when sending a large group of files; you can't see the filenames and have no idea how far along the transfer is (because the thermometer applies only to the current file, not the whole group). Why should C-Kermit, when receiving files, send back the entire pathname when the incoming file is being stored in its current directory? No reason. Added code to chop it off. ckcpro.w, 11 March 2013.

(Obviously it would be better for the progess indicator to apply to the whole transfer than to the current file out of possibly many, but that would require a change to the protocol itself, in which the file sender makes a pass through the file list to get the total size of all files and then sends a new kind of message to the receiver with this information. Possibly this could be done in the A packet: File #x out of y in a transfer of total size z.)

In the 1980s and 90s, before switches were added to Kermit command syntax, there was a MOVE command, which meant to send a file and then delete the original after it had been sent successfully. When switches were added in C-Kermit 7.0 in 2000, this function was assigned to SEND /DELETE. The MOVE command was left behind for compatibility. Unfortunately it's so similar to the Unix 'mv' that I (for one) keep using it when I mean RENAME. On the supposition that nobody uses MOVE in the SEND /DELETE sense any more (if they ever did), I changed it to be a synonym for RENAME. If you build C-Kermit with -DOLDMOVE in KFLAGS, the old behavior is restored. ckuus[r2].c, 11 Mar 2013.

The DIRECTORY command has a lot of switches for file selection, sorting of results, etc. These include an /ARRAY: switch that allows the resulting filenames to be stored in an array rather than being printed, so they can be processed by a script; for example, to do something with the files that were selected by the DIRECTORY command switches. But the array was constructed before processing the switches and doing any sorting. So, for example, DIRECTORY /SORT:SIZE /TOP:10 /ARRAY:&a, which you would expect to load the array a with the 10 largest files in the current directly in reverse order of size, loads all the files in alphabetical order. Fixed in domydir(), ckuus6.c, 11 Mar 2013.

The S-Expression processor sometimes dumped core if an invalid operator was given. Fixed in dosexp(), ckuus3.c, 11 March 2012.

Added note about Raspberry Pi (that it builds normally with any of the Linux targets) to the Makefile, 11 Mar 2013.

Correction to yesterday's, which didn't account for SET CD HOME. ckcpro.w, ckcmai.c, ckuus[454].c, 3 Nov 2012.

When uploading files to Unix from K95, it has become increasingly unlikely that the filename is shown on the file-transfer display because Unix pathnames are growing longer and longer all the time, and the name part disappears off the edge. This can't be fixed in K95 (since nobody has yet been able to build it from source code), but it can be ameliorated in C-Kermit in many cases by shortening the pathname sent back to K95 when receiving files from or under the user's Unix login directory, by replacing login directory path prefix with "~/". This was done within #ifdef UNIX .. #endif in ckcpro.w, in the place where the protocol state machine handles an F packet. It could probably also be done in VMS, but probably not worth it ("SYS$LOGIN:" is not exactly short). This could be expanded, with some effort, to other people's directories ("~eddie/"). ckcpro.w, ckcmai.c, makefile, 2 Nov 2012.

Added android.mk (makefile) and android.txt (README) to regular Unix tarball. 20 Jul 2012.

Built OK on Linux RHEL4 32-bit with: "make linux", "make linux+SSL" (OpenSSL 0.9.7a). Built OK on Linux RHEL5 64-bit with: "make linux", "make linux+krb5", "make linux+SSL KFLAGS=‑UCK_DES" (0.9.8q). Also with "make linux KFLAGS=‑DANDROID" to see the vanity herald. Built OK on Solaris 9 with and without OpenSSL (0.9.8q). Built OK on NetBSD 5.1.2 with and without OpenSSL (0.9.9-dev). Built on NetBSD 5.1.2 with Kerberos V 1.6.3; lots of warnings but it runs.

From Ian Beckwith (Debian), support for multiarchitecture curses library in Linux; also libresolv, libcrypt, liblockdev, libk5crypto, libgssapi_krb5. Don't know if these changes work, but at least they don't seem to hurt anything. makefile, 20 Jul 2012.

From Adam Friedlander: an updated OpenSSL version test obtained after consultation with Jeff Altman incorporating the new rules for when the OpenSSL 1.x.yz ABI changes. ck_ssl.[ch], 20 Jul 2012.

Vanity herald for Android: ckuver.h, 20 Jul 2012.

From Tim Sneddon: http://tim.sneddon.id.au/blog/Posts/C-Kermit_for_Android - Adaptation of C-Kermit to Android via the Linux path; required very few changes, mainly #ifdef'ing a couple Linux APIs not supported in Android. ckcdeb.h, ckufio.c, ckutio.c, 20 Jul 2012.

Changed version to 9.0.304 Dev.01. ckckmai.c, 28 May 2012.

From Adam Friedlander: OpenSSL version test was preventing C-Kermit from starting when the installed OpenSSL version was >= 1.0.0 and there was a change in the last letter (e.g. 1.0.0a to 1.0.0b) or to the last number (e.g. 1.0.0 to 1.0.1), but these changes do not indicate ABI incompatibility. This was forcing rebuild and reinstallation of C-Kermit every time a minor update was made to OpenSSL (e.g. on Ubuntu Linux that has preinstalled binaries). ck_ssl.[ch], ckcmai.c, 28 May 2012.

Fixed a problem with 'make linux "KFLAGS=‑DNOICP -DNOSPL -DNOHELP -DNODEBUG"' in which fp_rounding and fp_digits came up undefined. ckuus4.c, 28 May 2012.

Changed version to 9.0.303. ckcmai.c, 23 Aug 2011.

From Edward Berner: C-Kermit 9.0 on OpenBSD on sparc64 gets a "Bus error" and dumps core when receiving a file. Some variables were defined long or CK_OFF_T and extern'd as int from other modules. Edward found and corrected all instances of this. The variables were filcnt, dest, filrej, dialcapas. ckcpro.w, ckuusx.c, 23 Aug 2011.

Fixed freebsd+ssl and netbsd+ssl, netbsd+krb5, and netbsd+krb5+ssl targets to have CC=$(CC) instead of CC=gcc; ditto for CC2, and adjusted line breaks in freebsd and freebsd+ssl targets for easier patching. makefile, 21 Aug 2011.


Changed the version to 9.0.302, ckcmai.c, 20 Aug 2011. Released and announced the same day.

FreeBSD 9 switched from utmp to utmpx, which broke compilation of Kermit on that version. Furthermore, the UUCP lockfile conventions changed in FreeBSD 8, which did not prevent C-Kermit from compiling, but any attempt to lock a terminal or pty device would fail. Thanks to Alexey Dokuchaev "danfe" for finding and patching the problems. I undid the patches and fixed the code so it didn't need to be patched, except for some declarations in the ck_crp.c module, which I felt had better not be changed without thoroughly testing the changes on dozens of different platforms, which I don't have time to do (in any case, it builds OK on FreeBSD 9 without the patch). In particular I made completely new makefile targets for FreeBSD 4.0 and later, which automatically detect FreeBSD 8 and FreeBSD 9 to enable the appropriate feature tests in the code, for a regular build and a build with OpenSSL. These changes should affect only FreeBSD. ckutio.c, ckufio.c, ck_crp.c, ckuus5.c, makefile, 20 Aug 2011.

Added and successfully used a new solaris9+krb5+ssl target. makefile, 8 Aug 2011.

Added another search term for lk5crypto in the linux+krb5 targets. makefile, 20 July 2011.

In the new copyright notice, copied from the BSD license template, one instance of "the <ORGANIZATION>" was not replaced by "Columbia University". Fixed in ckcmai.c, 19 July 2011.

After the initial release I made some small changes that affect only HP-UX 5.x: added -DVOID=void and -DCKVOID=void to the hpux0500 makefile targets, and put #ifdefs around #include <errno.h>, which (in the WinTCP case) didn't protect itself against multiple inclusion (which is happening in other header files, not in Kermit). makefile, ckucmd.c, ckucon.c, ckutio.c, ckufio.c, ckcnet.c, ckcftp.c, 14 July 2011.

C-Kermit 9.0.301

Updated version text and date. ckcmai.c, makefile, 11 July 2011.

C-Kermit 9.0.301 Beta.01

Built and tested on Solaris 9, Solaris 10, and RHEL5. 6 July 2011.

From SMS: To avoid the %CC-W-PTRMISMATCH1 complaints from ck_ssl.c, add two (harmless) type casts at lines 2460 and 2773, 6 July 2011.

On Solaris 10 and 11, DNS lookups don't work. It seems these Solaris versions have INADDRX and INADDRX_NONE defined, thus triggering the code in ckcnet.c, ckucns.c, and ckcftp.c #ifdef'd on these symbols, but that code doesn't work in this case. This happens building with gcc as well as with Sun cc. Put #ifdefs in ckcnet.h to undefine these symbols (if they are defined after including all the header files) for Solaris. I didn't bother trying to differentiate the Solaris versions because the symbols are not defined in Solaris 9 or earlier, and they should not be used in Solaris 10 or 11. ckcnet.h, 6 July 2011.

C-Kermit 9.0.300

Removed solaris9_64 target from makefile. It builds but it doesn't work at all. 30 Jun 2011.

Updated version to 9.0.300 and removed the Beta designation. ckcmai.c, makefile, 28 Jun 2011.

From Martin Vorlaender, a fix for the VMS file-transfer display and statistics, a place where a file length wasn't being cast to CK_OFF_T in zchki(). ckvfio.c, 28 Jun 2011.

From Arthur Marsh, a few more directories to test for libresolv in Linux. makefile, 26 Jun 2011.

I had been wanting the S-Expression (ROUND x) to allow a second argument n, which, if given, tells where the rounding should occur. If n is positive, the number is rounded to n decimal places. If zero, it is rounded to the nearest integer If negative, the number is rounded to the nearest power of 10; e.g. -2 means "to the nearest hundred". If ROUND is used as before, with one argument, it works as before. ckclib.c, ckuus3.c, 25 Jun 2011.

Got access to perhaps the last living 4.3BSD VAX system. It doesn't have SEEK_CUR so I had to #ifdef out the \fpicture() function. Aside from that, no problems. ckuus4.c, 24 Jun 2011.

Fixed some typos in COPYING.TXT (noticed by Ian Beckwith). 24 Jun 2011.

I found a Linux box that had both Kerberos 4 and 5 installed and tried 'make linux+krb5+krb4', which failed because of missing DES functions. Tried 'make linux+krb5+krb4 KFLAGS=-UCK_DES', but that fails too, even though it doesn't fail for Kerberos 5 alone, so probably some Krb4 code is making unguarded calls to the DES routines. What is really needed is a way to completely strip all DES references from any given build, code and makefile, a big deal. 21 Jun 2011.

In Debian 7.0, libk5crypto could not be found without adding another clause to 'make linux+krb5'. That done, the SSL build (1.0.0d) was OK, as well as the krb5+ssl one. makefile, 21 Jun 2011.

Got access to Debian 5.0 and 7-to-be ("Wheezy/Sid"). Regular 'make linux' is OK in Debian 5, but in 7 can't find crypt, res_search, or dn_expand; had to add more library search clauses to 'make linux'. makefile, 21 Jun 2011.

Got reports back on HPUX from Peter Eichhorn, almost all good on HP-UX 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. 21-22 Jun 2011.

Checked current code on RHEL4, found that my GSSAPI-lib finding makefile target didn't look in enough places; added some more. makefile, 21 Jun 2011.

Really it would have been nicer if \s(xx[4]) returned a single character, the 4th character of xx, but it's too late now. Added another "separator" character '.' (period) for that: \s(xx[4.]) is the 4th character of xx. ckuus4.c, 20 Jun 2010.

Back to SCO OSR5.0.7… This failed before because 'rdchk' came up unknown at link time, unlike all previous OSR5's, that used rdchk() in place of the FIONREAD ioctl. Added #ifdefs to make a special case for 5.0.7. I'm not sure this is the best way, but this is the minimal change to get it to work. If anybody cares, maybe the same can be done for previous OSR5 releases. ckutio.c, 20 Jun 2010 (search for SCO_OSR507).

SCO OpenServer 5.0.7 i386 32 sco32v507 1895724 No TCP/IP SCO OpenServer 5.0.7 i386 32 sco32v507net 2246792 With TCP/IP

When using compact substring notation, \s(xx[4]) returns the whole string xx starting at position 4, but \s(xx[4:]) returns an empty string. Fixed the latter to be like the former. ckuus5.c, 20 Jun 2010.

Ditto for Solaris 2.6/i386, except 57.6Kbps, 4K-byte packets, no problem. Solaris 8/i386, ditto. 19 Jun 2011.

SCO OpenServer 5.0.5 i386 32 sco32v505udk 1940964 No TCP/IP SCO OpenServer 5.0.5 i386 32 sco32v505udknet 2314668 With TCP/IP Sun Solaris 2.6 i386 32 solaris26g 4661368 Sun Solaris 8 i386 32 solaris8g 4675432

Transferred the tarball over serial ports to SCO OSR5.0.5 at 38.4Kbps, the highest speed supported, 12 minutes, no errors, 3300cps. Unpack, make sco32v505udk, OK. Also built the TCP/IP version and it almost made an outbound connection, but only once (not a Kermit problem but something with the TCP/IP stack). 19 Jun 2011.

For the pluggable-disk OS's that boot OK but lack a working network, I rigged up a serial connection using a DB9-FF null modem cable, and then a DB9-MF modem cable to make it reach. I don't see any modem signals on either end, but the data goes through OK. COM1 on the desktop PC, /dev/ttyS1 or whatever on Lab. Since there are no modem signals, can't use RTS/CTS. At 57600bps with Xon/Xoff, 500-byte packets and sliding windows, transfers work OK at about 5000cps using 5 window slots; takes 8 minutes to transfer the gzipped C-Kermit tarball. Kermit to the rescue. 19 Jun 2011.

More important he knew how to force gcc to load the right header files for OpenSSL 1.0.0d (by using '-isystem' rather than '-I'). Previously it was using the 0.9.8r header files but linking with the 1.0.0d libraries. This is not in the sources or makefile; it's done when giving the 'make' command:

export PATH=/usr/bin:$PATH
  export SSLINC=-isystem/usr/include
  export "SSLLIB=-L/usr/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/lib"
  make linux+ssl

Folded the previous linux+openssl+zlib+shadow+pam and linux+openssl+shadow targets into linux+ssl. Checked the linuxso (scripting only) target, builds OK, 600K. Made new subroutinized linux+krb5+krb4 target but can't find anyplace to test it. Made new subroutinized linux+shadow+pam target, works fine on RHEL4. Revised comments and lists again. makefile, 18 Jun 2011.

Nelson Beebe found two places where I had SSLLIBS in the makefile instead of SSLLIB. makefile, 18 Jun 2011.

From John Dunlap: "Watching the server screen led me to offer a cosmetic patch for ckuusx.c. I noticed that the server screen said it was "RESENDING" when it really wasn't. The attached patch emits blanks to insure that old labels are completely erased." ckuusx.c, 17 Jun 2011.

sizeof() can return a long or an int, so neither printf("%d",sizeof(blah)); or printf("%ld",sizeof(blah)); can be used everywhere. Changed the "sizeofs" section of SHOW FEATURES in the dumbest (and therefore most portable) way to squelch the warnings. ckuus5.c, 17 Jun 2011.

C-Kermit 9.0.299 Beta.01

16 June 2011 builds (Beta.01):
NetBSD 5.1 i386   32/64  netbsd+krb5+ssl   2451757 OpenSSL 0.9.9 MIT Krb5 1.6.3
Solaris 9  sparc  32/64  solaris9+krb5     2543036 MIT Kerberos 5 1.7.1
Solaris 9  sparc  32/64  solaris9+ssl      5021544 OpenSSL 0.9.8q (gcc)
Gentoo…    ppc    32/64  linux             2386597
Gentoo…    ppc    32/64  linux+ssl         2593561 OpenSSL 0.9.8r
Gentoo…    ppc64   64    linux             2749015
Gentoo…    ppc64   64    linux+ssl         3002150 OpenSSL 0.9.8r
RHEL5      x86_64  64    linux+krb5 (*)    2563878 MIT Kerberos 5 1.6.1
RHEL5      x86_64  64    linux+krb5+ssl(*) 2563878 MIT Kerberos 5 1.6.1
Fedora 14  i386   32/64  linux+krb5+ssl    2539891 MIT Krb5 + OpenSSL 0.9.8r


Added lots of tests to the Linux Kerberos 5 entries, linux+krb5 and linux+krb5+ssl, because some have libk5crypto and some don't; some have libcom_err and some don't; and some have libgssapi_krb5 (e.g. RHEL5, OpenSuse 11.2) whereas others have libgssapi (Gentoo).

Updated cu-solaris+krb5 target to test whether the GSSAPI library is called libgassapi or libgassapi_krb5. makefile, 16 Jun 2011.

Updated the solaris9+ssl target to do the DES testing. makefile, 16 Jun 2011.

Changed the cu-solaris9-krb5 target to test for the presence of DES because DES isn't there, to see if this would allow a Kerberos build to proceed. And it worked, amazing. At least the build completed, I have no way to test the Kerberos part. makefile, 16 Jun 2011.

Make a new netbsd+krb5+ssl target based on the combination of the new netbsd+ssl and netbsd+krb5 targets. There were lots of warnings in the compilation but no errors, but it produced an executable that starts and does normal things but I have no idea if the SSL or Kerberos functions work. makefile, 16 Jun 2011.

15 June 2011 builds (Beta.01):

AIX 5.3                 ppc    32/64   aix+ssl        3283846 OpenSSL 0.9.8m
NetBSD 5.1              i386   32/64   netbsd         2159863
NetBSD 5.1              i386   32/64   netbsd+ssl     2350274 OpenSSL 0.9.9-dev
NetBSD 5.1              i386   32/64   netbsd+krb5    2349627 MIT Krb5 1.6.3
FreeBSD 8.2             i386   32/64   freebsd        2298414
FreeBSD 8.2             i386   32/64   freebsd+ssl    2448961 OpenSSL 0.9.8q
OpenBSD 4.7             i386   32/64   openbsd        2266132
OpenBSD 4.7             i386   32/64   openbsd+ssl    2409263 OpenSSL 0.9.8k
MirBSD 10               i386   32/64   mirbsd         2216601
MirBSD 10               i386   32/64   mirbsd+ssl     2358318 OpenSSL 0.9.8r
OpenSuse 11.2           x86_64  64     linux          2348468
OpenSuse 11.2           x86_64  64     linux+ssl (*)  2546540 OpenSSL 0.9.8r
RHEL 5.6                ia64    64     linux          4390687
RHEL 5.6                ia64    64     linux+ssl (*)  4775007 OpenSSL 0.9.8e
Ubuntu 9.10             i386   32/64   linux          2275523
Ubuntu 9.10             i386   32/64   linux+ssl      2466708 OpenSSL 0.9.8r
Gentoo 1.12.13          ppc    32/64   linux          2386597
Gentoo 1.12.13          ppc64   64     linux          2749015
Gentoo 1.12.13          ppc64   64     linux+ssl      3002150 OpenSSL 0.9.8r
Gentoo 1.12.13          sparc  32/64   linux          2478382
Gentoo 1.12.13          sparc  32/64   linux+ssl      2690499 OpenSSL 0.9.8r
Solaris 9               sparc  32/64   solaris9       2849896
Solaris 10              i386   32/64   solaris10      2837620
IRIX 6.5                R10000 32/64   irix65         2869704


Tried building on NetBSD 5.1 with Heimdal Kerberos using:

make netbsd+krb5 \

 "K5INC=-I/usr/include" \

It found all its headers OK, but it blew up in ckuath.c. Small wonder, ckccfg.html says:

    Should be defined if Kerberos V support is provided by HEIMDAL. Support
    for this option is not complete in C-Kermit 8.0. Anyone interested in
    working on this should contact kermit-support.


'krb5-config —version' gives the MIT Kerberos 5 version number.

Fixed the new linux+ssl target to actually use the SSLINC and SSLLIBS definitions, oops. makefile, 15 Jun 2011.

Fixed some printf %ld vs int instances in the sizeofs section of SHOW FEATURES. ckuus5.c, 15 Jun 2011.

SSL builds with OpenSSL < 0.9.7 fail even though there is code to support the older SSL.

Various linux+krb5 builds fail because can't find -lgssapi_krb5

In OpenSUSE 11.2 with OpenSSL 0.9.8r we bomb on undefined references from various DES library routines. Builds OK without DES.

Made new targets for MirBSD, mirbsd and mirbsd+ssl, makefile 15 Jun 2011.

Tried to build with Kerberos 5 on Solaris, fails because the DES library no longer exists. This one is beyond me, sorry.

Same deal for the netbsdnc target, now it simply defined NOCURSES and chains to the main netbsd target. makefile, 15 Jun 2011.

Same deal for Kerberos 5, make a new netbsd+krb5 target and it builds ok, at least once one figures out where the Kerberos headers and libs are. makefile, 15 Jun 2011.

Tried to build on SCO Open Server 5.0.7 but it fails at link time because it can't find rdchk(). But it's supposed to be there! Come back to this later…

Red Hat 6.1             i386   32/64   linux          2332545
Red Hat 7.1             i386   32/64   linux          2368528
Red Hat EL4             i386   32/74   linux          2363067
Red Hat EL5.6           i386    64     linux          2371279
Solaris9                sparc  32/64   solaris9       2849896
Solaris9+ssl            sparc  32/64   solaris9       5021764
Solaris10               sparc  32/64   solaris10      2855776
QNX                     i386    32     qnx32          2012323
NetBSD 1.5.1            i386   32/64   netbsd         2198055
NetBSD 5.1              i386   32/64   netbsd         2159863
OpenBSD 2.5             i386   32/64   openbsd        2236036
Mac OS X 10.6.7         x86_64  64     macosx         2.7M
Mac OS X 10.4.11        ppc    32/64   macosx         2496304
Debian 2.1              i386   32/64   linux          2213221
FreeBSD 4.4             i386   32/64   freebsd        2291333
FreeBSD 3.3             i386   32/64   freebsd        2147370
SINIX 5.42              mips    32     sinix542       3319325 (1995)
SCO Unixware 2.1.3      i386    32     uw213          2242176
SCO OSR6.0.0            i386   32/64   sco_osr600     2368300

More builds, 14 June 2011:

VMS 6.2                 alpha   32     make mn        2556928 No TCP/IP
VMS 6.2                 alpha   32     make m         3112960 UCX 4.0
Solaris 11              i386   32/64   solaris11      2823860
Solaris 11              i386   32/64   solaris11+ssl  2993660 OpenSSL 0.9.8l
NetBSD 5.1              i386   32/64   netbsd+krb5    2307855 Kerberos 5
Linux Slackware 12.1.0  i386   32/65   linux          2175754
Linux Fedora 14         i386   32/64   linux          2256514
Linux Fedora 14         i386   32/64   linux+ssl      ....... OpenSSL 1.0.0d
Linux Fedora 14         i386   32/64   linux+krb      2449614 (*)

(*) make linux+krb5 "LIBS=$LIBS /lib/libk5crypto.so.3 /lib/libcom_err.so.2"

Noticed that netbsd+ssl build on NetBSD 5.1 said "NetBSD 1.5" in its banner. Fixed by replacing the old hardwired target with the new "subroutinized" target a'la linux+ssl and adapting it to NetBSD. makefile, 15 Jun 2011.

On FreeBSD 4.4, it blows up with: ckufio.c: In function vpass': ckufio.c:8201: conflicting types for 'initgroups' /usr/include/unistd.h:154: previous declaration of 'initgroups' ckufio.c:8201: warning: extern declaration of 'initgroups' doesn't match global one. Fixed by defining NODCLINITGROUPS for FreeBSD in ckufio.c. It might not be the right fix, but I don't have a lot of other FreeBSD versions to compare with. Anyway now it builds OK on 4.4, and also on FreeBSD 3.3. ckufio.c, 13 Jun 2011.

SuSE 7.0… boots OK but telnet server doesn't work. Can telnet out but it's too flaky, connection drops if I try to transfer a file.

OpenBSD 2.5 [1999] OK. Red Hat 7.1 OK. Red Hat 7.1 with OpenSSL 0.9.6 not OK, same error as with 0.9.5a:

ckuath.c In file included from ck_ssl.h:48,

from ckuath.c:225:

/usr/include/openssl/des.h:77: warning: redefinition of `Block'
ckuat2.h:86: warning: `Block' previously declared here
/usr/include/openssl/des.h:83: redefinition of `struct des_ks_struct'
/usr/include/openssl/des.h:91: warning: redefinition of `Schedule'
ckuat2.h:90: warning: `Schedule' previously declared here

So it appears that OpenSSL support is broken for pre-0.9.7. Tried building it again with -UCK_SSL (since the errors are originating from from des.h)… But it still failed exactly the same way. I found #includes for des.h in ckuath.c and and ck_ssl.h and #ifdef'd them out, but it still fails:

In file included from /usr/include/openssl/evp.h:89,

from /usr/include/openssl/x509.h:67,
from /usr/include/openssl/ssl.h:69,
from ck_ssl.h:51,
from ckuath.c:227:

/usr/include/openssl/des.h:77: warning: redefinition of `Block'
ckuat2.h:86: warning: `Block' previously declared here
/usr/include/openssl/des.h:83: redefinition of `struct des_ks_struct'
/usr/include/openssl/des.h:91: warning: redefinition of `Schedule'
ckuat2.h:90: warning: `Schedule' previously declared here

Built OK on Debian 2.1. 13 Jun 2011.

Tried harder to revive the build-all machine, now it sort of works, but not all of the bootable OS's work. Built C-Kermit 9.0 OK on OpenBSD 3.0. Built OK on QNX 4.25 but had to #ifdef references to IXANY in ckutio.c and ckupty. Built OK on NetBSD 1.5.1 (2000). Tried "make netbsd+ssl" on this one, it's OpenSSL 0.9.5a 1 Apr 2000, but it bombs out in ckuath.c, no big deal. Another problem in NetBSD 1.5.2 is that even though off_t is 8, CK_OFF_T is 4. Worth noting but not worth fixing unless someone else notices. 13 Jun 2011.

Built OK on AIX 5.3. Built OK on Solaris 10. 11 Jun 2011.

Tried to resurrect my old SCO Xenix 2.3.4 machine, also headless. Amazingly it still works; it can't use a monitor but I can Telnet to it. Had to tweak some #ifdefs but I got a no-net version built successfully. According to my notes, it hasn't been possible to build with TCP/IP since C-Kermit 8.0, but how many people ever had SCO Xenix 2.3.4 with TCP/IP anyway? Anyway we still have the binaries for C-Kermit 7.0. ckuus4.c, 10 Jun 2011.

Built OK on NetBSD 5.1. 10 Jun 2011.

Tried to resurrect my old "build-all" machine, an IBM Netfinity 3500 from 1997 with 20-some mountable bootable hard disks with lots of 1990s OS's on them. No dice. I can see the BIOS but not the hard disks. The configuration is still correct because it tries to boot from the mountable hard disk, but it fails (I tried six different ones).

Tried to resurrect my old Siemens Nixdorf RM 200 MIPS machine. Booted OK, headless even, but makes a hellish high-pitched whine, like a dentist drill. It's pretty slow too. "make sinix542" (for SINIX 5.4.2) bombed at link time on no rdchk(). Fixed by #including <sys/filio.h>. ckutio.c, 10 Jun 2011.

Built OK on VMS 8.3 on Alpha with Multinet 5.3. The SSL build failed but I'm not going to worry about it. 10 Jun 2011.

Built OK on VMS 8.3 on Alpha, no net. DEC C caught a couple glitches in the new code that gcc didn't catch, which I fixed. ckuus[25].c, 10 Jun 2011.

Added \q() as an alternative to the more verbose \fliteral() for quoting strings that contain characters (like \) that would otherwise be significant to Kermit. It's more efficient because it isn't a function call, and 'q' is an intuitive letter to mean 'quote'. It also works better than \fliteral() because functions treat commas and braces specially. ckuus4.c, 10 Jun 2011.

Noticed that \frecurse() would dump core if called with no arguments. Fixed in ckuus4.c, 9 Jun 2011.

Back to "make linux+ssl" on RHEL5… I took the coward's way out and added code to the makefile target to check whether the build worked (somebody let me know if there is a better way to check), and if not to give a message suggesting they "make clean ; make linux+ssl KFLAGS=-UCK_DES". makefile, 9 Jun 2011.

Added XMESSAGE, which is to MESSAGE as XECHO is ECHO: prints the text without a line terminator, so it can be continued by subsequent [X]MESSAGE commands. ckuusr.[ch], 9 Jun 2011.

Renamed all old Mac OS X makefile targets to have the prefix "old" to avoid confusing them with the current targets, and made macosx10 a synonym for macosx, so those who used previous makefiles will get a current target without having to know the new name. makefile, 9 Jun 2011.

Documented the SET COMMAND VARIABLE-EVALUATION command, which I added in 2008. ck90.html, 9 Jun 2011.

Changed SET VARIABLE-EVALUATION to SET COMMAND VARIABLE-EVALUATION, but left the former version available. ckuusr.c, 9 Jun 2011.

7 Jun 2011:

Corrected various #ifdefs (or lack of them) when building C-Kermit with different combinations of feature-selection options such as NOCSETS, NOICP, NOLOCAL, NOSPL, NOUNICODE, etc. ckcfns.c ckcmai.c ckcxla.h ckuus2.c ckuus4.c ckuus5.c ckuus6.c ckuusr.c, 7 Jun 2011. After running the script that does all these builds (84 of them) I ran it again to make sure that none of the changes broke builds that succeeded before the changes were made.

Built OK on Solaris9 ("make solaris9") Ditto with Krb5 and OpenSSL 0.9.8q ("make solaris9g+openssl+shadow+pam+zlib")

Built OK on Mac OS X 10.4.11 ("make macosx"). Also "make macosx+krb5+openssl.

Built OK on Linux RHEL4 ("make linux"). Built OK on Linux RHEL4 with OpenSSL 0.9.7a ("make linux+ssl"). Built OK on Linux RHEL5 ("make linux").

"make linux+ssl" fails on RHEL5 because of DES, even though the target tests for the presence or absence of the DES libraries. In this case the libraries are there but they lack the functions des_ecb3_encrypt, des_random_seed, and des_set_odd_parity. The build succeeds as:

make linux+ssl KFLAGS=-UCK_SSL

Since DES is now considered harmful, Jeff Altman suggests that all OpenSSL builds, even for old versions, should omit it ("If you are building with openssl and no kerberos or srp, just disable DES. Disabling DES will impact telnet and rlogin but it won't matter if you have no ability to negotiate a session key").

From Ian Beckwith, patches for Debian Linux:

  • Change all '-' to '\(hy' in man page (new pedantry): ckuker.nr.
  • Make IKSD authentication (using PAM) ask for a password when an invalid username has been given, to avoid disclosing which account names are valid: ckufio.c, ckuus7.c.
  • Fix spelling errors: ckcftp.c, ckuus2.c, ckuker.nr, ckcpro.w, ckuusr.h.
  • Patch makefile to support install to a staging area with DESTDIR.
  • Some other patches (mainly for typos) were for plain-text documentation files that were generated from Web pages; I updated the web pages.

A big corporate C-Kermit user has an application where a local C-Kermit makes a connection to a remote one, uploads some files, and then if the server has any new patch files for the local, it sends the patches and does a REMOTE HOST command to run the patch program. This stopped working in C-Kermit 6.0 or 7.0 when I put a check to prevent it, because "it makes no sense to send REMOTE commands to the local end, because the results are sent back to the remote to be displayed on its screen but it has no screen". That may be true, but if the user needs to control the local from the remote, they should be able to. I removed the checks. This doesn't solve the problem of where the output goes; ideally it would go to the local screen but I don't see any elegant and simple way to make that change. However the output redirectors can still be used with the REMOTE command so the results can be captured to a remote file, which could then be sent. ckuus7.c, 7 Jun 2011.

There were a couple reports of file corruption that I was saving for later. Now that now is later I dug up the messages, files, and logs and it turns out that nobody had reported a reproducible case of Kermit corrupting a file. There have been non-reproducible cases though, almost certainly due to corruption of the S or I packet or its ACK, which is why we now have SET BLOCK 5. Even with BLOCK CHECK 5, there is no guarantee that the same thing won't happen, it is just far less likely. Even if we added a 32-bit CRC or even 64-bit one, there would still be a small chance it could happen.

Replaced the very inadequate help texts for functions \fword() and \fsplit() with new ones. ckuus2.c, 6 Jun 2011.

Autodownload didn't work when the S or I packet had a 3-byte block check because kstart() checked it for a 1-byte checksum. Fixed in kstart(), ckcfn2.c, 6 Jun 2011. However, older Kermit versions and programs that claim to do "autodownload" will never recognize this type of packet. No big deal since even if they did, the transfer would fail anyway.

Added 'FORCE 3' to E-Kermit, called it EK 1.7. The option is "-b 5". Works OK for sending and receiving, both with and without the new option. Also works with "-b 5" if you send an S packet to it with '5' in the BCT field. Changes were minimal, I have them all in ek17.diff.

I could probably also make a new G-Kermit in about 10 minutes, but who cares about G-Kermit… We already have two useful Kermit programs that interoperate with the new protocol. 6 Jun 2011.

So the various combinations should work as desired:

  • Sender and receiver both support and are told to SET BLOCK 5 ("SB5").
  • Sender SB5, but receiver doesn't support it (errors out).
  • Sender SB5, receiver supports it but wasn't told (auto-recognizes it).
  • Receiver SB5 but sender no (errors out).

Note in the last case, the receiver should NOT automatically fall back to standard behavior because if the user said SET BLOCK 5 that means every packet MUST be protected by CRC to prevent the I/S packets from being corrupted.

Installed new HELP SET BLOCK-CHECK text. ckuus2.c, 5 Jun 2011.

Now the question is: Can we make the file receiver automatically and safely recognize a three-byte block check on an incoming S or I packet? It's tricky because the block check field is not self-identified, it's just the last "n" characters of string indicated by the length field, so correct decoding of the packet depends on stateful knowledge of "n". How about this: rpack() already knows what type of packet it is, so if it's an S or I packet and the 8th byte of the data field is "5" and last 3 bytes, when interpreted as the CRC, match the packet contents, then we accept the packet and switch to BLOCK 5 mode.

On the other hand, if the "5" was put there by corruption, the CRC should catch the error. In that case we NAK the packet and presumably get a different version back. There would be no reason to try to re-read the same packet with a different block check, because the "5" could not possibly be there legitimately unless it had a 3-byte CRC. To be clear, this is cheating. We read the packet contents before we know the packet is correct, then we check that it *is* correct. I made the 4-line change to rpack() and it works OK in the absence of transmission errors. ckcfn2.c, 3 Jun 2011.

Made the file receiver put "5" in the block-check-type in its ACK to the S-Packet. spar(): ckcfns.c, 5 Jun 2011.

Added code to skip the heuristic that S and I packets always have block check type 1. File transfer OK between two C-Kermits with SET BLOCK 5. rpack(): ckcfn2.c, 5 Jun 2011.

Added supporting code for SET BLOCK 5: ckcfn[23].c, ckcpro.w, ckcmai.c, ckuus3.c, 3 Jun 2011.

For EM-APEX ocean floats project, where buoys in stormy waters have to transmit data through an earth satellite using non-error-correcting modems, John Dunlap ran exhaustive stress tests of Kermit protocol transfers through a simulated connection that injected errors and delays and identified a weakness in Kermit protocol when it is used under extremely bad conditions: If a data byte of the S packet (or its Ack) is corrupted and the 1-byte checksum is also corrupted in such a way that that the checksum matches the corrupted data, the two Kermit programs will disagree as to the negotiated parameters. For example, if file Sender's RPT field is changed from '~' to '^', the receiver will decode the packet incorrectly. Ditto for most of the other parameters. The result is that a corrupted file is received but reported correct. John suggested a new mode of operation in which the Type 3 block check is used for all packets. Such a mode can not be negotiated because the negotiation packet itself is assumed by all Kermit programs to have a 1-byte checksum. Added SET BLOCK-CHECK 5 to the parser (with invisible synonym FORCE-3". ckuus3.c, 3 Jun 2011.

The SET BLOCK CHECK command did not parse all the items in its keyword list. Fixed in ckuus3.c, 3 Jun 2011.

Most combinations work OK, but not translating Cyrillic text from UTF-8 to Latin/Cyrillic, and probably the same would be true for any case of converting from UTF-8 or UCS-2 to anything else. The problem was in xgnbyte(), which converts the input stream from the specified character to UCS2; it needed to make a special case for when the input file was already Unicode. Believe it or not, this problem occurred at least as far back as 8.0.201 (9.5 years ago) and nobody noticed. So if the fix isn't perfect probably nobody will notice that either. ckcfns.c, 3 Jun 2011.

When I added MIME synonyms for Kermit character-set names, I left a bogus entry in the tables ("windows-1251") that was in the wrong place alphabetically, thus preventing most references to file character-set names from working right. Removed the bogus entry. ckuxla.c, 2 Jun 2011.

Began converting C-Kermit to Open Source with the Simplified 3-Clause BSD license. Updated the text for the INTRO, LICENSE, NEWS, and SUPPORT commands. Fixed things so the copyright year to be displayed is defined in one place (ck_cryear in ckcmai.c), rather than hardwired into text strings all over the place. COPYING.TXT, ckcmai.c, ckuus[256].c, 2 Jun 2011.

cksplit() treats \ as a quoting character. If the source string contains backslashes, they are swallowed (or, if doubled, one is kept). That's not good for parsing external data, such as lines read from files, where there are no quoting rules. This came up when parsing CSV files; as a workaround, I made \fsplit() treat backslash as an ordinary character for CSV and TSV splitting (a better solution might be yet another argument that specifies a quote character). ckclib.c, 30 Dec 2010.

\fcontents(\&a[3]) got an error if the array was declared but its dimension was less than 3, which is bad when dealing with (say) an array created dynamically by \fsplit(), which might or might not have a third element. In case it doesn't — i.e. in case we are referring to an out of range element of any array that is declared — we should just return a null string, as we do with other types of variables that are not defined. For that matter, ditto even if the array is not declared; what useful purpose is served by throwing an error in this case? ckuus4.c, 30 Dec 2010.


A couple minor changes to the tru64-51b makefile targets from Steven Schweda but there still are some problems with the Tru64 Unix builds. makefile, 21 Sep 2010.

The Solaris target checked the OpenSSL version automatically to set the right flag, the Linux target didn't. Put the OpenSSL-version testing code in the Linux target too. makefile, 21 Sep 2010.

Testing this in Solaris 9 I see that the DES library disappeared. Added code to the solaris9 targets (also used by Solaris 10 and 11) to check for this. makefile, 21 Sep 2010.

From Gary Mills at the U of Manitoba: convert Solaris version from BSD ptys to streams ptys because there are only 48 BSD-style ptys and he was running out. No code changes needed, the only change necessary was to add the following flags to the makefile target:


makefile, ckcmai.c, 21 Sep 2010.


From Joop Boonen 26 Juli 2010: "Added HAVE_LOCKDEV as openSuSE >= 11.3 uses lockdev but not baudboy. They use ttylock directly. The program code has been added so the program works without a problem." makefile, ckcdeb.h, ckutio.c, ckuus5.c, 23 Aug 2010.

The CSV feature of \fsplit() splits a comma-separated list into an array. To turn the array back into a comma separated list, \fjoin(&a,\44,1) almost works, except for elements contain literal doublequotes, such as:

Mohammad "The Greatest" Ali

This calls for making a symbolic CSV argument for \fjoin() like the one that was made for \fsplit(): \fjoin(&a,CSV). Also \fjoin(&a,TSV) for Tab-separated list. Thus if Kermit reads a record in CSV format, splits it into an array, and then joins the array back into a CSV record, the result will be equivalent to the original, according to the CSV definition. It might not be identical, because if the result had extraneous spaces before or after the separating commas, these are discarded, but that does not affect the elements themselves. Furthermore it is now possible to convert a comma-separated list into a tab-separated list, and vice versa (which is not a simple matter of changing commas to tabs or vice versa). ckuus4.c, 12 Aug 2010.


The CSV feature of Alpha.06 had a subtle flaw, namely that if the last item in a comma separated list was enclosed within doublequotes with a trailing space after the closing doublequote, a spurious empty final element would be created in the result array. Fixed in cksplit(), ckclib.c, 5 Aug 2010.

Added \fstrcmp(s1,s2,case,start,length), which has the advantage over IF EQU,LGT,LLT that case sensitivity can be specified as a function arg, and also substrings can be specified. ckuusr.h, ckuus[24].c, 5 Aug 2010.

If only one file is FOPEN'd, FCLOSE given with no arguments would close it. Turns out to be a bad idea. Example: program with an input and output file, try to close the output file before it is opened by just typing FCLOSE; this can mess up the input file. For safety FCLOSE has to require a channel number or ALL. ckuus7.c, 4 Aug 2010.

Peter Eichhorn reported that "RENAME ../x ." didn't work. This is a side effect of the changes of 2006 to the RENAME command, there was a little confusion in the renameone() routine; fixed in ckuus6.c, 4 Aug 2010.

From Lewis McCarthy:

  Based on code inspection, C-Kermit appears to have an SSL-related security
  vulnerability analogous to that identified as CVE-2009-3767 (see e.g.

  I'm attaching a patch for this issue relative to the revision of ck_ssl.c
  obtained from a copy of  http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ftp/test/tar/x.zip
  downloaded on 2010/07/30, which I believe is the latest.

  When this flaw was first widely publicized at last year's Black Hat
  conference, it was claimed that some public certificate authorities had
  indeed issued certificates that could be used to exploit this class of
  vulnerability. As far as I know they have not revealed specifically which
  public CA(s) had been found issuing such certificates.
  Some references:  http://www.mseclab.com/?p=180

Patches added to ck_ssl.c, 4 Aug 2010.

John Dunlap, running days-long stress tests between E-Kermit and C-Kermit, found a bug in the packet-reading and -decoding code: If a NAK packet arrives with its length field corrupted to indicate a bigger size, and there are enough bytes following in the pipeline, ttinl() will return a too-long packet (if there are not enough bytes waiting to be read, then ttinl() will properly time out). In the bad case rpack() trusts the packet length, uses it as the basis for computation of the block-check length, which is then used to access memory that might not be there, causing (at least on John's Linux system) a segmentation fault. John added the normal clause to check the result of the block-check calculation, and I changed ttinl() to always break on the eol character (normally carriage return), since this can never appear in a packet, even if we "set control unprefix all". Also added a check to ttinl() to protect against length fields corrupted into illegal values. ckcfn2.c, ckutio.c, 13 Apr 2010.

Changing VNAML from 4K to 16K broke the build on HP-UX 9. Put it back to 4K. 9 Apr 2010.

VMS changes from SMS. They build OK, Kermit file transfers are still OK, but FTP text-mode GETs always hang on the 10th 8K network read. Couldn't get a debug log this time. ckcmai.c, ckvfio.c, ckvrms.h, ckvker.com. 8 Apr 2010.

C-Kermit 9.0 Alpha.06

Implemented a new \fsplit() option for parsing CSV files, which turns out to be a little complicated, because the separator is not just a comma, but a comma and all its surrounding spaces. Also there are special quoting rules for fields with embedded commas and fields with embedded quotes. ckclib.c, 7 Apr 2010.

Increased maximum variable name length from 4K to 16K. Verified that too-long names are caught and recovered from correctly. ckuusr.h, 6 Apr 2010.

C-Kermit 9.0 Alpha.05

Did a few builds to make sure there were no booboos. Solaris 9, NetBSD 5.01, Linux RHEL4, HP-UX 10.20 (non-ANSI compiler and ANSI optimizing compiler), Mac OS X 10.4.11, SCO OSR 6.00. 5 Apr 2010.

Added \fstringtype() function. Given a string argument, it tells whether the string is 7bit, 8bit, utf8, binary, etc. ckuusr.h, ckuus[4x].c, 2 Apr 2010.

Changed the IF command to accept a bare macro name its condition. This will parse and execute correctly if the macro is defined and if it has a numeric value, or if it is not defined, in which case it evaluates to 0 (FALSE). If it is defined but has a non-numeric value, a parse error occurs. ckuus6.c, 2 Apr 2010.

Added MIME character-set names as invisible synonyms in the file and terminal character-set tables, fcstab[] and tcstab[]. Note that not all the character sets known to Kermit are registered in MIME. But at least now MIME-registered character sets can be referred to by their MIME names, e.g. ISO-8859-1, ISO646-ES, IBM437, WINDOWS-1252. These are not listed if you type ? in a field that is parsing them, unless you type a letter first, e.g. "i?" lists ISO- and IBM set names. Later maybe I'll make parallel tables, or keyword attribute bit that says whether a name is MIME or not. The real benefit of this change is that now Kermit can take its character-set names from external sources like email headers or web logs. ckuxla.c, 1 Apr 2010.

Build on Solaris 11 for the first time. Had to adjust ckuver.h to get the version herald right. This was on a box that reported its architecture as i86pc. 1 Apr 2010.

Richard Nolde reports that Kermit can't find -lpam on Fedora 12 because it's in /lib rather than /usr/lib. RHEL5 has symlinks, FC12 should too. Added a note to the makefile. 1 Apr 2010.

Added a new function \fdecodehex(string,prefix) that decodes a string containing prefixed hex bytes. Default prefix is %%, but any prefix of one of two chars (such as % or 0x) can be specified. ckuusr.h, ckclib.h, ckclib.c, ckuusr.c, 31 Mar 2010.

Added a new function \fcvtcsets(string,cset1,cset1) that converts a string from one character set to another. The csets are File Character-Set names. ckuus4.c, 31 Mar 2010.

A fix to Trusted HP-UX makefile target from PeterE, to account for the equivalence of +openssl and +ssl as target suffixes. 30 Mar 2010.

Fixed mistaken extern declarations of krb4_errno and krb5_errno as strings in nvlook(); they are ints. Built OK on Mac OS X 10.6.3. ckuus4.c, 30 Mar 2010.

The change I made to allow CONNECT to reestablish a previous SSH connection prevented a new SSH connection to a different host to be made. Fixed in ckuus7.c, 30 Mar 2010.

Changed VOID and CKVOID definition to be 'void' for all HP-UX (verified by PeterE back to HP-UX 6.5, 1989). Still need to check this on HP-UX 5.21; if that's an exception it can be done in the makefile. ckcdeb.h, 30 Mar 2010.

Yesterday's VOID redefinition caused problems for HP-UX in ckuusx.c, in the curses section where VOID is undef'd and not used to avoid a conflict with curses.h. As a workaround I defined a new macro CKVOID with the same definition as VOID and used it in the offending section of ckuusx. The real solution is to replace all references to VOID with CKVOID (since VOID is increasingly likely to cause conflicts), but a mass search and replace is not without risks. ckcdeb.h, ckuusx.c, 30 Mar 2010.

C-Kermit 9.0 Alpha.04

11:23:10.722 ftp_hookup[kermit.columbia.edu]=21
11:23:10.722 ftp hookup A[kermit.columbia.edu]
11:23:10.722 ftp hookup C[kermit.columbia.edu]
11:23:10.722 ftp hookup socket=4
11:23:10.722 ftp hookup HADDRLIST
11:23:10.723 ftp hookup connect failed=13
11:23:10.723 ftp hookup bad

13 = Permission denied:

[EACCESS] Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix;
  or write access to the named socket is denied.

On Gentoo Linux, also on Alpha, the errno is 51: Network is unreachable. Clearly some data type in the sockets structs is out of whack.

The third connect() argument is "address length". The address is a struct sockaddr. About the third argument, RHEL5 "man connect" says:

  The third argument of connect() is in reality an int (and this is what
  4.x BSD and libc4 and libc5 have).  Some POSIX confusion resulted in
  the present socklen_t, also used by glibc.  See also accept(2).

Building on RHEL5 on x86_64, where size_t is 8 and socklen_t is 4, I get a warning:

ckcftp.c: In function 'ftp_hookup':
ckcftp.c:14667: warning:
  comparison is always true due to limited range of data

Referring to:

if (hisctladdr.sin_addr.s_addr != (unsigned long) -1)

This seems to be the problem; if I remove the (unsigned long) cast (in two places), the problem goes away. Actually what I should be comparing it with is INADDR_NONE, which is defined appropriately in some header file, e.g. as 0xffffffff. Also I define it explicitly as -1 if it is not defined in any header file (as is the case in Solaris 9). Tested OK on 64-bit RHEL5, 32-bit RHEL5, Digital Unix 4.0E 64-bit, Solaris 9 32-bit, Mac OS X 10.4.11 32-bit, Mac OS X 10.6.3 64-bit, AIX 5.3, Gentoo Linux 2.6.31 on Alpha 64-bit, NetBSD 5.0.1 32-bit.... ckcftp.c, 29 Mar 2010.

connect(s, (struct sockaddr *)&hisctladdr, sizeof (hisctladdr)): In FTP, this doesn't work on RHEL5 / Mac OX X 6.1/2 64-bit. But the connect() in Telnet works. On Mac OS X 6.2 I tried changing the socket() call to be like the one in ckcnet.c for Telnet, but it made no difference. On a RHEL5.4 system on i386, FTP works fine, so it's not the Red Hat version. On Digital Unix 4.0E 64-bit, same thing:

There are various warnings in the SSL code in ckutio.c, ckcftp.c, and ckcnet.c about pointers not being assignment compatible, but I have learned from experience not to try to fix these (see notes from 6 Oct 2009). 29 Mar 2010.

"make hpux1000o+ssl" files with: /usr/ccs/bin/ld: Unsatisfied symbols:

__umoddi3 (code)
__udivdi3 (code)
__eprintf (code)

It appears that OpenSSL (0.9.7c in this case) requires -lgcc. And indeed hpux1000gcc+ssl builds fine. 29 Mar 2010.

Ditto in tls_load_certs(). ck_ssl.c, 29 Mar 2010.

Fixed a typo in a debug() statement in cksplit() that was causing some warnings. ckclib.c, 29 Mar 2010.

In HP-UX with the bundled-non ANSI compiler, we get warnings about functions such as endusershell(), which are declared void in the header files. But in non-ANSI builds we defind VOID to be int rather than void, so our prototypes are wrong. I checked that HP-UX 9, 10, and 11 all have void datatype and changed the definition of VOID to void in those cases. ckcdeb.h, 29 Mar 2010.

C-Kermit 9.0 Alpha.03

Changed hexdump() to ckhexdump() in ck_crp.c, which I missed before. 19 Mar 2010.

Built OK on VMS 6.2 and 8.3 with and without networking. Large file support included automatically in VMS 8.3 FTP client included automatically in both network builds. 19 Mar 2010.

From SMS: updated dependencies in CKVKER.COM, fix the "don't reinclude me" clause in CKVRTL.H. 19 Mar 2010.

Changed VMS build procedure to include the FTP client in any network build by default. Changed the sense of the I option to exclude the FTP client, in case anybody would want to do that. ckvker.com, 18 Mar 2010.

Changed the VMS build procedure to enable large file support automatically for non-VAX and VMS 7.3 or greater. No reason not to include this feature. Changed the sense of the F option to DISABLE large file support in the unlikely case that C-Kermit is being built on a suitable platform but the C library is older than VMS73_ACRTL-V0200, in which case fseeko() and ftello() will come up missing at link time. ckvker.com, 18 Mar 2010.

From SMS: #include <types.h> earlier for VMS in ckcdeb.h to pick up off_t before it is referenced. This allows C-Kermit to compile on VMS/Alpha 6.2 but linking fails on fseeko() and ftello() (and yet, a functional executable is created, and FSEEK works right). Builds the same way with no problems at all on VMS 8.3 / Alpha. In this case we get the full 64-bit arithmetic… Well, 62 bits:

ATLAS::C-Kermit>( ^ 2 63)
ATLAS::C-Kermit>( ^ 2 62)

whereas on VMS 6.2 we get integers only up to (^ 2 30). 17 Mar 2010.

From SMS: Corrections to my merging of SMS's changes, ckcftp.c, ckvrtl.h. Builds OK on VMS 6.2 now. Also did an SSL build on VMS 8.3 with OpenSSL m0.9.7e and "OPENSSL_DISABLE_OLD_DES_SUPPORT" was included in P3 automatically by Martin V's addition to ckvker.com. 17 Mar 2010.

To go with MESSAGE and SET DEBUG MESSAGE, I added IF DEBUG, which is true if SET DEBUG MESSAGE is not OFF and false otherwise. ckuusr.h, ckuus6.c, 16 Mar 2010.

Tried again to build Digital Unix Tru64 4.0E using "make tru64-40e", but something prevents it from picking up the termios symbols and it blows up in ckutio.c, whereas this used to work in earlier C-Kermit versions. This is the only Tru64 system I still have access to, so I can't tell if it's a local peculiarity or what. Note that POSIX is not defined for this build. But if I define it, I get into trouble with "struct timeval". Tried again with "KFLAGS=-DPOSIX -DNOTIMEVAL" but that doesn't help. Tried "make dec-osf" and that worked OK but oddly enough it makes a Kermit with less features than "make osf". 16 Mar 2010.

Built OK on Digital Unix Tru-64 4.0E using "make osf", 16 Mar 2010.

FreeBSD 8.0 <libutil.h> has a hexdump() prototype that conflicts with the hexdump macro defined in ckcdeb.h. Since the same thing is likely to happen elsewhere, I changed the Kermit macro to ckhexdump as well all references to it: ckcdeb.h, ckcftp.c, ckcnet.c, ckctel.c, ckuath.c, ckutio.c, 16 Mar 2010.

More from SMS for VMS, 16 Mar 2010:

  • Set MAXPATH correctly for VMS, ckcdeb.h.
  • NAM -> NAML, QIO replaces system( "SET PROTECTION"), bugfixes in cvtdir() and nzltor(), ... (See comments): ckvfio.c, new ckvrms.h. (The RMS code in ckvfio.c was almost totally rewritten)
  • Moved "NAMX$*" (and related) macros to ckvrms.h, and renamed to "NAMX_*" (and similar "$" -> "_"), moved "FIB_*" macros from ckvrtl.c.

These changes are mainly to accommodate the ODS5 file system, which has longer and mixed-case filenames, and also to execute certain commands (e.g. for setting file protection, deleting directories) directly instead of using a system() command.

Built OK on VMS 8.3 (with and without network support). 16 Mar 2010.

Failed to build on VMS 6.2. 16 Mar 2010.

Not so good on VMS, turns out I made a typo in one of the VMS updates (#ifndef OLDIP instead of #ifdef...). ckcnet.c, 16 Mar 2010.

Built OK on Solaris9, Mac OS X 10.4.11, RHEL4 (32-bit), RHEL5 (64-bit), AIX 5.3, SCO OpenServr 6.0.0… 15 Mar 2010.

Exposed inesc[] and oldesc[] for VMS, so new INPUT command escape-sequence stripping can work (really, chkaes() and related global variables should be moved out of ck[uvd]con.c/ckucns.c and into a common module; do that later). ckuusr.h, ckvcon.c, 15 Mar 2010.

From SMS for VMS: 'Added/documented P3 options INTSELECT, OLDFIB, OLDIP. Disabled (commented out) automatic definition of NOSETTIME for VMS before V7.2 (vms_ver .lts. "VMS_V72").' ckcdeb.h, ckcftp.c, ckcnet.c, ckuus[2567].c, ckvfio.c, ckvker.com, ckvrtl.[ch], 15 Mar 2010.

Also for debugging and error messages, I added \v(lastcommmand) so that the command that failed can be included in an IF FAIL or DEBUG error message. This works even for commands that have syntax errors. ckuusr.h, ckuus5.c, ckucmd.c, 12 Mar 2010.

There has never been a clean way to put debugging messages (ECHO commands) in a script which are executed only if debugging is desired and ignored otherwise. You'd have to set a random variable and test it, or define a macro or whatever. To make this more straightforward, I added SET DEBUG MESSAGE ON/OFF/STDERR, and added a new MESSAGE (syn: MSG) command for printing debugging messages to stdout if SET DEBUG MESSAGE is ON or to stderr if SET DEBUG MESSAGE is STDERR. ckcmai.c, ckuus[r23].c, 12 Mar 2010.

Peter Eichhorn complained that if you make an ssh connection with Kermit, then log out from the ssh host, and then use a "connect" command to make a new connection to the same host (which you can do with Telnet), Kermit says (e.g.):

 DNS Lookup… Can't get address for ssh -e none somehostname
 Sorry, can't open ssh -e none somehostname: Error 0

I added code to detect and handle this case and it seems to work OK, even though it's kind of a hack. ckuusr.[ch], ckuus7.c, 1 Mar 2010.

Added code to INPUT command to strip ANSI escape sequences. It's activated by SET SESSION-LOG TEXT. ckuusr.h: added prototype for chkaes(); ckucon.c, ckucns.c: made inesc[] and oldesc[] global instead of static; ckuus4.c: doinput() code for skipping escape sequences. 1 Mar 2010.

From Martin Vorlaender: new code in VMS C-Kermit build procedure to detect OpenSSL version automatically. ckvker.com, 22 Feb 2010.

Moved the #include "ckvrtl.h" in the FTP module to below the include for utime.h, because building the VMS version with the 'i' option (meaning "include internal ftp client") results in "struct utimbuf tp" erroring out because struct utimbuf is not defined yet (at least in some version of VMS with some version of C). From Rob Brown, ckcftp.c, 20 Feb 2010.

Added note to CKVKER.COM to the effect the 'f' option has no effect on VAX architecture. 15 Feb 2010.

Tried to build on a real VAX-11/785 but the machine seems to be seriously wedged. 12-15 Feb 2010.

Built on VMS E8.4. 12 Feb 2010.

In ckupty.h, make the #include <sys/ioctl.h> be #ifndef SUNOS41. From Christian Corti. 10 Feb 2010.

Added an aixg target to build on AIX with gcc when gcc is not installed as cc, and also added CC=$(CC) CC2=$(CC) clauses to the aix and aix+ssl targets. Wow, AIX really loses bigtime when receiving files through its ssh server. Streaming can't be used, sliding windows recover from errors but there are tons of them using the default 4K packets; 500 works much better. Built with IBM cc and gcc, and also tested (successfully) the new aix+ibmssl target, in which the OpenSSL headers and libs are in a standard place. makefile, 9 Feb 2010.

From John Dunlap, a fix for Kermit protocol fixed packet-timeout interval going to a unexpected value (missing else clause in two places). ckcfn2.c, 9 Feb 2010.

From Christian Corti at Uni-Stuttgart.de: fixes to allow building on SunOS 4.1, which once was my main development platform but which is long-gone from here. ckupty.c, ckutio.c, 9 Feb 2010. (He says it is also necessary to comment out the "struct winsize" and "struct ttysize" in sys/ioctl.h; otherwise there will be a conflict with sys/ttycom.h (included by termios.h) which also declares these structs. But you need both includes.')

C-Kermit 9.0 Alpha.02

Built OK on Minix, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris 9, NetBSD 5.0.1… 1 Feb 2010.

Later.. Andy says MINIX does not support job control, so no program is ever in the background. That settles that! 1 Feb 2010.

Adapted to MINIX 3 1.5, the first version that has virtual memory according to Andy T, who should know. On earlier versions (e.g. MINIX 3 1.2) any attempt to build C-Kermit causes the compiler to crash. Now the compiler doesn't crash but it spews out countless warnings about old-fashioned function declarations that I don't get anywhere else. The real problems came in ckutio.c where numerous symbols were undefined at compile time and the POSIX function tcgetpgrp() was not found at link time, even though there is a prototype for it in the MINIX header files, and there is no alternative (since POSIX doesn't let us use ioctl()). Also note that there is some confusion over the compile-time symbols MINIX, MINIX2, MINIX3, and MINIX315. You would expect MINIX to mean "any version of MINIX" but in some parts of ckutio.c it means MINIX 1.0. I sincerely doubt that C-Kermit 9.0 can be built on any version of Minix before 3.1.5 so I removed the confusion and made MINIX mean "any Minix". It builds on 3.1.5 OK now, except for the FTP client. This can probably be fixed but… Modules changed: ckcdeb.h, ckuver.h, ckcmai.c, ckuus5.c, ckutio.c, 1 Feb 2010.

Set NO_KRB5_INIT_ETS by default in ckuath.h since krb5_init_ets() is a no-op in Kerberos 1.4.x and later and in some installations it can't be found, which clobbers the build. ckuath.h, 27 Jan 2010.

Added SSL, KRB4, and KRB5 to the startup herald for versions that were built with SSL, Kerberos 4, or Kerberos 5. Built OK on Fedora 3 with linux+krb5+ssl and new banner shows correctly. ckuus5.c, 27 Jan 2010.

Built on Linux Fedora Core 3, regular and with OpenSSL 0.9.7a. Built on Ubuntu 9.4 OK, but SSL and Kerberos builds failed due to not finding libs and/or header files. I'm sure this could be fixed… 27 Jan 2010.

Changed the year from 2009 to 2010 in the modules I worked on today and in the heralds, etc. ckckmai.c, ckuus5.c, ckutio.c, ckclib.c, ckuus7.c, 26 Jan 2010.

Speaking of CSV files… How can you put comma as a function argument when comma is the function-argument separator? Use one of these forms:


From John Dunlap, U. of Washington Applied Physics Lab: 'When "stty -a < /dev/ttyS0 | grep crtscts" shows "crtscts" (not "-crtscts") and when using a three wire serial interface and when asking kermit to not use flow control (set flow none) then "ckutio.c1" (see attachments) fails while "ckutio.c" works. The result of "diff -u ckutio.c1 ckutio.c" is attached as "diffs"'. ckutio.c, 26 Jan 2010.

\fword() and \fsplit().... Another change, but not backwards-incompatible. One may now put the word ALL (just like that, all uppercase) as the include set (4th argument) to indicate that there will be no break characters other than those explicitly given in the break set, e.g. \fsplit(\m(xx),&a,:,ALL) breaks a line only on a colon (:), nothing else. The original rules for cksplit() were more than a little counterintuitive: the default break set is all non alphanums, and the default include set is all alphanums, so if you wanted to parse (say) a CSV file, breaking only on comma, you had to think of all the characters you wanted to keep. This way you just say ALL. ckclib.c, 26 Jan 2010.

FSEEK failed to find anything if the search pattern was matched in the first line of the file. Fixed in ckuus7.c, 26 Jan 2010.

FSEEK did not pay attention to SET CASE, searches were always case sensitive. Fixed in ckuus7.c, 26 Jan 2010.

Discovered that the result returned by \fsearch() is totally unreliable. This is probably too hard to fix.

Added some essential details to the HELP FSEEK text. ckuus2.c, 25 Jan 2010.

Built on VMS 8.3 with "make fi" to include the FTP client and long-file support (mid Jan 2010).

Built on VMS 8.3 with UXC 5.6 and HP SSL 1.3, which is OpenSSL 0.9.7e. It compiled and linked OK but when I tried to make an FTP SSL connection it crashed in SSL$LIBSSL_SHR, which is called from ssl_auth(), after having had TLS accepted as an authentication type, but before actually authenticating. In Unix:

9. ftp open ftp.somecompany.com /user:pge.com/test_quota /password:xxxxxx

Connected to ftp.somecompany.com.
220-Somecompany FTP v6.0 for WinSock ready…
220 Welcome to the online storage FTP server.  Please check the main web
site for system announcements and AUP. (O)
234 AUTH command OK. Initializing SSL connection.
TLS accepted as authentication type


19. ftp open ftp.somecompany.com /user:pge.com/test_quota /password:xxxxxx

Connected to ftp.somecompany.com. 220 Somecompany FTP v6.0 for WinSock ready… ---> AUTH TLS 234 AUTH command OK. Initializing SSL connection. TLS accepted as authentication type SSL DEBUG ACTIVE %SYSTEM-F-ACCVIO, access violation, reason mask=04, virtual address=FFFFFFFF8001A120, PC=000000000068B118, PS=0000001B

Note: The Unix version received the second 220 response, the VMS version did not. That's odd, it's the same code… 25 Jan 2010.

Built on VMS 7.2 and 8.3 with and without TCP/IP, no problems. 11 Jan 2010.

(Various other successful Unix builds in these weeks...)

Built OK on MirBSD 10, despite a lot of gratuitous compiler warnings. Built OK on MirBSD 10, OpenBSD 4.5, and Fedora 10. 3 Dec 2009.

Built OK on Digital Unix 4.0F using "make osf" instead of "make tru64-40f". I don't know why the specific target doesn't work, but it's not worth chasing down. 2 Dec 2009.

Built OK on Linux RHEL5.4/Itanium-2, make linux. The secure build required "FLAGS=-DNO_KRB5_INIT_ETS" and built OK. 30 Nov 2009.

Tried to build on Digital Unix 4.0F but it blew up in ckutio.c, apparently not recognizing any of the terminal struct symbols from termios.h. Tried again with gcc, same thing. Tried explicitly #including <sys/termios.h> within #ifdef TRU64, same thing. What could have changed? 30 Nov 2009.

Built OK on Silicon Graphics IRIX 6.5 R10000; regular build OK, SSL and Kerberos builds failed. 30 Nov 3009.

It could simply be that some of the buffers we allocate are much bigger now. But again, I don't see much difference between 8.0.211 and 9.0; we were already allocating 32K command-related buffers (malloc() takes a size_t, and size_t is an int almost everywhere). I built the same source on NetBSD and ran the same script (with \fqueeze()), and it worked fine. Let's worry about this later, if it comes up. 27 Nov 2009.

Another problem is that when this happens, the error is not caught (e.g. by the IF FAIL statement after the command that contains the function call); instead, C-Kermit returns immediately to its prompt. 27 Nov 2009.

I wrote a Kermit script to read a big file of addresses on Solaris 9, \fsqueeze()ing each line. After about 14000 lines, there was a malloc failure in getnct() (the command-file reader). There's nothing wrong with \fsqueeze(), the failure is on a deeper level, because the same thing happens if I use \fupper() (which is structurally identical to \fsqueeze()) in the same script. The problem is not in getnct() either, because every malloc() is freed (I checked). On the other hand, the same script (with \fupper() instead of \fsqueeze() completes OK in C-Kermit 8.0.201. If I remove the function call (\fsqueeze() or \fupper()) from the script, it also runs OK in 9.0. This seems to point the finger at fneval(), which contains countless malloc's and free's. But comparing fneval() between 8.0.211 and 9.0, I don't see any difference that would explain this behavior — nothing at all that involves malloc(), makstr(), or free(). Nor any pertinent change in the caller (zzstring) of fneval(). 27 Nov 3009.

Added \fsqueeze(s), returns string s with leading and trailing whitespace removed, Tabs converted to Spaces, and multiple spaces converted to single spaces. For now, ASCII only, no options. ckuusr.h, ckuus[24].c, 27 Nov 2009.

From Gerry Belanger, a fix to INPUT /COUNT:n. ckuus4.c, 26 Nov 2009.

Rediscovered the new VMS build options: f for Long Files, i for Internal FTP. "make mnf" doesn't work on VMS 6.2, it looks like the VMS definition for CK_OFF_T got lost. Same thing with "make mfi". Come back to this later.

From Steven Schweda (SMS), the real solution for the VMS closing brace problem, it wasn't a DECC bug, it was a me bug. ckuusy.c, 20 Nov 2009.

Kermit 9.0 Alpha.01

I found a VMS 6.2 system… Takes a loooong time to build there. In ckuusy.c, DEC C didn't like the prototypes and declarations of dorlgarg() and dotnarg() as static so I made them not static. But that didn't help, now it fails at the very end, saying the final #ifdef is an invalid statement. It looks like an #ifdef mismatch that affects only VMS. I ran my #ifdef matcher, it turned up nothing. I substituted a copy of ckuusy.c from 2007, it comes up with the same errors. Then I substituted the copy from 8.0.211 from 2004, and this one compiled OK and, miraculously, the whole mess even linked OK and runs OK. The Alpha binary is 2.84MB. Now I have 4500 lines of code to compare.... I went through the two files line by line and I can't see a single thing wrong. I gave up and tried building the TCP/IP version. It builds fine except for ckuusy.c, with the utterly useless error message:

#endif /* NOCMDL */
%CC-E-BADSTMT, Invalid statement.

Indicating the last line in the file. Just for the heck of it, I put another line after that one:

/* This is a test */

and got:

/* This is a test */
%CC-E-BADSTMT, Invalid statement.

So it is not objecting to anything in the file. Trying the old LISP trick, I put an extraneous closing bracket after that. Success! Honestly, I don't see anything wrong with file. It's DEC C V5.3-006. I suspect a C bug. I'll leave it like this for now until I get access to some other VMS versions. Another clue is that when building the network version I get a horrible warning I never saw before from a module that hasn't been touched in a very long time (ckvrtl.c). Also, in the network version, I note that the FTP code is not compiled in. We have to try this again with some command-line switches, but it'll do for now. ckuusy.c, 18 Nov 2009.

Built on NetBSD 5.0.1 with and without OpenSSL, all OK, but netbsd+krb5 fails with "can't find -lgssapi_krb5"; worked around this with "K5LIB=-L/usr/local/kerblib" (where the lib actually is on this host) but then it failed with "ckcftp.c:13868: error: 'gss_nt_service_name' undeclared". 17 Nov 2009.

Built on FreeBSD 7.2 with and without OpenSSL, all OK. 17 Nov 2009.

Made sure the current source package builds OK on HP-UX 10.20… Got a lot of "warning 6062: Optdriver: Exceeding compiler resource limits in xxx; some optimizations skipped. Use +Onolimit if override desired" but it builds OK. Tested long file transfer; works OK. 17 Nov 2009.

Made sure the solaris9_64 and solaris10 targets still work. 16 Nov 2009.

Changed macosx targets to get the CPU type from the HOSTTYPE environment variable. Also added getenv("HOSTTYPE") as a last-resort method to set the \v(cpu) variable at runtime (maybe it should be the first resort?)… ckuus4.c, makefile, 16 Nov 2009.

Changed the netbsd target to set -funsigned-char, since cc on NetBSD is actually gcc. makefile, 16 Nov 2009.

\fsplit() and \fword() always break on 8-bit characters unless you explicitly put every single 8-bit value into the include set, e.g. (for a TSV file):

undef include
for \%i 128 255 1 {
    if == \%i 9 continue
    .include := \m(include)\fchar(\%i)
.\%n := \fsplit(\m(line),&a,\9,\m(include))

I changed cksplit() to treat all 8-bit bytes 128-255 as non-break characters by default. It might have made more sense to do this for 160-255 (since 128-159 are traditionally C1 control characters) but thanks to Microsoft tradition is out the window. To treat one or more 8-bit characters as break characters, put them in the break set. This might break some scripts, but I doubt it because this flaw was so awful that if anyone had come up against they would have let me know. ckclib.c, 16 Nov 2009.

Added REJECT as a synonym for DISCARD in SET FILE COLLISION; it's more intuitive and more accurate. ckuus[27].c, 15 Nov 2009.

Fix from Seth T. for an oversight in the previous edit. Also add MACOSX103 to "show features" display. makefile, ckuus5.c, 10 Nov 2009.

Changed Mac OS X targets to correctly extract the Mac OS major version from uname -r in order to choose correctly between utmp and utmpx; this wasn't working in 10.6.1. makefile, 6 Nov 2009.

Peter Eichhorn reported that file-transfer failure hints were not coming out since Dev.27. The only change I made since then was to skip them if the file-transfer protocol was not Kermit. I was using the wrong variable in the tests, 'proto' instead of 'protocol'. ckuus5.c, 6 Nov 2009.

From Seth Theriault, a better way for the makefile to determine the Mac OS X version number; there's a program for this, sw_ver. makefile, 6 Nov 2009.

If a series of PUTENV commands is given, each new one undoes the previous one, so only the last definition is seen by the new fork (or by Kermit itself). Turns out you can't feed automatic variables to putenv(); they have to be static, so to allow for multiple PUTENV commands Kermit has to maintain an array of static strings. ckuus7.c, 6 Nov 2009.

Changed SHOW LOG to show the SET SESSION-LOG settings, as well as SET DEBUG, which was not shown before. ckuus5.c, 22 Oct 2009.

Changed SET SESSION-LOG TEXT to strip out ANSI escape sequences; previously there wasn't that much difference between TEXT and BINARY logs. It's still not perfect; for example it doesn't delete characters that the user erased. (Made sure this still builds with -DNOESCSEQ.) ckucns.c, 22 Oct 2009.

I made -DNOUUCP the default for Mac OS X, since everybody winds up building it that way anyhow. To undo this, do "make macosx KFLAGS=‑UNOUUCP". makefile, 21 Oct 2009.

Need to make LOG SESSION log to a tty. Right now "log session /dev/ttyKeySerial1" says "Write permission denied" even though the device is crw-rw-rw-. This happens in zchko(), which is called by cmofi(). The problem is that /dev/ is not writeable. I added a Unix-only clause that attempts to open the file for write access using open(), in order to get a file descriptor, which then can be passed to isatty() to check if it's a tty, and if so, to allow access. And then close it. I tested this on Mac OS X as follows:

log session /dev/ttyKeySerial1
telnet somehost

The Mac's serial port was connected to the serial port of another computer where Kermit displayed the incoming characters in CONNECT mode. Glitches:

 1. The port has to be set up as desired in advance, outside of Kermit.
 2. log session /dev/ttyKeySerial1 will hang if any required modem signals
    are not present when the port is opened.
 3. Bypasses lockfile mechanism - so we do this only if -DNOUUCP.

For (2), I tried setting O_NDELAY / O_NONBLOCK, and this allowed zchko() to continue, but then it freezes in the subsequent fopen(). So I changed zopeno() to also check if the device is a serial port, and if so, to open() it with O_NDELAY / O_NONBLOCK, and then convert the file descriptor into a file pointer with fdopen().

Now for the speaking device that needs lines to be terminated by NUL…

set session-log binary       <-- need to put these in SHOW LOG
set session-log null-padded      (and in HELP SET LOG)
set line /dev/ttyKeySerial1

This part works.

This feature is enabled only for -DNOUUCP builds because serial ports aren't like other Unix files; we would have to create a lockfile, but we can't do that… actually, ttlock() takes a name as an argument, but ttunlck() does not, so there would be no way to remove the lock. Anyway, there is only one API for configuring the port (speed, flow control, etc) and it only works with the SET LINE device, not any random file. To fix this would require massive redesign and changes. ckuus[23].c, ckufio.c, 19-20 Oct 2009.

Changed version number to 9.0. All modules, 16 Oct 2009.

After all that, 86 different combinations of feature selections built OK on Linux. And the Kerberized version (K5) works OK on Linux for Telnet and FTP. 14 Oct 2009.

There was some confusion between "No XYZMODEM" and "No external protocols"; cleared up in ckuus3.c, 14 Oct 2009.

SHOW PROTOCOL code for external protocols had to be #ifdef'd out for -DNOPUSH builds. ckuus4.c, 14 Oct 2009.

COPY /PRESERVE depended on code from the Kermit protocol module, which is omitted in -DNOXFER builds. Disabled COPY /PRESERVE in -DNOXFER builds. ckuus6.c, 14 Oct 2009.

Moved havelfs declaration outside of #ifdef NOXFER because it was also used for other things. ckcmai.c, 13 Oct 2009.

Moved doputenv() and settermtyp() out of an #ifdef NOLOCAL section because these are useful even when not making connections. ckuus7.c, 13 Oct 2009.

There was a reference to doputenv() that wasn't guarded by #ifndef NOPUTENV, fixed in ckuus7.c, 13 Oct 2009.

Fixed an #endif /* TNCODE */ that was a line too low in ttptycmd(), causing -DNONET builds to fail. ckutio.c, 13 Oct 2009.

Protected cvtstring() and related functions with #ifdef NOCSETS..#endif, and ditto for the character-set conversion code in dorename(). ckuus6.c, 13 Oct 2009.

Next issue: Can't compile ckcftp.c with -DNOCSETS or -DNOSPL; some #ifdef/#endif doesn't match up. Sigh, this is the hardest kind of thing to debug. There's 17,622 lines of code in this module and no tool that I know of.... Wait, I wrote one. But it shows all the #if/#ifdef/#ifndef's and #endifs matching up just fine. Backing off to ckcftp.c of a few days ago (before char / unsigned char casts were added), I see that it builds OK, so I backed off to that one, but put back the special case #ifdef for MACOSX103 declaring CONST gss_OID_desc, and it builds OK (the other stuff was purely cosmetic, when will I learn?). ckcftp.c, 13 Oct 2009.

Next issue:

In file included from ckutio.c:15674:
/usr/lib/gcc/i386-redhat-linux/3.4.6/include/varargs.h:4:2: #error "GCC no
 longer implements <varargs.h>."
/usr/lib/gcc/i386-redhat-linux/3.4.6/include/varargs.h:5:2: #error "Revise
 your code to use <stdarg.h>."

The problem occurs when trying to force a non-ANSIC build with GCC. Changing the source file to include <stdarg.h> instead of <varargs.h> doesn't help because evidently <stdarg.h> requires an ANSI C compiler. Nothing can be done about this. 13 Oct 2009.

DES and 3DES encryption can be excluding removing the -DCK_DES flag. I removed this one and -DLIBDES (and -m32) and this makes a working 64-bit version. Then I added code to the macosx+krb5+openssl target to use these flags if the Mac OS X version was 10.5 or less and leave them out for 10.6 or later. Tested on 10.4.11 and 10.6.1. A better way to do it might have been "nm -gj libssl.dylib | grep des_", but that gives the same results on 10.4 and 10.6. Also, 10.6 still has /usr/include/ssl/des.h. makefile, 13 Oct 2009.

Tried some things to get around the problem with OpenSSL in Mac OS X 10.6, to no avail. Asked Jeff. He said, "MacOS X no longer includes DES anywhere on the system. Not for SSL, not for Kerberos, not for anything. This will increasingly become the situation on new operating systems. Windows 7 and 2008 R2 will also ship with no DES." Sure enough, the Mac OS X Server Upgrading and Migrating document for 10.6 says, "Mac OS X Server v10.6 does not support single DES encryption. It supports AES 128 and 256 encryption types. However, during a migration or upgrade from v10.4 to v10.6, servers that were Kerberized by the v10.5 Open Directory server will not use the AES 128 or 256 encryption types. To use the AES 128 or 256 encryption types you must re-Kerberize all servers." 12 Oct 2009.

Updated C-Kermit installation for Mac OS X in ckuwr.html on the website. 8 Oct 2009.

Built on Mac OS X 10.6.1. It came out automatically as a 64-bit build because __LP64__ is defined somewhere that I can't find. But this explains why the 0.9.8k on 10.6 comes up with missing symbols when the 0.9.8k lib 10.5 (or on Solaris or on Linux) does not: it's a different library: "Mach-O 64-bit dynamically linked shared library x86_64", rather than "Mach-O dynamically linked shared library ppc". Probably the 64-bit version has some things #ifdef'd out. Added -m32 to the CFLAGS and LNKFLAGS for the macosx+krb5+openssl targets, and it built OK one time. But then the errors came back. makefile, 8 Oct 2009.

Consolidated Mac OS X targets, and removed experimental 64-bit ones, because they never could work in 10.5 and earlier because 64-bit libs are missing, and 10.6 and later are 64-bit automatically. makefile, 8 Oct 2009.

Added SET SESSION-LOG NULL-TERMINATED-TEXT. This is for the benefit of a speech synthesizer that will speak a line of text only after receiving a NUL character. A more general solution would be to define a filter or whatever, but who has time. ckuus[23x].c, 7 Oct 2009.

In Mac OS X 10.6, the following symbols are unresolved at link time: _des_key_sched, _des_new_random_key, _des_ecb_encrypt, _des_init_random_number_generator, _des_fixup_key_parity. This is with OpenSSL 0.9.8k. But it doesn't happen on other platforms that have 0.9.8k.

Built today's code on Linux RHEL4, NetBSD 5.0.1, Solaris 9, and Mac OS X 10.4.11, both with and without SSL. The NetBSD system has OpenSSL 0.9.9-dev. 7 Oct 2009.

Added patches from Seth Theriault so macosx10.5+krb5+openssl would build on Mac OS X 10.3.9. makefile, ckcftp.c, 7 Oct 2009.

Tue Oct 6 17:23:27 2009 FTP address resolution is broken, but ftp_hookup() hasn't changed. So… (see the #ifdef HPUX6 sections of ckcnet.c) (I did, and I rolled back some of the changes from the other day, but it made no difference.) Putting back the ckcftp.c from a few weeks ago makes no difference. Putting back the ckcnet.c from a few weeks ago makes no difference.

Later I had to back out of these, because although it made for a clean build, in the resulting executable SSL connections didn't work.

Changes from Seth Theriault to suppress signed vs unsigned char warnings in Mac OS 10.5.8 from gcc4, and a new makefile target for Mac OS X (presumably 10.3.9 or later) + Kerberos 5 and OpenSSL. ckutio.c, ckuath.c, ckctel.c, ckcnet.c, ckcftp.c, ck_crp.c, makefile, 6 Oct 2009.

Built on Mac OS X 10.4.11, required one minor adjustment to the makefile (-DNODCLINITGROUPS). This was using the macosx10.5 target, which is supposed to be universal like the linux and netbsd targets, but not yet proven. Also built a 64-bit version (-mpowerpc64 -mcpu=G5 -mtune=G5 -arch ppc64); it compiles and links OK but won't start: "Bad CPU Type in executable". Fix later… makefile, 5 Oct 2009.

For Unix, increased string buffer sizes for wildcard expansion for all platforms that have BIGBUFOK defined from 500000 (0.5M) to 10000000 (10M) bytes, and for 64-bit builds to 2000000000 (2G) bytes. No point making it bigger than that because malloc's argument is a size_t, which is an int. ckufio.c, 5 Oct 2009.

Changed the little-known and little-used RESET command (which closes all open files) to also put command echoing back to normal in case it got messed up somehow (as in HP-UX 6.5, upon returning from PUSH). ckuusx.c, 5 Oct 2009.

Changed the UNIX version of SET TERMINAL TYPE to take a value and then do the equivalent of "export TERM=value" by calling doputenv(). This sets \$(TERM) correctly and passes its value along to inferior processes. However, to make this take effect within Kermit itself (for the fullscreen file transfer display and for the SCREEN command, Ctrl‑L, etc) I also had to reinitialize the curses database, which is tricky because normally if you feed it an unknown terminal name, it just exits. ckuus7.c, 5 Oct 2009.

I moved the PUTENV command code, which was inline, to a function, doputenv(). ckuus[r7].c, ckuusr.h, 5 Oct 2009.

Changed default SET TERMINAL TYPE type for K95 from vt320 to vt220. This is because Unix OS's such as Solaris have dropped vt320 as a terminal type. settrmtyp(), ckuus7.c, 5 Oct 2009.

HP-UX 6.5 (1989), "make hpux0650tcpc"… (8:19...) Needed to not include arpa/inet.h (which doesn't exist) and not use host address lists (add -DNOHADDRLIST), which gets us past ckcnet.c, but in ckcftp.c we bomb out on FD_SETSIZE undefined. Somehow we worked around this in ckcnet.c. Patched in a definition in ckcftp.c, and also added -DINTSELECT to compiler flags. Compiles ok, bombs at link time on bcopy, bzero, FD_ZERO, FD_SET, FD_ISSET. Now it compiles and links OK but dumps core when started. Added -DNOCKGETFQHOST, rebuilt from scratch (takes 35 minutes). It starts OK, but it dumps core when given a "telnet xxx" command, where xxx is a hostname. However, it works OK if an IP address is used: "telnet". It took all day to track this down, but now it's fixed (see the #ifdef HPUX6 sections of ckcnet.c). So now (for the first time, I think) we have both telnet and ftp in HP-UX 6.x, if anyone cares. ckcnet.[ch], ckcftp.c, makefile, 2 Oct 2009.

From Peter Eichhorn: Changes to HP-UX 7.0 target to increase the switch table stack size, which was overflowing. makefile, 30 Sep 2009

From Peter Eichhorn:

  • Update to makefile to make current code build OK on HP-UX 8.00.
  • Changes to format of some hints to make them more copy-and-pastable.

makefile, ckuu5.c, 18 Sep 2009.

Built on HP-UX 11.11, 26 Sep 2009:

  • make hpux1100 (ok)
  • make hpux1100gcc (ok)
  • make hpux1100o (gets a lot of warnings about sendpath and sendfile, because they are also declared in <sys/socket.h>, but builds OK)
  • make hpux1000gcc+openssl \ SSLINC=-I/opt/openssl/include SSLLIB=-L/opt/openssl/lib

Note: sendpath and sendfile are not Kermit symbols. The warnings are coming from socket.h: 'Redeclaration of "sendfile" with a different storage class specifier'. This is nothing new; see notes of 2-4 Jan 2005.

Improved the instructions for building secure versions in the makefile, using this example:

make solaris9+openssl "SSLINC=-I/opt/openssl-0.9.8k/include" \

makefile, http://kermit.columbia.edu/security.html, 25 Sep 2009.

Added or fixed some missing prototypes in ckctel.h: fwdx_send_xauth_to_xserver(), fwdx_parse_displayname. 25 Sep 2009.

Removed a bunch of old superfluous Solaris 9 and 10 targets: oldsolaris9, oldsolaris9lfs, solaris9g64 solaris9g_64, oldsolaris10 old solaris10lfs, oldsolaris10+openssl, oldsolaris10g+openssl, solaris10_64, oldsolaris10g, solaris10g_64, solaris10g64. There are still plenty more to prune but it's a start. makefile, 25 Sep 2009.

Made consolidated Solaris 9/10/11 64-bit targets for Sun cc: solaris9_64, solaris10_64, solaris11_64. These simply set a couple flags and chain to the main solaris9 target. makefile, 25 Sep 2009.

Made consolidated Solaris 9/10/11 64-bit targets for gcc, solaris9g64, solaris10g64, solaris11g64, tested on Solaris 10 Sparc. makefile, 25 Sep 2009.

Built the result on the same Solaris 10 system with gcc 4.2.4 using the new solari10g+openssl target, working out a few kinks here too. makefile, 25 Sep 2009.

Squelched 20-some complaints about a character array being referred to directly instead of by a pointer, plus several other similar nits to get rid of all the compilation warnings on Solaris 10 with Sun C 5.8 Patch 121015-06 2007/10/03. ckctel.c, ckctel.h, 25 Sep 2009.

Fixed four typos in printfs in ck_ssl.c, \% instead of just %. 25 Sep 2009.

Tried building on Solaris 10 with Sun CC and OpenSSL 0.9.8k, and this uncovered various loose ends in the solaris9+openssl target, which I fixed. makefile, 25 Sep 2005.

Built OK on Solaris 10 with Sun CC. A couple warnings about implicit function declarations for curses routines because apparently they aren't declared in curses.h. Tuff. 25 Sep 2009.

HP-UX 9.05 on PA-RISC 9000/712 building with hpux0900o (optimizing compiler):

  • Warnings in ckutio.c at line 14860 about arguments to select (pointers are not assignment-compatible). "man select" says arguments are ints. Defining INTSELECT fixes these warnings but results in fatal errors later around line 14881 and others in the area involving FD_SET. This was too involved so I put it back as it was. 24 Sep 2009.

HP-UX 9.05 on PA-RISC 9000/712 building with hpux0900 (bundled compiler):

  • ckutio.c compilation failed with PENDIN and FLUSHO not defined in pty_make_raw(). I dummied definitions for them to handle this situation on this or any other platform where it might crop up. ckutio.c, 24 Sep 2009.
  • Ditto for the PTY module, + IMAXBEL. ckupty.c, 24 Sep 2009.
  • References to endusershell() were fatal in the bundled compiler. Changed the hpux0900 target to define NODCLENDUSERSHELL, and put a special case in ckufio.c to not put a cast in front of the call if NODCLENDUSERSHELL is defined. Now it builds and links OK. makefile, ckufio.c, 24 Sep 2009.

The Sony Playstation 2 and 3 are 64-bit PowerPC platforms that can run Linux if it is installed as an "other OS" on its hard disk; and the Linux kernel since 2.6.21 supports the PS3 without any patching required. Pawel Rogocz reported that "make linuxppc" (one of the old targets that has not yet been integrated into the main "linux" target) compiles OK on 2.6.29-ydl61.3 (Yellow Dog Linux release 6.2 'Pyxis'), but fails at link time because 'openpty' isn't found, because -lutil was not included, because that part was added only to the main linux target. I asked him to try "make linux" and he sent back a transcript in which there were thousands of errors from the curses code ckuusx.c. Later I tried it myself and it built without a hitch. My theory is that between then and now, a missing piece of the ncurses library (/usr/include/ncursesw) was installed. 21 Sep 2009.

Tried building on HP-UX 10.20, bundled (non-ANSI) compiler ("make hpux1000"). This failed until I:

  • Moved a struct initialization out of setextern(), ckuus3.c.
  • Removed an ANSIism from the declaration of sigchld_handler() in ckutio.c
  • Added a cast to strcmp() in zvuser(), ckufio.c.

Builds OK now. Built OK with "hpux1000o" (the ANSI compiler) too. And with "hpux1000gcc". Couldn't test "hpux1000o+openssl". 21 Sep 2009.

Created solaris{9,10,11}+ssl target that is exactly like the solaris{9,10,11}g+ssl except it chains to the solaris{9,10,11} target instead of the solaris{9,10,11}g one. That is, it builds an SSL version of C-Kermit using Sun CC rather than gcc. makefile, 4 Sep 2009.

Changed solaris{9,10,11}g+ssl target to set only the SSL-specific things and then chain to the main solaris{9,10,11}g target. Tested OK on Solaris 9 and 10. makefile, 4 Sep 2009.

Built on Solaris 10 with gcc and Sun CC using new solaris{9,10,11} target that is like the new solaris{9,10,11}g one but without the gccisms. makefile, 4 Sep 2009.

Fixed a complaint in ckufio.c about implicit declaration of initgroups. ckufio.c, 4 Sep 2009.

Tried building on Solaris 9 with OpenSSL 0.9.8k with solaris9g+openssl+shadow+pam+zlib, it failed like so:

ck_ssl.c:2875: error: conflicting types for 'inet_aton'
/usr/include/arpa/inet.h:52: previous declaration of 'inet_aton' was here
make[2]: [ck_ssl.o] Error 1
make[2]: Leaving directory hmt/sirius1/prv0/kd/fdc/solaris9ssl'
make[1]: [solaris2xg+openssl+zlib+pam+shadow] Error 2
make[1]: Leaving directory hmt/sirius1/prv0/kd/fdc/solaris9ssl'
make: [solaris9g+openssl+shadow+pam+zlib] Error 2

The problem was caused by including an inet_aton() function in ck_ssl.c for the benefit of platforms that don't have one in their libraries. This is defeated by including NO_DCL_INET_ATON in KFLAGS. I added this, but then I thought it would be a good idea to automatically sense the OpenSSL version so we can automatically set OPENSSL_097 or OPENSSL_098 rather than bombing out, so I added code to do that too, and also to set the Solaris version number: 9, 10, or 11. The new entry is solaris9g+openssl. ckcdeb.h, makefile, 3 Sep 2009.

Tested linux+openssl+zlib+shadow+pam, it's OK. Also linux+krb5. Also linux+krb5+ssl. makefile, 3 Sep 2009.

Noticed that "make linux+openssl" fails to include -lutil a link time, which it needs for openpty(). That's because this target is obsolete. I renamed it to be oldlinux+openssl and added linux+openssl as a synonym for linux+ssl. makefile, 3 Sep 2009.

Changed SSL message to mention LD_LIBRARY_PATH (Solaris), SHLIB_PATH (HP-UX), LIBPATH (AIX), or LD_LIBRARY_PATH (Linux). ck_ssl.c, 3 Sep 2009

Built on NetBSD 5.0.1/i386, regular and with OpenSSL 0.9.9-dev, 1 Sep 2009.

Built on RHEL 5.3 64-bit, regular and with OpenSSL 0.9.8e. 31 Aug 2009.

Renamed aix4[23]: to oldaix4[23]: in makefile to fix the warning messages I didn't notice before. I didn't want to remove them because they have some special things that might still be needed, if anybody still has these AIX versions. makefile, 29 Aug 2009.

From Kinjal Shah, a correction to the Linux makefile entry that allows it find the 64-bit curses or ncurses library. makefile, 29 Aug 2009.

AIX 6.1 is out, it is really just a new name for AIX 5.4. Added makefile targets, plus for the first I made AIX 4.2 and later figure out its version number in the makefile target so we don't have to keep adding new -DAIXnn sections to the code, and also get its hardware name (e.g. "powerpc") from uname at make time, rather than hardwiring "rs6000" as I did before. Consolidated all AIX 4.2 and later targets so now just "make aix" or "make aix+ssl" can be used. Except not the gcc ones as they have some quirks so I'd rather not disturb them. Tested this on AIX 5.3. makefile, 28 Aug 2009.

C-Kermit disables SSL with the message "?OpenSSL libraries do not match required version." if the version of OpenSSL that Kermit was built with is not exactly the same as the version that is loaded dynamically at runtime. This is actually the proper behavior, since APIs are not guaranteed not to change between OpenSSL versions prior to 1.0.0. Made the error message more informative. ck_ssl.c, 26 Aug 2009, and again 28 Aug 2009.

Updates to the new Mac OS X 10.5 target from Seth Theriault (which is supposed to work on all Mac OS 10-point-anything) to avoid warnings that came up on on Mac OS 10.4.11/Intel. Once this one is proven we should be able to remove/consolidate lots of other ones. makefile, 12 Jun 2009.

Updated the linux+openssl+zlib+shadow+pam target to chain to the new main Linux target. A bunch of other ones remain un-updated. makefile, 12 Jun 2009.

Fixed a typo in the aix51+openssl (SSLLIBS should have been SSLLIB). From Jason Lehr. makefile, 27 May 2009.

There is no easy way to get the last field of string; for example, the extension from a filename, which might have any number of fields. In general we want to be able to get "word number n" counting from the right; \fword() lacks this ability. Now if you give it a negative word number, that says to count from the right; for example \fword(one two three four five, -2) returns "four". ckclib.c, ckuusr.c, 14 May 2009.

zshcmd() (the function used by RUN and ! to run external commands) was not falling back as expected in Linux RHEL4/5 if SHELL was not defined in the environment. Also in all Unix versions, there was no indication if a RUN/! command failed (other than the return code) because the specified shell didn't exist or was not executable (e.g. the SHELL environment variable was misdefined). Now it prints the name of the offending shell and the reason it couldn't be executed (Not found, Permission denied, etc). ckufio.c, 28 April 2009.

Patch from Seth Theriault to avoid deprecation warning for utmp references in ckufio.c in Mac OS X 10.5 (later, this became a consolidated makefile target that works automatically for at least Mac OS X 10.3.9 through 10.5.6). makefile, ckufio.c, 28 April 2009.

Fixed copyright date announced in herald, ckuus5.c, 3 Mar 2009.

Consolidated the linux targets so we no longer need three separate ones for curses, ncurses, and no curses. "make linux" works ok on computers with and without (n)curses. "make linux+ssl", ditto. "linux+krb5+ssl builds OK but needs -DNO_KRB5_INIT_ETS". Makefile, 3 Mar 2009.

Tried building on Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 5.3 64-bit. There is no curses or ncurses. "make linuxnc" compiled OK but collapsed at link time looking for crypt(), res_search(), and dn_expand(). Turned out the linuxnc (and linuxc) targets needed the same treatment as the Linux one for 64-bit Linuxes. makefile, 3 Mar 2009.

From Günter Knauf: 64-bit builds were failing on SuSE Linux because libresolv and libcrypt were in lib64 rather than lib; updated the tests in the linux makefile target to find them. makefile, 12 Jan 2009.

Added SET VARIABLE-EVALUATION { RECURSIVE, SIMPLE }. This is highly experimental, but also highly desirable if it works out. SIMPLE inhibits the default recursive method of evaluating \%x and \&x[] variables, which is, quite frankly, nuts and makes programming in Kermit at best counterintuitive. I made an exception in the case of array subscripts, because changing how they are evaluated could break a lot of scripts, and anyway there should never be any harm in evaluating them recursively because their final value is always (or should be) numeric, not some string that might contain backslashes. The SET VAR setting is on the stack, just like SET QUIET (it follows the quiet/xquiet code in ckuus[356].c), so macros or command files that change it can't break the script that invokes them. Added \frecurse() to force recursive evaluation of a \%x or \&x[] variable regardless of the VARIABLE-EVALUATION setting. Added \v(vareval) to allow programmatic setting to current setting. Tested on Solaris 9 but should be totally portable. ckuusr.[ch], ckuus[356].c, 11 Sep 2008.

Added invisible PUTENV command for UNIX only. Value should not be enclosed in doublequotes. Requires lge \v(buildid) 20080826. ckuusr.[ch], 26 Aug 2008.

Made \fkeywordval() strip braces/quotes from the right-hand side so we can handle things like:

password="stringwithspaceatend "

ckuus4.c, 6 Aug 2008.

Added \v(remoteip) for the IP address of the host we're connected to, and \v(inmessage) for INPUT status messages corresponding to \v(instatus). ckuusr.h, ckcmai.c, ckuus[24].c, 26 Mar 2008.

Changed cmifi() to not print "?No files match" (or whatever) if SET QUIET ON. ckucmd.c, 26 Mar 2008.

In "set host /pty ssh ..." connections, the INPUT command suddenly stopped working. This is in Solaris 9. It happens with all 8.0.* versions of C-Kermit, so it's nothing to do with ttptycmd(). Added some debug() statements but they don't show anything. Turns out there wasn't a problem after all. Wed Mar 26 16:04:53 2008

On Mac OS X with sz 3.73 1-30-03, however, the redirection works, so I assume it would also work in Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, etc, too. Doing the full test suite on Mac OS X:

gkermit   lrzsz          rzsz
 kst OK   zst FAIL (1)    OK
 ksb OK   zsb FAIL (2)    OK
 krt OK   zrt OK   (3)    OK for 100K file, fails for longer.
 krb OK   zrb FAIL (4)    OK (1MB all-bytes test pattern)

  1. 64K file OK every time; 100K file fails every time.
  2. 10K file fails every time.
  3. Succeeds with 800K file but gets a few recoverable errors.
  4. Succeeds with 48K binary file with some errors, fails with longer ones.

So actually it looks pretty good, it's just that lrzsz messes up. When sending with lsz if I include -L 512 it sends the 100K test file with no errors, but still chokes on longer ones.

Testing on Mac OS X again, but this time over a clear-text Telnet connection:

gkermit        lrzsz    rzsz
 kst OK   zst  FAIL(1)   OK
 ksb OK   zsb  FAIL(2)   OK
 krt OK   zrt  OK(3)     OK
 krb OK   zrb  FAIL(4)   OK

  1. Almost worked, finished 777K out of 824K without errors.
  2. Got tons of errors, failed in first 30K out of 1000K.
  3. OK for 100K file but fails for larger.
  4. OK for 48K binary fail but fails for larger.

Maybe see if we can do without the OPENPTY part.

TOMORROW — just clean up the code, add some SET / SHOW / HELP commands, document it, and move on.

Note: In K95, SET WINDOW sets the Zmodem packet length, 32 - 1024, multiple of 64.

SEE ~/80/external.txt

Changed ftp port from int to unsigned int. ckcftp.c, 30 Aug 2007.

Tried again to build KRB4/KRB5/SSL/TLS version for Solaris 9. Had to update the build procedure again, of course, because of new file and directory names, but ran into problems anyway because the cu-solaris9g+krb5+krb4+openssl+shadow+pam+zlib target was calling another target that did not know about the hardwired pathnames. Integrated the two targets and tried building again. It actually compiled ok (but with lots of warnings from the security modules), but failed at link time with krb5_init_ets not found; fixed that with an #ifdef NO_KRB5_INIT_ETS, now it builds OK but without the ftp client. Tried building it WITH the FTP and that was OK too, no changes needed except to the build procedure. 12 Feb 2008, that is: C-Kermit 8.0.212 : 20080212.

Tried to build with -DCK_SRP and -lsrp but:

hash_supported                      ckcftp.o
hash_getdescbyname                  ckcftp.o
hash_getdescbyid                    ckcftp.o
cipher_getdescbyname                ckcftp.o
krypto_delete                       ckcftp.o
krypto_new                          ckcftp.o
cipher_supported                    ckcftp.o
krypto_msg_priv                     ckcftp.o
krypto_msg_safe                     ckcftp.o
hash_getlist                        ckcftp.o
cipher_getlist                      ckcftp.o
cipher_getdescbyid                  ckcftp.o

Sent mail to Tom Wu and backed off for now. makefile, 14 Feb 2008. (Tom Wu never answered; seems like SRP is defunct.)

The ".blah = xxx" form of variable assignment only worked for variables names of length 22 or less, noticed and fixed by Wolfram Sang. ckucmd.c, 5 Mar 2008.

Testing remote mode:

kst OK   zst OK
ksb OK   zsb OK
krt OK   zrt OK
krb OK   zrb OK

Functionally it all works but there are hitches with Zmodem as always. When sending to K95:

  • If I send with lsz, there are hundreds of "Subpacket too long" errors, and the transfer is very slow, but it succeeds.
  • If I send with the 1994 Omen version of sz, transmission is instantaneous and without errors, but then it hangs at the end.
  • If I bypass C-Kermit and send direct from lsz or sz, both work fine.

So clearly the ptys are getting in the way. The hanging at the end would be caused by the sz process closing before its last output reached the master pty. It would need to do some form of flushing and/or pausing at the end but there's nothing I can do about that; these programs were not designed to be used in this way. Anyway, it only seems to happen with files longer than 100K.

For local mode, testing in Solaris over our Kerberos 5 connection again:

 gkermit  lrzsz
kst OK   zst FAIL
ksb OK   zsb FAIL
krt OK   zrt OK but with errors
krb OK   zrb FAIL

If I use Omen rzsz as the external protocol (e.g. with zst), it blocks redirection and it sends the file to my terminal, rather than over the connection. This would probably be because it finds out the device name of the job's controlling terminal and opens it, to prevent redirection. This is hard to prevent in Solaris because there is no TIOCSTTY ioctl(). Supposedly the same thing is accomplished by closing and reopening the slave pty after doing setsid(). I added code to do this, but it made no difference. (If I use lsz instead of sz, it is indeed redirected, but jams up after about 15K.) ckupty.c, 27 Aug 2007.

Now back to debugging ttptycmd()… Remote-mode transfers with ttptycmd() were broken in two places, maybe as long as 2 weeks ago (this would have affected non-network transfers too, which I can't test any more). The logic was missing in a couple places for the non-network and/or non-Telnet and/or non-encrypting connections (if statements with no else parts). Fixed in ckutio.c, 25 Aug 2007.

Noticed that error codes like ESRCH are not available in all modules. That's because of some complicated in #ifdefs in ckcdeb.h that wind up not always #including <errno.h>. But I notice that ckutio.c includes it unconditionally with no ill effects, and so does ckvfio.c. Does any version of Unix at all not have <errno.h>? Added a catch-all clause to ckcdeb.h to #include <errno.h> (in UNIX only) if, after the other clauses, ESRCH was still not defined. ckcdeb.h, 25 Aug 2007.

Fixed ttptycmd() to restore console modes after a remote-mode transfer. ckutio.c, 25 Aug 2007.

Added code to try to break the deadlock. If select() times out, but we have stuff to write either to the pty or the net, try to do it anyway, even though select() did not say we could. But this doesn't help because when select() times out we don't have anything to write. The problem is that after receiving that last packet from the remote rz, the local lsz doesn't seem to do anything, as if the lower fork wasn't running (and to confirm this hypothesis, sometimes I noticed that when I Ctrl‑C'd out of this, the transfer would take off again).

Backing up and testing with gkermit rather than zmodem:

kst ripple.txt [824K] OK
kst ascii.txt [1359K] OK
krt ripple.txt — FAILED

It seems that we can't handle streaming. If I set up krt to disable streaming on receipt, it works OK.

krt ripple.txt [824K] OK
krb all2.bin  [1000K] OK

So here we have no trouble sending but big trouble receiving unless we disable streaming. Whereas with Zmodem we have trouble receiving.

But this wasn't happening before, what changed? Using C-Kermit on the far end to receive the file with debug log on, I see that it is sending 4K data packet after 4K data packet, with the local gkermit silent, as expected. About midway through the transfer, the local Kermit sends an error packet "Transmission error on reliable link". Looking at G-Kermit's debug log… It receives the first five 4K data packets OK, but gets a CRC error on the fifth one, and sends the Error packet. So it has received a stream of 20-some thousand bytes OK and then messes up. That number sounds a lot like ttptycmd()'s buffer size. I changed the buffer sizes to be different:

Read from pty and write to net: 4K
Read from net and write to pty: 1K

This time it received the first 4K packet and failed on the second one. Then I increased the buffers to 98K each, expecting to receive lots more packets successfully but it bombed out on the 5th one. But that's good, it confirms there's no logic error in the buffer management. Just to make sure, though, let's set the buffer size smaller than the packet size and disable streaming. In this case we get 4 good data packets and a CRC error on the 5th one and so we request retransmission, and the next 8 times it arrives it gets a different CRC error, but the 9th copy is OK. Then the next packet comes and it gets a CRC error every time. And this is nothing but plain ASCII text.

Switching to remote mode:

REMOTE=1 kk kst

(after tricking myself because it was using ttruncmd() for this...) I see that nothing works at all. What did I break? 24 Aug 2007.

ANYWAY… after fixing that, I tested zsb on Linux, and it's broken there too, using openpty(), so it's nothing to do with ckupty.c. After sending the first Zmodem data packet, it just hangs, nothing comes back. In text mode it gets farther, but then the same thing happens. Captured stderr from rz on the far end:

Bytes received:     608/1000000   BPS:21137  ETA 00:47  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Bytes received:     864/1000000   BPS:23540  ETA 00:42  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Bytes received:    1120/1000000   BPS:25003  ETA 00:39  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Bytes received:    5696/1000000   BPS:56988  ETA 00:17  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Bytes received:    9120/1000000   BPS:62227  ETA 00:15  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Bytes received:    9376/1000000   BPS:60766  ETA 00:16  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Bytes received:    9632/1000000   BPS:60361  ETA 00:16  Retry 0: Got TIMEOUT
Retry 0: Sender Canceled
Retry 0: Got ZCAN

The local sz, however, doesn't give any error message. ZCAN means: "other end canceled session by sending 5 ^X's" (or user typed them). What actually happens is that ttptycmd()'s select() times out waiting for something from the Zmodem partner and ttptycmd() itself kills the sz fork with SIGHUP. When lsz receives SIGHUP it sends the ZCAN. So the real problem is that after some point we're not receiving anything.

I changed the timeout from 4 seconds to 30 seconds and now I see it just stops for long periods of time and then resumes. The lrz log on the receiving end shows tons of timouts, CRC errors, and other errors. The local log shows that lsz wound up sending ZCAN (2 x (10 x ^H, 10 x ^X)).

Moving on to another problem… Turns out Ctrl‑C (SIGINT) is working right after all. Since I'm using my test scripts like kerbang scripts, Ctrl‑C exits through trap(), as it should, closing the connection and cleaning up. If I start Kermit and tell it to TAKE the script, then Ctrl‑C brings me back to the prompt with the connection still open (as it should). However, until now I haven't done anything about the fork or the ptys. Added code to trap() to kill the fork and close the master pty. ckuusx.c, 24 Aug 2007.

Some tests, Solaris to NetBSD over K5. zst sends ascii.txt, a 2.36MB ascii text file (Kcps / Errors). zrt receives the same file:

zst 587/0 526/0 542/0 434/0 423/0
zrt 827/0 800/0 847/0 FAIL  610/0

So text is good. Binary not so good. Here we transfer the 1MB all-bytes pattern file. zrb receives it successfully, but with 1248 errors, at only 15Kcps. Sending the same file out always fails:

Begin 20070823 16:32:07: SEND BINARY all2.bin [sz]
Sending: all2.bin
Bytes Sent:   5600/1000000   BPS:12446    ETA 01:19   FAILURE
End 20070823 16:32:13
Elapsed time: 6.617992999999842
cps = 151103.2121067556
lsz: caught signal 1; exiting

Decided to move to Linux but found that something is screwed up in Linux C-Kermit with tilde expansion:

send ~/testfiles/all.bin

doesn't expand at all (but it did yesterday!). The problem was in the ancient, ancient realuid/setuid handling code; real_uid() no longer works in Linux. I worked around this in whoami() by setting ruid to getuid() if real_uid() returned a negative number. Maybe dangerous, worry about it later. ckufio.c, 23 Aug 2007.

Now it looks like Solaris is working but then it hangs at the end. It appears as if the ckupty.c module is blocking SIGCHLD. Debug log shows that when the transfer is complete, we received IAC DM (Telnet Data Mark) after sz's last gasp and before the shell prompt is printed. But calling tn_doop() in this case is a mistake because we are reading the number of bytes that we know are available in a counted loop, but tn_doop() would consume an unknown number of bytes and we would never know when to exit the loop. Anyway, C-Kermit doesn't do anything with DM. Skipping over tn_doop() (and not writing out the Telnet command bytes) fixes the hanging condition at the end, even though SIGCHLD is never raised. ckutio.c, 23 Aug 2007.

Built on HP-UX 11i v3 (B.11.31 U ia64) with optimizing compiler, got tons of picky warnings, but it finished and linked and runs OK. Many of the warnings were like this:

"ckucns.c", line 1606: warning #2068-D: integer conversion resulted in a
change of sign:   tnopt[0] = (CHAR) IAC;

IAC is defined as 255 in ckctel.h. If I define it as 0xff, I don't get the warnings. I changed the definitions of all the Telnet commands to be in hex notation rather than decimal. If cuts way down on the HP-UX warnings and doesn't seem to cause problems elsewhere. ckctel.h, 23 Aug 2007.

If sz is not given the -e flag, it sends control characters bare, except ^P, ^Q, ^S, and ^X. ^X is the control prefix, so ^A is sent ^X followed by A. With -e, all C0 control chars are prefixed, but with ^X, which is, of course, a control character. Interestingly, the C1 analogs of ^P, ^Q, ^S (but not ^X and, unfortunately, not IAC) are also prefixed. -e makes no difference for 8-bit characters.

If we have a Telnet connection and the server is in ASCII (NVT) mode, CR is always followed by LF or NUL. Well, it seems the server is putting us (Kermit) in binary mode in this case, but staying in ASCII mode itself. Added code to handle NVT byte stuffing and unstuffing in each direction independently, according to the TRANSMIT_BINARY state in that direction. I made a file containing just the bytes 0-31 and 127 and 128-159 and 255 (66 bytes all together) and sending it from the host to C-Kermit, the local log shows that every control character was received correctly and all TELNET conversions were done right — NUL removed after CR (and only after CR); IAC removed after IAC (and only after an IAC meant as a quote). For the first time, I can receive the 1MB all-values test pattern, but there are still tons of (correctable) CRC errors, so the transfer rate is really awful, like about 5% of what we get with a text file (25Kcps instead of 500).

Further experimentation shows that the fundamental transparency problem is fixed; we can receive short files (say, 1K or less) containing absolutely any byte values in any combination with no errors at all. But once the file size reaches (say) 10K, we get CRC errors, like one every 2 or 3K of data. These are not deterministic. In successive transfers of the same file, they come in different spots. It's tempting to blame pty buffer overruns, but then text files would show the same behavior. When a binary file size exceeds, say, 1MB, the chances of successful completion go way down, independent of whether my external protocol is rz or lrz. I like lrz better because the error reports come out on the screen as the transfer is going on. Trying to download a real-world binary file — a 2.2MB C-Kermit executable — I get 4500 error messages but the transfer eventually succeeds, with an effective throughput of 21Kcps.

Actually it turns out that "sz -a somebigtextfile" (2.2MB) also gets a lot of CRC errors. The -e flag (escape all control characters) makes the same big text file transfer with few or no errors. It's not sure-fire. Sometimes no errors, sometimes one or two, and sometimes a fatal error that kills the transfer.

With binary files… a 32K binary file seems to make it every time. 40K fails about 50% of the time. 48K fails 60% and every time it fails, it has created a partial file of exactly 32K (32768 bytes). 96K fails 9 out of 10 times, when it fails, the partial file is always 0 bytes, or 32768, or 65536, but that just means that rz's file output buffer is 32K.

Why, then, do binary files cause trouble if it is not a solid transparency problem? If a certain file can get through once, why can't it get through every time? When a character arrives at the pty, the pty driver probably takes a different path through its code, checking the terminal flags that would affect that character. I tried making Kermit's network read buffers very small but, surprisingly, this made things worse. I also tried making them very much bigger, which didn't help either. 24K still seems to be the right size.

So, is it that some characters take longer to process than others? So long that data is lost due to lack of flow control between TCP and the pty? One way to test this theory is to slow Zmodem down. I tried "-l 32" which, according to the man page, tells sz to "wait for the receiver to acknowledge correct data every N (32 <= N <= 1024) characters. This may be used to avoid network over-run when XOFF flow control is lacking." Makes no difference. I also tried the -w (Window) switch, ditto. In fact there are all sorts of options to set the "window size", "packet length", "block size", and "frame length", but with no explanation of what these mean or how they are related. If I crank everything down to minimum value:

lsz q -L 32 -l 32 -w 1

I get 50% success with the 96K file instead of 10%. Adding -e, oddly enough, made it worse. I also tried setting the environment variable ZNULLS to different numbers like 512, no help there either.

I tried making the read-from-net-write-to-pty buffer small (1K) but leaving the pty-to-net one big. This improves chances of success, but it's intolerably slow (3Kcps when the connection is capable of 500K).

I also changed the write-to-pty operation from a single write() call of possibly many K characters to a byte loop, one write() per byte. Same result: success (but still about 300 recoverable errors), throughput 3Kcps. 20 Aug 2007.

With ttptycmd() configured to write to the pty in a byte loop, it is possible to delay each write. Adding a 10msec delay per character results in a transfer that runs at about 20 cps and (for the 96K test file) would take about 80 minutes to complete. And yet it still gets just as many errors. So it's not a matter of timing either. The errors come, on average, every file 388 bytes, but not at regular intervals.

I tried the TIOCREMOTE ioctl on the pty master, as discussed somewhat obliquely in the Mac OS X "man pty" page; "This mode causes input to the pseudo terminal to be flow controlled and not input edited (regardless of the terminal mode)" — sounds like just the ticket but it made no difference. Actually, looking at a man page on another OS (Solaris), it says this is only for lines of text, EOLs are supplied, so that would mess up the protocol. So remember: don't use this.

Tried without O_NDELAY; the behavior was the same but the speed was much slower.

Tried switching back to the ckupty.c routines on Mac OS X and found that it works now the same as with openpty(), except that I seem to get more getty babble at the end. But this means I can run some tests on Solaris. I moved the entire test environment from Mac OS X 10.4.9 to Solaris 9. But it doesn't work at all.

Trying to figure out the ckupty.c modules again.

  • do_pty() calls pty_getpty() which returns in arg1 the fd of the pty master.
  • Then it creates a pipe as a way to tell when the child dies
  • Then it creates a fork:
    • The parent does a blocking read from the pipe
    • The child calls getptyslave() to get the pty slave and writes one byte to the pipe and then execs the command it's supposed to run

Note that the file descriptor of the slave is known only to the lower fork. Therefore the lower fork is the one that has to set all the tty modes, etc. I took care of all that but the ckupty.c method doesn't work at all on Solaris. But it works "fine" on Mac OS X (the 32K all-bytes test file transfers instantly with no errors, but the 96K one errors out).

The problem on Solaris is that pty_make_raw() fails on the masterfd (but not on the slavefd) with errno 25 "ioctl inappropriate for device". It doesn't matter whether I do it in ckupty.c or ckutio.c. I found a web page on kde.org that says Solaris does not allow tcget/setattr() on a pty master. But the Sun "knowledge base" is not open to the public. Well, presumably changes made to the slave are reflected in the master (comments in Solaris telnetd seem to confirm this...) Let's come back to Solaris later.

Moving to a Linux with lrzsz installed… Built a Kerberos 5 version with USE_CKUPTY_C. Like on Mac OS X, it transfers short files OK and chokes on longer ones. Switched to openpty(), it behaves the same. So the problems on Mac OS X are evidently not OS-specific, which is good I guess, since that means finding the way around them will apply to more than one platform. 21 Aug 2007.

Look into TIOCSCTTY again. On System V based OS's, opening a pty acquires a controlling terminal automatically. On BSD-based OS's, no; you have to use the TIOCSCTTY on the slave file descriptor to give it one. I'm not sure why a controlling terminal would be needed, except that without one, the virtual device "/dev/tty" does not exist for the process that runs on the pty, and maybe the application that runs there (e.g. rzsz) checks for it. On the downside, having a controlling terminal opens the process up to terminal interrupts like SIGINT and SIGQUIT. Until now I have not been using this ioctl(). Results (in Linux):

With TIOCSCTTY: 96K all-bytes test: 11 screens of errors, then success
Without TIOCSCTTY: exactly the same.

Tried the same thing with TIOCNOTTY instead of TIOCSCTTY, with exactly the same results (no effect whatsoever).

There has to be a way to make this work, because Zmodem works through telnetd, which basically the same thing as ttptycmd(): a relay between the network and a pty. ttptycmd() is like telnetd backwards. Modern telnetds are not much help; they don't access ptys or the network directly, they go through "mux" devices so I can't see what they're doing to get transparency and flow control. An old BSD telnetd uses packet mode but that would be a big deal…

I tried ignoring various signals like SIGTTOU and SITSTP, since some Telnet clients do this. No effect, no difference. Anyway, in Linux the transfers almost always finish OK despite the many errors. There is just some trick I'm missing to make the pty accept a stream of arbitrary bytes without hiccuping.

What about Solaris, which uses ckupty.c? In streams-based OS's, where line disciplines and whatnot are pushed on top of the pty, it looks like the pty module saves the file descriptor of the "bare" slave pty (as 'spty') before pushing things onto it, and then later uses spty rather than the regular slave pty file descriptor when getting/setting terminal modes. I'm not sure what this is all about but it's definitely SysVish… It happens if STREAMSPTY is defined, but I noticed that STREAMSPTY is never defined anywhere. I tried defining it so we take an entirely different path through the code. It made absolutely no difference.

Then I noticed that HAVE_STREAMS is not defined for Solaris either. Tried defining it, but the session didn't work at all, no i/o. Removing the HAVE_STREAMS definition but keeping the STREAMSPTY defined, I rebuilt and tried "set host /connect /pty emacs". I got an EMACS screen but could not type anything into it, which means that STREAMSPTY should not be defined either. Removed the definition and "set host /pty" works again. So what's the problem with ttptycmd()?

In fact, ttptycmd() works on Solaris with Kermit as the external protocol, but not with Zmodem, not even with text files. So again, there is no fundamental problem with the code or the logic, it's Just A Matter Of Transparency to control and/or 8-bit characters — some trick I don't know about.

Looking at the Solaris debug log… I see that ckupty.c is calling init_termbuf() to set the tty modes of the master, not the slave, and set_termbuf() to set them, but you can't do that in Solaris, error 25. This is in getptyslave(). Shouldn't getptyslave() be setting the tty modes of the slave, not the master? I changed it to do this, but like all other changes, it made no difference. I checked to make sure that after the change, "set host /pty /connect emacs" still worked and it did.

And then what… I had some code to redirect stderr in ckupty.c that was not being executing due to a typo. When I fixed the typo, poof, Zmodem binary transfers started working, or working as well as they work in Linux and Mac OS X. It turns out that if I don't redirect stderr, sz and rz just don't work. But lsz and lrz do. But if I do redirect it, I don't see the progress messages from lsz/lrz. 22 Aug 2007.

Discovered that Sending binary files no longer works. Text is OK, binary transfers don't even start. This happens on both encrypted and clear-text connections. ttptycmd() is being used in both cases. But oddly enough, receiving binary still works as before. What did I break, and when? Oh, it was just the script, when I changed it from using sz to lsz. Putting it back to sz makes it work, even with the full 3.2MB binary pattern with IACs.

I backed off the changes I made to ckctel.c to suppress some warnings, in view of the fact that similar changes to ckutio.c broke things so badly. 19 Aug 2007.

I noticed that even Zmodem text receives can fail. They don't get any errors, they just get cut off shortly before the end. (But usually they succeed, and fast too, like 500K cps).

What if I don't call pty_make_raw() at all on the slave pty?

zrt: EESSSSSSSS: 80% good (E = stopped just before end but no other errors)

zrb no-IAC test pattern, short blocks:

 1. S/5 (success with 5 screens of errors.
 2. S/7
 3. S/7
 4. S/6
 5. E/7 (failed just before end)
 6. S/7
 7. S/6
 8. S/6
 9. S/6

10. S/4

So, lots of errors, but it recovered 90% of the time. Next, same thing, but without requesting short blocks:

 1. E/5
 2. S/5
 3. E/4
 4. S/5
 5. S/5
 6. S/5
 7. X/0 (hard failure right away: "Got ZCAN"
 8. S/5
 9. S/5

10. S/5

So it doesn't look like short blocks make that much difference. Now what if I turn off prefixing? Bad CRC, fails immediately every time. Putting back pty_make_raw(slave), it still fails hard.

Tried a new strategy with pty_make_raw(): rather than modify existing flags, I set all flags to 0, and then turn on only those few that we need like CS8. Now we get only 2.5 screens of errors instead 4-7 and the transfer rate is higher for binary files (all of the previous ones were under 100K CPS, while for text files it was 400-500K CPS):

 1. S/2 195669 CPS
 2. S/2 194720
 3. E/3
 4. S/2 192550
 5. S/3 192325
 6. S/3 145066
 7. S/2 200689
 8. S/3 188948
 9. S/2 209461

10. S/3 181991

I noticed that there was no TIOCSTTY ioctl in the pty/fork setup sequence, which is recommended somewhere, so I tried that and it was a disaster; the entire session hung. I took it back out. 18 Aug 2007.

Tried some transfers over a clear-text (not encrypted) connection with the same results: smooth, fast transfer of a big text file (400K cps); rocky but successful transfer of the no-IAC binary pattern file (135K cps). Switching back to ttruncmd(), the same binary file is received at 1.5M cps, and the no-IAC binary file totally fails after too many "Bad CRC"s; and we already know that any file that contains IACs will fail. One might say that ttptycmd() is better in every respect than ttruncmd() except in speed (when it works).

Let's see if ttyptycmd still works in remote mode (to local K95):

  • sz / text works, but slowly.
  • lsz / text works but some weird errors are reported.
  • lsz / binary / no IAC doesn't work at all (CRC-32 mismatch for a header; Unexpected control character ignored: 13, etc).
  • sz / binary / no IAC works OK but slow.
  • sz / binary / full test pattern with IAC works OK but slow.
  • Sending text into rz fails completely.

What about ttruncmd() in remote mode?

  • send /text works, fast.
  • send /binary works, fast.
  • receive /text works, not so fast but not bad.
  • receive /binary works, not so fast but not bad.

So we use ttruncmd() for remote mode, and we use it for local mode serial-port and modem connections, and we use ttptycmd() on network connections because (a) they might be encrypted, and (b) even if they are not, they use some protocol that we have to handle, e.g. Telnet, Rlogin. 19 Aug 2007.

Tried explicitly setting the slave pty to rawmode. Makes no difference. Tried using the Mac OS X (curses) raw() function, and also system("stty raw"); still no difference. Tried doing all of these in different combinations and orders. I found one combination that cuts the errors about in half, and the transfer of the no-IAC test pattern almost always succeeds (but it's slow). Anyway, it doesn't help much with the test pattern that contains IACs. Well, the code is more solid than it was before but functionally we have not advanced much if we can't download a binary file with Zmodem! On the other hand, we can upload them, and we can transfer text files in both directions, which is an improvement over the previous situation, in which the entire session would hang due to loss of synchronization of the encryption stream.

Tried adding -funsigned-char to CFLAGS of Mac OS X target. It does not make the "signedness" warnings go away and it doesn't change the runtime symptoms.

I tried a simpler version of pty_make_raw(), the one from Serg Iakovlev, but it was a total failure. That's encouraging though, because it indicates that pty_make_raw() is the right place to be working.

Then I made pty_make_raw() set or unset every single terminal flag explicitly. This made no difference, but didn't hurt anything either.

Then I made pty_make_raw() explicitly set all the c_cc[] characters to 0 (but left c_cc[VMIN] as 1). This made no difference either.

I checked pty_make_raw() against ttpkt() and the only difference I found in the terminal flags is that ttpkt() sets IGNPAR thinking it means "ignore parity errors" when really it means "discard any character that has a parity error" (at least according to Iakovlev) — exactly the opposite. But I tried it both ways, no difference. 17 Aug 2007.

Cleaned up the remaining pointer signedness warnings in ckutio.c, but this was a mistake, it broke Kerberos connections completely. Undid the changes. ckutio.c, 17 Aug 2007.

Changed all return() in the fork()==0 section of ttptycmd() to exit(). ckutio.c, 17 Aug 2007.

Changed some data types and added some casts to ckctel.c to do away with tons of "pointer targets in passing argument 1 of 'xxx' differ in signedness" warnings. 15 Aug 2007.

Set up Mac OS X as the testbed for ttptycmd(), with Panix as the remote partner over a Kerberos 5 connection. The first test is to send a 300K text file with gkermit as the external protocol. It worked fine, and the debug log showed all the right components were active (namely encryption and ttptycmd) [kermit/zmodem send/receive text/binary]:

Kermit    Zmodem
kst OK    zst OK
ksb OK    zsb OK
krt OK    zrt OK
krb OK    zrb Failed "rz: Persistent CRC or other ERROR"

We've seen this before. The problem is 0xff, Telnet IAC, as I proved to myself by constructing a 3MB file that contained every byte but 0xff in every mixture and order and transferring it successfully over the same connection. Presumably the Telnet server is doubling IACs, whereas of course rz is not undoubling, thus the CRC error. This is progress. 15 Aug 2007.

Log shows that indeed every IAC in the source file arrives doubled. Adding code to remove the first IAC of every adjacent pair, a small test file with different-length runs of IACs transfers OK. The 3MB all.bin file does not.

Starting over… I can receive a big text file with Zmodem OK. The 3.2MB binary test pattern that contains no IACs failed after 1.8MB, but the part that it transferred was OK. A second try, almost the whole thing arrived, it stopped just 584 bytes short of the end. Could be that file size is a separate problem. Making a new copy exactly 1MB long… Well, that's interesting, this one too stopped just short of the end. And again, the same thing. When connecting back to the host, the last Zmodem packet can be seen on the screen; it's as if the local Zmodem exited before reading the last packet… But OK, if I change the options on the remote sz sender to use small blocks, etc, then it works.

Now, changing from the 1MB no-IAC-binary test pattern, to the 1MB all-values test pattern, we fail after 81K. But the part that was transferred is correct. Second try, same thing, but 57K. Third: 40K. Each time, upon connecting back, the session is completely dead.

IF I HAVE TO undouble IACs for incoming files, don't I have to double them going out? To send a block to net we just call ttol(), but ttol() doesn't do any doubling (because Kermit protocol always quotes 0xff). To see what happens, I changed the ttol() call to ttoc() in a loop that doubles IACs. I tested this by sending the full 3.2MB test pattern, which worked fine.

For receiving, it's slow but it works OK with files that don't contain IACs (my concern was that IACs might appear in outbound files or in Zmodem protocol messages). It receives the 1MB no-IAC test pattern, so there are no problems with protocol or timing. But the full test pattern always gets cut off, but at different points, as before, with the remote session dead. Changing the Zmodem receiver from rz to lrz on the local end (since the sender on the remote end is lsz) does not change the behavior.

Anyway, I went back and replaced the byte loop with something more efficient, and it goes about 20 times faster. But this doesn't help either, it only makes it fail faster. But aha, what if a doubled IAC is broken across successive pty reads — we have to make the "previous character" memory persistent. Well, that was a good insight, but it still didn't fix it. The log shows the IAC handling code is working fine.

What does sz say? Capturing its stderr to a file… "Retry 1: Got ZCAN". Next time: "Retry 1: Got TIMEOUT". Next time: Got ZCAN.

Trying different Zmodem options… apparently I don't need to use short blocks. But I do need to use -e, probably because of Telnet NVT treatment of carriage return; without -e, there is a "persistent CRC error". -O disables timeouts, but this makes no difference.

OK, we still have two Big Problems:

 1. When a long file has no IACs, the final < 1K of the file is not received.
 2. When a long file has IACs, the transfer generally stops very early.

Problem 1: the transfer consistently fails less than 1K from the end of the file. Upon CONNECT back to the host, a big Zmodem packet is sitting there waiting to be read, which means ttptycmd()'s copy of rz is terminating early. Can we catch it in the debug log? Doing this takes forever and writes a GB to the disk… And then the problem doesn't happen. Also, I can receive a HUGE text file almost instantly with no errors at all.

Switching to lrz on the receiving end, now I see the error messages, about 300 lines like this:

Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
Bytes received:  872352/1000000   BPS:85464  ETA 00:01  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Bytes received:  892448/1000000   BPS:86690  ETA 00:01  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
Retry 0: Got ERROR
Bytes received:  898336/1000000   BPS:84293  ETA 00:01  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
Bytes received:  900384/1000000   BPS:83751  ETA 00:01  Bad escape sequence
try 0: Bad data subpacket
Bytes received:  941472/1000000   BPS:86191  ETA 00:00  Retry 0: Bad CRC
Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded

Even when it succeeds, it gets these. But if I receive a text file, no matter how big, no errors or retries or timeouts at all. So it appears that there is only one problem: a big-time lack of transparency regarding 8-bit and/or control characters. The odd thing is, it's not that the characters can't get through — they all can — but they seem to cause transitory blockages. 16 Aug 2007.

[FTP SEND /RECURSIVE] Peter Crowley reported a problem with FTP recursive uploads getting the directory tree wrong when the previous pathname was a left substring of the new pathname (e.g. foo/bar/ and foo/bar2/). The logic did not handle this case and created the bar2 directory as a subdirectory of bar, rather than as a parallel directory. Fixed in syncdir() and tested with various edge cases. ckcftp.c 14 Aug 2007.

notify <peter.crowley@alumni.utexas.net>

Added CD messages to FTP BRIEF display to track the ups and downs of recursive uploads. ckcftp.c, 14 Aug 2007.

The OUTPUT command gave a misleading error message ("Connection to xxx not open") when used on a serial port that was, indeed, open but was not presenting the Carrier signal, when CARRIER-WATCH was not OFF. Added a new message for this, and some others. ckuus5.c, 14 Aug 2007.

Sending from the command line, e.g. kermit -s foo, did not give an informative error message if the file could not be found or opened. Fixed in ckuusy.c, 14 Aug 2007.

OK, back to ttptycmd.... It seems that back on March 27th, I got everything working but I thought that there was still something wrong with it because an unrelated problem so I put it aside. The version of ttpty.c from that date worked OK, and it looks like I updated ckutio.c from it, but that version of ckutio.c was put aside. Since then I have been working on the ckutio.c version that was NOT put aside and so now I have to reconcile the two:


As a first cut I did this simply by replacing the contents of the #ifdef CK_REDIR section of the latter with that of the former. Of course in Solaris this comes up with openpty() implicitly declared at compile time and unresolved at link time. So the first task is to get HAVE_OPENPTY defined for platforms that have it and have the others use the ttruncmd(). For starters I put an #ifdef block in ckcdeb.h that defines HAVE_OPENPTY for Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Mac OS X. Ones that don't have openpty() include AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris. Others like SCO I don't know but I doubt it. The real solution is to get the ckupty.c module to work but one thing at a time… This version is supposed work with secure builds on the openpty() platforms, and on the others like Solaris, if an external protocol is attempted on a secure (encrypted) connection, an error message is printed and the command fails. ckutio.c, 14 Aug 2007.

How to test? Apparently I did all my testing on Panix before, and that's where all my Zmodem builds are, but now when I build a Kerberized version (which works if I do it on the right pool host), it won't make a local connection, and there is no other place I can connect to that has a Kerberized Telnet server. I can, however, connect to Panix from here, using the same code, but on Mac OS X…

Slight detour: Got access to AIX again ( Picky compiler, some things needed fixing.... Also it says "1506-507 (W) No licenses available. Contact your program supplier to add additional users. Compilation will proceed shortly" and of course it goes kind of slow. For some reason, I can't do streaming transfers into AIX over a local network (to its SSH server), but windowed transfers are OK. Anyway, noting that we've been using the same basic makefile target since AIX 4.2, changing nothing but the version herald, I made a new target, simply "aix", that picks up the AIX version automatically and sets the herald from it. Ditto for aix+openssl, but on this host requires setting SSLINC and SSLLIB to /opt/ssl/include and /opt/ssl/lib. Also the make program here was extremely sensitive to spacing so I had to make some minor edits to get the link step to work for the SSL version. ckuusy.c, makefile, 14-15 Aug 2007.

Got rid of the special Panix secure NetBSD target, replaced it with a regular one, which is invoked in the normal way by defining K5INC and K5LIB to point to to where the stuff is hidden. Cleaned up and modernized the comments in the makefile a bit. makefile 15 Aug 2007.

Built OK on NetBSD 1.3_RC3. Tried to build secure version but the libraries had disappeared. 13 Aug 2007.

Built OK on Mac OS X 10.4.9. Tried the secure version, macosx10.4+krb5+ssl. Here we get the usual pile of "pointer targets in passing argument 1 of (function name) differ in signedness", regarding security functions, but it built OK. 13 Aug 2007.

Reconciling the two ttinl's… On encrypted connections myread() returns encrypted bytes; ttinl() has to decrypt them; it wasn't doing this in the lookahead section so I fixed it. The new code works on both encrypted and clear-text connections. I removed the chaining to oldttinl(), and oldttinl() itself. ckutio.c, 13 Aug 2007.

  (Wouldn't it make more sense and be more efficient and less confusing
  for myfillbuf() to do the decrypting?)

When C-Kermit uses Zmodem as an external protocol, it doesn't seem to scan files before sending them to set text or binary mode appropriately. It's that external protocols bypass Kermit's whole "get next file" mechanism; the (possibly wild) filespec is simply passed to the external protocol program. Changing this would be a very big deal. But if only one file is being sent (the filespec is not wild) it's easy enough to check. I added this to the external protocols section of the protocol module. It can be overridden in any of the regular ways (/TEXT or /BINARY switch on SEND command, SET PATTERNS OFF, SET TRANSFER MODE MANUAL, etc). ckcpro.w, 13 Aug 2007.

Revisiting the ASCII and BINARY top-level commands, which are supposed to be like in other FTP clients, but don't seem to have any effect. I added a new routine to the FTP module, doftpglobaltype(), that sets the global, sticky, permanent transfer mode (ASCII or BINARY) (TENEX could be added to if anybody asks). These commands (now that they work) are different from SET FTP TYPE { ASCII, BINARY }, which set the *default* transfer mode when automatic switching fails for a given file. ckuusr.c, ckcftp.c, 12 Aug 2007.

 (notify: Matt <mlist@cmcflex.com>)

Even though the code hasn't changed, suddenly we're getting:

"ckuusx.c", line 5682: warning: implicit function declaration: tgetent
"ckuusx.c", line 6183: warning: implicit function declaration: tgetstr
"ckuusx.c", line 6262: warning: implicit function declaration: tputs
"ckuusx.c", line 6266: warning: implicit function declaration: tgoto

in ckuusx.c on Solaris 9. <curses.h> is still in /usr/include, dated 2002. A quick search shows the missing functions are hiding in <term.h>, which until now was included only in Linux. Added a USE_TERM_H clause. No, that doesn't help, the prototypes are not selected at compile time; there are #ifdefs in that file that skip over these prototypes. I had to put them in the code under #ifdef BUG999..#endif (I could have used a longer name like #ifdef ADD_PROTOTYPES_FOR_CURSES_FUNCTIONS, but that would not be portable). ckuusx.c, 12 Aug 2007.


"ckuusx.c", line 9232: warning: implicit function declaration: creat

This is called in the IKSD database code, used for getting a lockfile. creat() is a Unixism in code that is supposed to be portable. But IKSD only runs on Unix and Windows, so I assume the Windows C library has a creat() function. Anyway, suddenly the Solaris header files seem to have blocked whatever path previously existed to the creat() prototype (which is in <fcntl.h>), so I added an #include in the appropriate spot. ckuusx.c, 12 Aug 2007.

Kermit functions for converting the number base — \fradix(), \fhexify(), \unfhexify() — did not work with big numbers; ckradix() was missed in the CK_OFF_T conversion. Fixed in ckclib.c, 12 Aug 2007.

Updated the help text for ASCII, BINARY, and SET FTP TYPE to clarify the semantics. ckuus2.c, ckcftp.c, 12 Aug 2007.

Error messages were printed upon failure to open any of the four log file, even with SET QUIET ON. Fixed in ckuus4.c, 12 Aug 2007.

There was a function, islink(), used in only one place (ckuus6.c) that had the same name as a commonly used scalar variable, and it was missing a prototype. Changed its name to isalink() and added the prototype (Unix only), ckuus6.c, ckufio.c, ckcdeb.h. 12 Aug 2007.

Meanwhile, using C-Kermit on Mac OS X, which makes the Kerberized connection just fine, but still has the problem transferring files over it. Packet log shows:

s-00-01-^A9 Sz/ @-#Y3~Z! z0___F"U1@A^M
r-00-01-^A9 Y~/ @-#Y3~^>J)0___J"U1@I

Note that S packet is sent, received, and Ack'd OK. The F packet is sent but is never Ack'd. Tried this several times and noticed that it's just receiving that is screwed up, not sending. After ^C'ing out of the transfer, I can still type commands, and they are executed on the far end, but the results coming back are gibberish. Mon Jul 9 16:08:22 2007 (come back to this later… substitute Dev.27 ttinl for current one and see if the problem goes away, and if so, conditionalize the new code for clear-text connections).

Built C-Kermit with Kerberos 5 on Solaris with a version of ckutio.c that uses the old ttinl() and transferred a file OK over a Kerberized connection. So now it's just a matter of reconciling the old and new ttinl. The easiest way to do this is to have new ttinl() chain to old ttinl() if the connection is encrypted, which is what I did and it works fine. At some point the two versions of ttinl() should be reconciled. ckutio.c, 12 Aug 2007.

It occurs to me that Kermit transfers on secure connections might have been broken by the changes I made back in February to ttinl() for John Dunlap. Here, for the first time, we invoke myunrd() to push a byte back into the input queue, and there is also some funny business with "csave", which changed, and which an old comment notes that it has to be treated specially when encrypting. So it could be that the broken Kermit transfer has nothing to do with the work on external protocols, and that putting back the previous ttinl() will fix it. But now I can't seem to make a Kerberized connection from Panix to Panix, even though I can make one from Columbia to Panix. This means I have to build a Kerberized binary from the current source code on either Solaris or Mac OS X. Trying Solaris first… [~/solaris9k5/mk5.sh] This didn't work the first time due to undefined krb5_init_ets, which is referenced if MIT_CURRENT is not defined (it should be for Kerberos 5 1.05 and later and we have 1.42 here), tried again with -DMIT_CURRENT=1… Nope, that one totally blew up in ck_crp.c. Later, Jeff says krb5_init_ets is a no-op in Kerberos 1.4.x and later, so I added an #ifdef (NO_KRB5_INIT_ETS) for skipping it; now it builds and runs OK. ckuath.c, makefile, 9 Jul 2007.

Wed 21 Mar 2007: Back to where we left off a week ago. Trying C-Kermit's ttptycmd() on the Mac again, in remote mode:

  • G-Kermit send txt (kst): OK 832Kcps
  • G-Kermit recv txt (kr): OK 425Kcps
  • G-Kermit send bin (ksb): OK 1000Kcps
  • G-Kermit recv bin (kr): OK 188Kcps

And Zmodem:

  • sz txt (zst): OK 563Kcps
  • sz bin (zsb): OK 714Kcps
  • rz txt (zr): OK 863Kcps
  • rz bin (zr): OK 198Kcps

So in remote mode, everything works. Now let's try a clear-text Telnet connection…

  • G-Kermit send txt (kst): OK 841Kcps
  • G-Kermit recv txt (krt): OK 391Kcps
  • G-Kermit send bin (ksb): OK 811Kcps
  • G-Kermit recv bin (krb): OK 171Kcps

And Zmodem over the same clear-text telnet connection:

  • sz txt (zst): OK 91Kcps (*)
Kermit is sending sz messages like "sz 3.73 1-30-03 finished." to the host, which tries to execute them, after the transfer is finished. Of course "sz" is a command, but:

sz: cannot open 3.73: No such file or directory
sz: cannot open 1-30-03: No such file or directory
sz: cannot open finished.: No such file or directory

Did I lose that code that dis-redirects stderr when I went back to using the pty code from the ckupty module? No, it's there and it's being executed. Apparently the copy of sz I have is writing its "finished" message to stdout because "sz blah 2> /dev/null" does not suppress it. Starting again with lsz instead of sz:

  • sz txt (lzst): OK 413Kcps
  • sz bin (lzsb): OK FAILED (*)
  • rz txt (lzrt): OK
  • rz bin (lzrb): OK

(*) Sigh. Using lsz, we get "garbage count exceeded" errors and eventual failure. But using regular sz, we get the extraneous message that starts sz on the far tend, and the resulting getty babble.

But even without changing the code, it will work one minute, and then fail consistently the next. For example, I was able to send files with sz successfully over and over, but with the getty babble at the end. Then, after trying lsz and then going back to sz, every attempt at sending a file quits with "Got ZCAN". The difference has to be that Kermit always does at least some minimal encoding of C0/C1 control characters such NUL and DEL and IAC, and I doubt that Zmodem does.

http://zssh.sourceforge.net/ says:

If file transfer is initiated but never completes, e.g. a line like:

Bytes Sent:      0/    513   BPS:0        ETA 00:00  Retry 0: Got ZCAN
can be seen, but transfer never completes), chances are the pty/tty on one of the systems are not 8-bit clean. (Linux is 8-bit clean, NetBSD is not). Using the -e (escape) option of rz should solve this problem.

It doesn't, at least not with lrz. And yes, the receiving end happens to be NetBSD. But it looks like the zssh people have been down this road too.

But with rz and sz, it worked. Once. Twice. Three times. But of course, with the getty babble at the end. This can be taken care of by doing:

rz -eq ; cat > foo

which puts "sz 3.73 1-30-03 finished" and any other messages in foo (but you have to type ^D to finish the cat). Using this method I was also able to send an 8K binary file that contained a test pattern of all 256 possible byte values. Then I tried a 3MB binary executable. All OK. So here we go again:

  • sz txt (zst): OK
  • sz bin (zsb): OK
  • rz txt (zrt):
  • rz bin (zrb):

Downloading fails about halfway through a fairly large file. I tried an even bigger file, guaranteed to be 100% ASCII; same thing — halfway through: "rz: Persistent CRC or other ERROR". But it worked with a smaller version of the same file (82K versus 2MB). Tried again with the bigger version, it failed in exactly the same way at exactly the same spot: byte number 1048320. But this is just ASCII text so it can't be a transparency problem. Substituting another plain ASCII file of the same size but totally different contents, it doesn't fail (2.36MB). Back to the previous file, it fails again, but in a different spot (832960). So it's not totally deterministic.

To round things out, I tried downloading the binary test-pattern file; it's only 8K. This failed.

-4, —try-4k                go up to 4K blocksize
-B, —bufsize N             buffer N bytes (N==auto: buffer whole file)
-e, —escape                escape all control characters (Z)
-E, —rename                force receiver to rename files it already has
-L, —packetlen N           limit subpacket length to N bytes (Z)
-l, —framelen N            limit frame length to N bytes (l>=L) (Z)

Tried again with "sz -L 256 -B 256 -4aeq". Doesn't change anything.

NOTE: Mac OS X rz 3.73 1-30-03 does not support -e. NetBSD rz 0.12.20 does support -e.

Thu 22 Mar 2007: It occurs to me that ttpkt() might still be a problem; maybe it's the network connection and not the pty that is not transparent enough. To test this theory I did "stty raw ; stty -a" and then copied all of the flag values into ttpkt in the BSD44ORPOSIX section:

  • rz txt (zrt): OK (2.36MB file, worked 2 out of 3 times)
  • rz bin (zrb): "rz: Persistent CRC or other ERROR"

A little more fiddling with the flags and I got the 8K binary test pattern to SEEM to download OK (in the sense that rz gave a 0 return code) but the file itself was truncated, always at 224. If I changed the test pattern file to not include any bytes with value 224 (0xe0) or 255 (0xff), the download worked. So we have a transparency problem somewhere. The debug log shows that all byte values are being received from the network correctly so the problem has to occur when we try to feed them to the pty.

But no amount of twiddling with the termios flags seems to let these characters pass through. Of course, since they are not in the C0 or C1 control range, "sz -e" doesn't quote them (which it does by prefixing with Ctrl‑X and then adding 0x40 to the byte value so (e.g.) NUL becomes ^X@. Note that 255 does not cause problems because it coincides with the IAC character; the remote Telnet server doubles outbound IACs, and Kermit's ttinc() undoubles them automatically (as the log shows).

Trying to send a different file (a C-Kermit binary) shows that 255 is the real killer; the file is truncated where the first one appears (at about 6K), even though some 224's precede it. Going back to the remote-mode test, I see the same thing happens with the binary test-pattern file, if I send it from K95 direct to rz-under-C-Kermit-in-remote-mode. So it has nothing to do with C-Kermit having a network connection. Yet if I send the same file direct from K95 to rz, it goes OK and the result is not truncated, so it's not Zmodem either. The data arrives to C-Kermit intact, so the failure is definitely in writing it to the rz process through the slave and master ptys.

BUT if I send the same file from K95 to rz-under-ttpty, that works. What's the difference? Suppose I just transplant ttpty literally into C-Kermit… It makes no difference. When receiving the test-pattern, it truncates it in exactly the same place.

Well, all this is on Mac OS X. What if I move it to a different platform? OK, building on Solaris and following the exact same procedure, ttptycmd() doesn't even use the network connection. I think that's because rzsz on Solaris is hardwired to use the controlling terminal and can't be redirected, even in a pty?

Moved to NetBSD.

  • sz txt (zst): Failed ("Got ZCAN")
  • sz bin (zsb):
  • rz txt (zrt): OK
  • rz bin (zrb):

Well, this is a big mess. Sending doesn't work (or sometimes it does but reports that it didn't). Receiving… well, actually it's the same thing; the file is completely transferred but then the final protocol handshake is lost. The local C-Kermit returns to its prompt, but rz is still running:

Retry 0: Got TIMEOUT
Retry 0: TIMEOUT
Retry 0: Got TIMEOUT
Retry 0: TIMEOUT
Retry 0: Got TIMEOUT
Retry 0: TIMEOUT
Retry 0: Got TIMEOUT
Retry 0: TIMEOUT
Retry 0: Got TIMEOUT
Retry 0: TIMEOUT
Retry 0: Got TIMEOUT

I don't see how that is even possible. Even after I exit from Kermit the messages keep coming, even though ps doesn't show the rz process anywhere. Looking at the code, I see a place where end_pty() was still commented out from the ttpty.c episode, I uncommented it. But still:

  • sz txt (zst): Fails ("Got ZCAN")
  • sz bin (zsb): Fails instantly (but with no diagnostic)
  • rz txt (zrt): OK
  • rz bin (zrb): Fails with tons of "Bad CRC", "Garbage Count exceeded"

Conclusion for the day: I think this is hopeless. Even if I can get it to work somewhere, the results depend on the exact Zmodem software, how it uses stdin/out vs stderr versus getting its own nonredirectable file descriptor, versus the Zmodem version on the other end and which options are available on each, versus the pty and select() quirks on each platform, and on and on. It will be so hard to explain and to set up that nobody would ever use it. It would be better to just implement Zmodem internally.

Fri 23 Mar 2007: Went back to the small test program, ttpty.c. Tried setting both the master and the slave pty to rawmode, even though I have never seen any other software that did this. I had it receive the binary test pattern file; it worked. I made a bigger test-pattern file, 3MB, containing single, double, and triple copies of each byte in byte order and in random order, this one was accepted too.

So it would seem that the ckupty.c module is something to avoid after all. It's full of stuff I don't understand and probably should not undo. So changing C-Kermit's ttptycmd() to manage its own pty again, using openpty() (which is not portable), I got it all to work in remote mode: Kermit text/binary up/down and Zmodem text/binary up/down. But in local mode on the client side of a Telnet connection…

zst: OK, but we still get the getty babble at the end that starts sz.
zsb: OK, ditto.  This is with the 3MB test-pattern file.
zrt: Not OK — "Persistent CRC or other ERROR"
zrb: Not OK — got the cutoff at 224 again "Persistent CRC or other ERROR"

It's close. But actually this was still with USE_CKUPTY_C defined. When I undefined it, it was back to being totally broken. Start over. (Check the new cfmakeraw() code.)

Tue 27 Mar 2007: Starting over. Back to ttpty.c. Let's verify, VERY CAREFULLY, that it really does work, using the most stressful of the four tests: sending the big (3.2768MB) binary test pattern from K95 into rz through ttpty, logging everything. ttpty definitely receives the big file smoothly with no errors or hiccups when I have it set to use the master side of the pty for i/o. The application program (Zmodem in this case) runs on the slave, and the network and/or control program communicates with the master. This implies that Zmodem controls the terminal modes of the slave, and ttpty should be concerned with those of the master. Doing it this way in ttpty confirms this.

Fine. But if I tell ttpty to SEND a file with sz, nothing happens. Ditto with lsz. Select times out waiting for input from the pty. But if I manually tell K95 to RECEIVE /PROTOCOL:ZMODEM it works OK. Somehow sz's initial B000000 string is being swallowed somewhere, and it's waiting for a reply from the receiver. sigh… But "ttpty gkermit -s filename" works fine. What's the difference? It has nothing to do with stdout vs stderr; sz is not writing to stderr at all. Is it some timing thing between the forks? Aha. It's that I change the modes of the pty master in one fork while sz is already starting in the other fork.

OK, good, now for the first time we have Kermit and Zmodem both able to upload and download a large worst-case binary test-pattern file… in remote mode. Now taking today's lessons and fitting them back into C-Kermit so I can try it local mode…

Using G-Kermit as the external protocol, first in remote mode… All good: text/binary up/down. The "halting problem" is solved by SIGCHLD, which catches fork termination instantly and lets ttptycmd() know there is no more pty. Zmodem:

zst: OK
zsb: OKzrt:
zrb: OK

That's a first. Next, repeat in local mode, in which C-Kermit is the client and has made a Telnet connection to another host over a secure (Kerberos V) connection:

kst: OK     zst: ...
ksb: OK
krt: OK
krb: OK

It seems we can never end a day on a high note. Somehow I seem to have broken regular internal Kermit protocol transfers over encrypted connections — the en/decryption engine loses sync. But they still work OK over a clear-text Telnet connection.

Today's code in ~/80/dulce.tar (27 Mar 2007).

Added makefile target solaris10g+openssl. Gathered all the standard CFLAGS for Solaris into cdcdeb.h so they don't have to be included in every single makefile target for Solaris. On local Solaris 10 host OpenSSL is in /opt/openssl-0.9.8e/. Tried the new makefile target, works OK. Also made solaris10+openssl for Sun CC, but couldn't test it because I can't find any Solaris 10 host that has Sun CC. Built with gcc at another site that has OpenSSL 0.9.8f-dev, all OK. ckcdeb.h, makefile, 24 Jun 2007.

Fri 16 Mar 2007: ttptycmd() was for sending files with Zmodem across encrypted connections. But it occurred to me that it's necessary for clear-text connections too; e.g. Telnet, where 0xff has to be doubled. Of course Zmodem doesn't do that itself, so there's no way Zmodem external protocol could work when executed over a Telnet connection, and in fact it doesn't. I wonder why I ever thought it did.

Wed 14 Mar 2007: Receiving a file thru ttpty "gkermit -e 1200 -Srd" produces a debug log that shows that gkermit gets a lot of EAGAIN errors when it tries to read from its stdin. In fact, it takes 6 tries (read() calls) to read the S packet (27 bytes). Then when the first data packet arrives (1200 bytes), read() never returns even one single byte. The timeout interval is 15 seconds and it times out repeatedly. Added a primitive hex dump to the ttpty debug log for each read/write (showing only the first 24 characters and the last character, so it fits on one line). Tried uploading a file. The S, F, and A packets (short) are received and Ack'd OK, but then ttpty select() times out, never receiving even one byte from the D packet. Clearly, when the pty driver receives a burst of > 1K bytes, stops working. As before, if I limit the packets to < 1K, it works fine.

Can I send an 8-bit binary file? Nope. ttpty reads the binary data just fine from the net and writes it exactly as it was received to the pty, but the first time we write an 8-bit byte, we never hear back from the PTY again. But the log shows that when the initial 7-bit packets from the pty, it looks like the PTY is not in rawmode, because these packets end with ^J rather than ^M. Calling pty_make_raw() on the masterfd and slavefd explicitly, however, doesn't change anything. It doesn't matter if I do this in the lower fork or the upper fork. So maybe it's the actual semantics of pty_make_raw() that are wrong.

Thu 15 Mar 2007: Went thru all the terminal mode flags in Mac OS X; didn't help. Changed hex dump to show whole packet. Put hex dump routine in a private copy of G-Kermit. Tried to transfer an 8-bit file, logging both ttpty and gkermit. Compared what ttpty received on stdin with what it sent to the pty (same) and what was received by G-Kermit (same). Then I realized that my little test program was not putting its controlling terminal into raw mode; when I did that, I could upload binary files (streaming, 2MB/sec). And with Zmodem too (with rz; lrz doesn't work for some reason). Looking back at the original in ckutio.c, I see that ttptycmd() never called ttpkt(). Maybe that was the trouble all along. (Yup, but maybe not the whole trouble.)

Moving back to C-Kermit and the original ttptycmd() routine, adding the call to ttpkt(), and stripping out a lot of cruft, and moving the pty_make_raw() code to ckupty.c, Kermit uploads and downloads (streaming) work fine in Solaris. Zmodem sends a file, but then the transfer hangs at the very end, as if the signoff protocol were lost. This happens on Solaris. If I move back to Mac OS X, everything works just fine. Then, making a Kerberized connection from the Mac to NetBSD, I can send files from the Mac with both Zmodem and Kermit. Receiving… Kermit OK. Zmodem… Nope. "rz: Persistent CRC or other ERROR" (and created a 265MB debug.log!)

Mon Mar 12 16:52:20 2007: Put some effort into making ttpty.c more useful; added a debug log. Found that for some reason, at least on Mac OS X, select() always timed out at the end. I added a SIGCHLD alarm and that seems to handle the fork exit condition very nicely. Now we can send (say) a 3MB file at good speed on Ethernet (1Mcps) considering the debugging, etc, and it terminates instantly. But when sending a file into ttptycmd (with "gkermit -r"), things go wrong at the end — the Z packet is never acknowledged. This is reproducible. Maybe this is a good lead.... The log shows that select() timed out, even though the gkermit fork had not yet exited (or finished). It looks like gkermit sent the Ack, ttpty.c read it from the pty and sent it out the net:

0003: read pty=8                <-- read Ack from pty
0003: loop top have_pty=1
0003: loop top have_net=1
0003: FD_SET pty_in
0003: FD_SET ttyfd in
0003: FD_SET ttyfd out=8
0003: nfds=5
0003: select=1
0003: FD_ISSET ttyfd out
0003: write net=8               <-- send ack to net
0003: loop top have_pty=1
0003: loop top have_net=1
0003: FD_SET pty_in
0003: FD_SET ttyfd in
0003: nfds=5
0009: select=0
0009: select timeout - have_pty=1

But Ack never arrived. This is a streaming transfer. But nope, streaming is not the problem. If I disable streaming ("gkermit -Sr"), we hang in in the middle of sending the data. If I use small packets, we don't hang: 1000 is OK, 2000 is not. In fact, the cutoff is 1024. OK, TBC…

Wed Mar 7 16:21:13 2007 WROTE SHORT TEST PROGRAM for ttruncmd (the openpty version) on Mac OS X. On dulce: ~/kermit/ttpty.c / ttpty.sh. It starts the external protocol in the lower fork. The command to run is a command-line argument. Sending and receiving files with Kermit works OK. But again, the standalone program totally fails when I use sz or lsz as the external protocol. So it looks like we can rule out any environmental effects of running the code inside C-Kermit.

Next problem… VMS C-Kermit ftp client sending binary files in text mode. Variation 1: We just send the file. zopeni() is supposed to detect that it's a binary file and automatically set the mode. And it does:

zopeni fixed file format - using blk I/O
zopeni binary flag at open=0
zopeni ifile_bmode=1
zopeni binary=0
zopeni autoswitch from TEXT to BINARY
zopeni RMS operations completed ok

but then in gnfile():

if (!server || (server && ((whatru & WMI_FLAG) == 0)))
binary = gnf_binary;        /* Restore prevailing transfer mode */

Well, since VMS sets text/binary mode automatically when sending files, this code can (and should) be skipped in VMS. gnfile(): ckcfns.c, 2 Mar 2007.

Variation 2: BINARY or SET FILE TYPE BINARY doesn't force binary mode. But SET FTP TYPE BINARY does. But BINARY does indeed call doftptyp() so what's the problem? We do indeed set ftp_typ to 1 but it gets reset somewhere before we call zopeni(). But then zopeni() puts it back to 1. Tracing through a transfer, it looks like all of this works right, it's only that the file transfer display says TEXT when the transfer is really in binary mode. This is because screen() is called before openi(). I wonder if we can call scrft() from the ftp module… No, that would be too easy. OK, sendrequest calls openi() and sets the file mode; putfile() calls screen(SCR_FN), which prints the transfer mode. But putfile calls sendrequest() after it puts up the screen that says the file type. So it looks like sendrequest() has to call screen(SCR_FN) again if it changes the file type. OK, that did it. ckuusx.c, ckcftp.c, 2 Mar 2007.

The BINARY and TEXT (ASCII) commands do not inhibit automatic type switching in VMS. They don't in Unix either. They never have. Should they? I think so, otherwise what good are they? Plus we want the Kermit FTP client to behave like the others. I added code for this but it doesn't work, due to the layers and layers of text/binary detection and switching and if-this-but-then-if-that… Anyway, no harm done. The normal rule is: when you PUT a file, Kermit figures out on a per-file basis whether to use text or binary mode unless you include a /TEXT (/ASCII) or /BINARY switch in the PUT (or MPUT) command. ckuus[r3].c, ckcftp.c, 2 Mar 2007.

2 Mar 2007: New logs from John Dunlap.

ema-1636-log-0175.dbg: C-Kermit uploads a short file. It receives an Ack for the Z packet it just sent, tailgated by the beginning of a Nak for the next packet. When the second SOH is encountered, it is put back in the myread queue. Then the protocol engine, to which we return the Ack, says, "I have the packet I wanted so I'm clearing the buffer", and away go the first two bytes of the Nak from the myread buffer. Then, having just received the Ack of our Z packet, we send our B, and go to read the reply. in_chk finds 0 in the myread buffer (which we just cleared) and 6 waiting to be read from the comms channel, which it does, obtaining the remaining 6 bytes of the Nak, which it properly discards. (The reason this is proper is that, having already received the Ack for the last packet it sent, no Ack or Nak that arrives subsequently — in the non-windowing case — could possibly affect what it does next.) Since it hasn't yet found a good packet, it keeps reading, and now it finds the Ack to the B, as soon as it showed up. This is how it's supposed to work. No time was lost because of anything that C-Kermit did.

ema-1636-log-0174.dbg: C-Kermit uploads a short file. It sends Data packet #3 and receives the Ack followed immediately by the first 3 bytes of a Nak for packet 4. When it gets to the SOH of the second packet, it pushes it back in the queue. Again, input() flushes the input buffer (myread queue and device buffer). C-Kermit detects EOF on the file it is sending, and sends the Z packet. Then it reads the remaining bytes of the Nak, which it discards, and then it finds the Ack for Z which comes in 23 seconds later, sends the B, gets a Nak for the B, sends the B again, gets the Ack for the B 4 seconds later, and done. Again, it's working right and losing no time.

The question remains: what would happen if the protocol engine did not clear the buffer? Would ttinl() retrieve all packets in sequence even when they come back to back? To test this, I had C-Kermit send a file using 30 window slots and observed the stream of Acks in the reverse direction:

HEXDUMP: mygetbuf read (16 bytes)
01 25 23 59 2f 52 39 0d | 01 25 24 59 2b 26 31 0d  .%#Y/R9. .%$Y+&1.
ttinl lookahead my_count=9
ttinl lookahead removed=^M
ttinl lookahead pushback SOP=^A
HEXDUMP: ttinl got (7 bytes)
01 25 23 59 2f 52 39    |                          .%#Y/R9
buffer inuse address length data type seq flag retries
   0     1     29212 9667     0   Y    3     0
in_chk my_count=8
ttinl lookahead my_count=1
ttinl lookahead removed=^M
HEXDUMP: ttinl got (7 bytes)
01 25 24 59 2b 26 31    |                          .%$Y+&1
buffer inuse address length data type seq flag retries
   0     1     29212 9667     0   Y    4     0

Here we can see that the pushed-back SOH was properly retrieved next time around, and the tailgating Ack was not lost. This scenario repeats itself 212 times in the log, and there are no screwups.

Back to VMS FTP… The problem with sending binary files is that zxin() uses C-Library fopen()/fread() instead of RMS, so it can't access the input file, which was opened by zopeni(), which is totally RMS-ified in VMS C-Kermit. For VMS only, I replaced the zxin() loop by a zminchar() loop like the one used in text mode, except without the character set or record-format conversion. Tested by PUT /BINARY of some binary files, which worked fine. ckcftp.c, 2 Mar 2007.

Built on Solaris without and with SSL OK. Built on NetBSD with Kerberos 5, OK. Built on Mac OS X 10.4, regular version, OK. Built on Mac OS X 10.4 with SSL and Kerberos 5, OK.

On VMS 7.2-1/Alpha with MultiNet 4.4A-X…

'CC' 'CCOPT' KSP:ckuus3
%DCL-W-TKNOVF, command element is too long - shorten
\CKUUS4.OBJ "'CC' 'CCOPT' KSP:ckuus4" "KSP:ckuus4.c KSP:ckcsym.h KSP:ckcdeb.h
 KSP:ckclib.h" "KSP:ckcasc.h KSP:ckcker.h KSP:ckcnet.h KSP:ckvioc.h"

"KSP:ckctel.h KSP:ckuusr.h KSP:ckucmd.h KSP:ckuver.h" "KSP:ckcxla.h
 KSP:ckuxla.h KSP:ckcuni.h KSP:ckuath.h"

The new rule for ckuus4.c was too long. I removed one file from the dependency list (ckcxla.h, which will probably never change again) and that made it OK. Built Nonet and Net versions OK, but this is without the new stuff.

"make f" (large-file support) on VMS 7.2-1…
'CC' 'CCOPT' KSP:ckuus4
if (CKFSEEK(fp,(CK_OFF_T)j,SEEK_CUR) != 0) {
%CC-I-IMPLICITFUNC, In this statement, the identifier "fseeko" is implicitly
declared as a function.

Ditto for ftello and fseeko in various other places, and then fseeko and ftello come up up undefined at link time.

The rule for ckcftp in "make i" (Internal FTP support) had the same problem. I removed ckcxla.h from its dependency list too, but "utime" comes up undeclared at compile time and undefined at link time.

Verdict: neither one of the two new features can be used in VMS 7.2 or earlier, but the code still builds OK if you don't ask for them.

VMS 8.3 on IA64… Can't build anything: %MMS-F-BADTARG, Specified target (WERMIT) does not exist in description file

27 Feb 2007: Changed CKVKER.COM to keep all its dependencies but use a shorter logical name (Steven M Schweda). The problem on VMS 8.3 is that MMS now supports case-sensitive file systems, and so it can't find anything. Workaround: bypass MMS (include "m" in P1). With this, "@ckvker.com ifm" builds OK on HP Testdrive, but I can't test the new features since outbound connections are not allowed there. As for fseeko(), ftello(), and utime(), they simply are not available prior to VMS 7.3. It would probably be a good idea to test for this in CKVKER.COM, but actually it is possible to install newer C's and CRTLs on older VMS versions, so don't stand in their way.

28 Feb 2007: With additional changes from SMS, and then some further adjustments, I was able to build the FTP version on VMS 7.2-1. First I tested it with GET of a binary file, but it transferred it in text mode. After a few more attempts with PUT and GET, it crashed with "floating/decimal divide by zero" in ckscreen, ckuusx.c line 27859. Of course, that's the listing line, not the source line, and I don't have a listing.

To get a listing, I deleted CKUUSX.OBJ and then did:

$ make i "" "" "/LIST"

Surprisingly, it recompiled everything.

Anyway, the divide by zero happened in a section of code where the divisor was not checked, but it was a section of code we should not have been executing at all, since the file-transfer display was fullscreen, and this was in the "brief" section. Anyway, I added the needed check. Again, it recompiles everything. Maybe there's no MMS on grumpy — right, there isn't.

ANYWAY… Try to GET a binary file like this:

---> TYPE I
200 Type set to I.
get gkermit
---> TYPE A
200 Type set to A.
---> SIZE gkermit
550 gkermit: file too large for SIZE.
GET gkermit (text) (-1 bytes)---> TYPE A

Anyway… "get /binary gkermit" downloads it, seemingly correctly (the byte count is right).

But "put /binary gkermit.;1" results in a 0-length GKERMIT file being sent. Here's the debug log:

FTP PUT gnfile[DISK$MSA4:[C.FDC.NET]gkermit.;1]=1
ftp putfile flg[DISK$MSA4:[C.FDC.NET]gkermit.;1]=0
zltor fncnv[DISK$MSA4:[C.FDC.NET]gkermit.;1]=-1
zfnqfp 1[DISK$MSA4:[C.FDC.NET]gkermit.;1]=675
zfnqfp 2[DISK$MSA4:[C.FDC.NET]GKERMIT.;1]=31
zfnqfp 3[DISK$MSA4:[C.FDC.NET]GKERMIT.;1]=31
zrelnam result 2[gkermit.;1]
ftp sendrequest restart[DISK$MSA4:[C.FDC.NET]gkermit.;1]=0
openi name[DISK$MSA4:[C.FDC.NET]gkermit.;1]
openi sndsrc=-1
openi file number=2
zopeni fp=0
chkfn return=0
zopeni fixed file format - using blk I/O
zopeni binary flag at open=1
zopeni ifile_bmode=1
zopeni binary=1
zopeni RMS operations completed ok
openi zopeni 1[DISK$MSA4:[C.FDC.NET]gkermit.;1]=1
ftpcmd cmd[PASV]
FTP RCVD [227 Entering Passive Mode (166,84,1,2,233,216)]
initconn connect ok
FTP RCVD [150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for 'GKERMIT'.]
doftpsend2 ftpcode[STOR]=150

Here is where the file is supposed to be read and sent but there is nothing
in the log between the "doftpsend2 ftpcode" line and the following line.

rftimer status=1
gftimer status 1=1
gftimer status 2=1409025
gftimer status 3=1409025
gftimer s[0.000000]
zclose n=2
chkfn return=1
zclose ZIFILE RMS operations completed ok
ftp getreply lcs=0
ftp getreply rcs=-1
ftp getreply fc=0
FTP RCVD [226 Transfer complete.]
ftp getreply[226 Transfer complete.]=2
doftpsend2 ok=0

Everything is OK up until we go to send the file, then it behaves as if we got EOF immediately and so closes the data connection, and reports success; an empty copy of the file is left on the far end.

Starting over with a text file.... PUT LOGIN.COM gets another divide by zero. But it happened in the code I just fixed, which is impossible. Swell. I recompiled everything and this time the upload worked, and downloading it again worked too.

But a binary file still can't be uploaded. Trying to upload a text file after doing this seems to succeed (reports the right number of bytes sent) but nothing appears on the far side.


  To download a text file: GET /ASCII blah.txt    (/ASCII is optional)
  To download a binary file: GET /BINARY blah.bin (/BINARY is required)
  To upload a text file: PUT blah.txt             (/ASCII switch not needed)
  To upload a binary file: PUT /BINARY blah.bin   (doesn't work)


  • Why doesn't BINARY "stick"?
  • Why don't binary uploads work?

The culprit seems to be the VMS version of zxin(). In the FTP module, zxin() is called only when sending binary files. In VMS, zxin() is just a front end for C-Library fread(). It probably needs to do just do zminchar() in a loop, like binary mode does, but calling zzout instead of xxout. Or something like that. FINISH THIS TOMORROW (debug on grumpy).

Changed NetBSD targets to include -DHAVE_OPENPTY and -lutil, so they can use openpty(). makefile, 26 Feb 2007.

From Steven M Schweda, Saint Paul, MN: adaptation of large file support to VMS (it was already possible to transfer large files in VMS C-Kermit but the file-transfer display and statistics were wrong). And a minimal adaptation of the FTP client to VMS — no RMS, no special VMS file stuff, Stream_LF and binary files only, developed and tested only with UCX. SSL/TLS is supported. The source-code changes are minimal; most have nothing to do with VMS, but with header files, prototypes, and data types (e.g. ftp_port int rather than short, various signed/unsigned conflicts) to shut up compiler warnings. Some of these could be dangerous in terms of portability; I've marked them with /* SMS 2007/02/15 */. ckcfns.c, ckcnet.h, ck_ssl.h, ckuus3.c, ckuus4.c, ckvfio.c, ckcftp.c, ckvker.mms (which was rewritten to actually reflect the source module dependencies), ckvker.com (also heavily modified). ckvker.com (the "makefile" for VMS C-Kermit) now includes "F" and "I" option flags for the large File and Internal ftp features, plus better handling of Vax/Alpha/IA64 distinction. 26 Feb 2007.

One more time with ttinl(). Got rid of the "csave" junk, which never could have worked (which is no doubt why it was in a debugging section). The problem was that saving the beginning of the next packet locally did not synchronize with the buffer clearing (ttflui()) done at a higher level, between calls to ttinl(). So now, the lookahead code, if it finds the beginning an as-yet unread packet, puts it back at the head of the input queue. This way, if the protocol engine clears the input buffer, it will get the whole packet, not just the part after the SOH. ckutio.c, 24 Feb 2007.

If an external-protocol file transfer fails, don't print Kermit-specific hints. ckuus5.c, 22 Feb 2007.

When an FTP client sends NLST to the server and no matching files are found, the server is supposed to respond with an error message on the control channel and nothing on the data channel. However it seems that at least one server sends the error message back on the data channel, as if it were a filename ("/bin/ls: blah: No such file or directory"), and on the control channel there is no error indication ("226 ASCII Transfer complete"). At this point remote_files() has a listfile and, if a match pattern was given, it looks through list to see if any of the lines match the given filename, e.g. "blah". This makes FTP CHECK give false positives. The problem (diagnosed by Jeff) is that the match pattern was not given in this case, so it takes some random default action, resulting in the spurious success return. Fixed by using the user's string as the pattern. Not tested, however, since I don't have access to a server that behaves this way. ckcftp.c, 22 Feb 2007.

Added NOW keyword info to HELP DATE, plus a tip about how to convert to UTC; suggested by Arthur Marsh. ckuus2.c, 22 Feb 2007.

John Dunlap noticed some strange behavior when transferring files between home base and the EM-APEX oceanographic floats via satellite… long story, but every so often the transfer would get stuck for a long time, and it happened only when C-Kermit was sending a file and received two or more packets (Ack or Nak) back to back from the float. Years ago I added some lookahead code to ttinl() to clear the input buffer of any interpacket junk so that, in the windowing case, we wouldn't be tricked next time around into thinking a packet was waiting to be read when there wasn't. The code, which has been there for a while, was a bit fractured; luckily, it would be executed only when the debug log was active so it didn't have much effect. The problem was that if the SOP came immediately after the EOP, it could be missed because the loop read the next character before checking the current one. Fixed by rearranging the loop. Also I changed it so it would execute in all cases, not only when the debug log was active. Also, cleaned up a bunch of confusing #ifdefs and removed some chunks that had been commented out for years, decades maybe. ttinl(): ckutio.c, 21-22 Feb 2007. 15 Feb 2007… Decided to give up on this and publish it as is, in hopes that somebody with more experience with ptys can make it work, because I'm just going in circles. So today I just have to get the code into shape so people could choose among the three alternative routines. The second one, yttyptycmd(), is the one that uses openpty(), which is not portable, so it can be enabled only for Mac OS X, NetBSD, FreeBSD, and Linux, or by also defining HAVE_OPENPTY at compile time. Anyway, if you build Kermit in the normal way, you get the regular behavior — ttruncmd() is used to execute external protocols. If you build it with -DXTTPTYCMD, you get the first version of ttptycmd(); with -DYTTPTYCMD the second, and with -DZTTPTYCMD the third.

(Then some interruptions, then...)

From Jeff, fix hostname comparison in X.509 certificate checking to work right in the case of names that contain no periods. dNSName_cmp(): cl_ssl.c, 21 Feb 2007.

27 Jan 2007: Since I have not been able to find a way to make ptys work for this, I made a third copy of this routine, this time using pipes instead of ptys. The disadvantage here is that if the external protocol does not use stdio, the pipes won't work, but one thing a time…

Inferior Kermit starts in lower fork, but when it tries to send its first packet it gets errno=9 EBADF, Bad File Descriptor. Substituting G-Kermit as the external protocol, which is simpler, reveals that the problem is that the external protocol gets errors when it tries to manipulate the its stdio file descriptors with ioctls, etc; these are not valid for a pipe. The pipe mechanism itself works. If I take out the test for ttpkt() failing in gkermit, the file transfer works OK. Trying Zmodem… Sending works OK; receiving works a lot better than with ptys (it got 360K into the file before failing). Making the buffers smaller, doesn't help.

I'm starting to wonder if the problem might be in my buffering code, rather than in the pty or pipe interface… Try making a version that does single-character reads and writes.

This one reads the first packet from the lower Kermit and sends it. It is recognized by the other Kermit, which sends an ACK. We see the ^A of the ACK, but then select() times out on the next character — OF COURSE: because at a lower level, it has already been read. We have to check the myread buffer, and then call select() only if it's empty. Making this change:

  • SEND with G-Kermit works (but very slowly).
  • SEND with lsz works but gets a lot of errors, eventually succeeds.

Let's work our way back… With the same changes to the buffered pipe version:

  • SEND with G-Kermit/streaming works (fast).
  • SEND with lsz works too (fast), but we get gubbish at the end.
  • RECEIVE with Kermit fails because "/dev/tty is not a terminal device".
  • RECEIVE with rsz… lots of errors ("garbage count exceeded") but succeeded.

But maybe now we're seeing pipe artifacts, so going back one more step to the version that gets its own pty and starts its own fork:

  • SEND with G-Kermit/Streaming works (fast) but select() times out at the end.

Another breakthrough: Moved the write pieces to below the read pieces. This is what was preventing the buffer reset code from working — with the writes done before the reads, we never catch up and can never reset the buffers.

  • SEND with G-Kermit/streaming works (fast) (but there's a pause at the end)
  • SEND with lsz works (fast) (but there's a pause at the end)
  • RECEIVE with rsz… lots of errors ("garbage count exceeded") and fails.
  • RECEIVE with Kermit — nothing happens (it thinks it succeeded), then we reconnect, terminal sees S packet and goes into autodownload

From the log it looks like ttpkt() fails in the lower Kermit. Switching this with the hacked G-Kermit… it gets "transmission error on reliable link". Tried again with real Kermit below, this time with "-l 0" and not streaming. This was actually working, but slowly, I don't see any NAKs in the packet log, but then select() timed out.

28 Jan 2007: Restored both the calls to pty_make_raw():

  • SEND with C-Kermit streaming works, but slow (54Kcps)
  • Ditto, but with debugging off — hangs forever.
  • Ditto, but using G-Kermit instead of C-Kermit — also hangs forever.

Backed off on calling pty_make_raw(). Same thing. Reduced size of net-to-pty buffer. Same thing.

26 Jan 2007: Tried changing the size of the net-to-pty buffer from 24K to 1K. Result: total failure. Set both buffers to 1K. Still total failure. Set both to 4K: now we get about 45K of data, then failure. Put them both back to 24K, still fails totally — the same code that worked pretty well yesterday. Actually, no downloads work, not even Kermit, not even of text files.

19 Jan 2007: Noticed that in snoopserver, the select() calls use standard input and output file descriptors, rather than the pty master. Made that change… In doing that I had to look at every file descriptor in every line of code and discovered a couple mistakes, fixed them, put back the original code but with the fixes, tried it, but no change; can upload OK but still can't download with Zmodem without lots of errors and ultimate failure. Going back to the alternative version and trying to get the file descriptors sorted out, now it appears that the external Kermit program never even starts in the lower fork. After a bit more fiddling I sort that out, but now when the lower Kermit program goes to open "/dev/tty" it gets errno 6 "Device not configured". Forcing it to use stdio with "-l 0", it gets past this and actually sends its first packet. But the Kermit on top reads nothing from the pty.

Next, I change the pty fd from STDIN_FILENO and STDOUT_FILENO to slavefd. No difference. Next I comment out the dup2() calls. This time I get some action. The transfer starts, but only one packet comes. Log shows that the lower Kermit sends its S packet. The upper Kermit receives the ACK but the lower Kermit never gets it. The write to the pty succeeds, no error. Different combinations give different results. If write to master and read from the slave, I get packets in both directions but tons of errors.... This happens only if I comment out the dup2()'s.

25 Jan 2007: After leaving it sit for a while, and realizing that what I'm trying to do has to be possible because so much other software does the same thing (e.g. Telnet servers), I put things back to how they were originally — the upper fork (Kermit) uses the master and the lower fork the slave. The upper fork puts the master in raw mode, the lower fork puts the slave in raw mode. The lower fork dup2's the slave fd to stdin/out. Send file in remote mode using external Kermit: works OK but select() times out at the end. This means that the self-contained pty code in ttptycmd() is sorted out — all the file descriptors go to the right place, etc, and now we can use this routine as a testbed, rather than the original ckupty.c-based one.

But send with lsz, csz, and regular rz: Nothing happens, times out after 0 bytes of i/o. Once again, Kermit works, Zmodem doesn't. The reason for running Zmodem in a pty is so its i/o will work as it does on a terminal, no matter how it may fiddle the file descriptors. So why don't we see a single byte come out?

Commenting out pty_make_raw(), I get a successful Zmodem send using lsz. csz manages to get the filename across, but then gets stuck. regular sz, on the other hand, works perfectly. Testing csz by itself (not under Kermit), I see it fails in exactly the same way ("Got phony ZEOF", etc). OK, forget crzsz.

OK, let's move to local mode over a Kerberized Telnet connection… Uploading (sending) with external Kermit protocol… works. Downloading (receiving) with external Kermit protocol… works. Uploading with sz… works. Downloading with lrz… Gets tons of errors and fails.

Running pty_make_raw() on the slave but not on the master: no difference.
Running pty_make_raw() on the master but not on the slave: no difference.

Back where we started… Either:

  • Zmodem is overdriving the pty, no matter what modes we put it in.
  • It's a transparency problem.

Theoretically we should be able to test these by using different sz switches:

-q:    quiet (should always use this)
-e:    escape all control characters
-B n:  Buffer n bytes (rather than whole file)
-L n:  Packet length
-l n:  Frame length (>= packet length)
-w n:  Window size
-4:    4K blocksize (doesn't help)

-q by itself doesn't help. -q -e, this one worked but still got about 100 errors and was very slow. -q -e -l 200 -L 100, failed fast and bad. -q -e -w 1. Failed quickly. -q -e -w 1 -B 100. Eventually failed. -q -w 1, Eventually failed. -q -l 1024, this gets much more errors, definitely need -e. -q -e -l 1024, got pretty far before failing. -q -e -w 1 -l 1024, also got pretty far before failing. -q -e, this one got farthest of all, about 48K, before getting errors.

In the latter combinations that work somewhat better, we always get up to 16K, or 32K, or 48K, before the errors start coming out and piling up. Sometimes the errors are recoverable and we receive as much as 300K successfully before giving up.

Now that we have data flowing pretty well (but not well enough), tried reinstating pty_make_raw(), but it hurt more than helped.

As a sanity check, I tried transferring from the same host over the same kind of connection (Kerberized Telnet) directly to K95's built-in Zmodem protocol, and that worked fine. So the problem is definitely in the pty. Or more precisely, where Kermit writes incoming net data to the pty master.

18 Jan 2007. Tried going back to blocking rather than nonblocking reads to see if it would make a difference, after all the other changes. Nope. OK, let's look at some of these other programs…

snoopserver.c. I don't know exactly what this is or where it's from or what platform it runs on and there are no comments to speak of, but it does approximately what ttptycmd() does. To get a pty it uses openpty():

  if (openpty(&pty, &tty, NULL, NULL, NULL) == -1)

then creates a fork. In the fork, it closes the pty (master) and manipulates the modes of the tty (slave), dups tty to be stdio, and then doex execv() on the command. Meanwhile the upper fork closes the tty (slave), gets the attributes of stdin, using atexit() to have them automatically restored on exit. Then it sets stdin to raw mode and enters the select() loop on stdin, the pty master, and the net. It uses regular blocking reads. It does not use TIOCPKT or anything like it.

openpty() is supported on: Linux, Mac OS X, NetBSD, FreeBSD, ... openpty() is NOT supported on: Solaris, HP-UX, ...

 1. Try copying the pty code, but keep everything else the same.

I did this; it compiles and starts OK, upper fork (ttptycmd) debug log shows no errors, but nothing happens. Logs show that the Kermit program that is started in the subfork seems to die as soon as it reaches eof on its init file. The good news, at least, is that select() doesn't report report that the pty is ready to be read. Clearly the file descriptors aren't being assigned as expected, or as before.

In ckupty.c getptyslave() dup2's the slave fd to 0 and 1. The new code does exactly the same thing. Debug log makes it look like the forked kermit is not receiving its command line. But now I'm not even sure that the forked kermit started at all. ps from another terminal doesn't show it.

As a test I made a new routine pty_make_raw() that does cfmakeraw() (a nonportable "POSIX-like" function known to be used on ptys in applications that do approximately what we're attempting). Results:

 Solaris: errno 25 - inappropriate ioctl for device.

This happens even when we try to get the terminal modes with tcgetattr(), which is completely nuts. We pass it the file descriptor of the pty master, which is supposed to work. But in Mac OS X, there are no errors. But downloads still don't work; lots of errors but the pattern is different. Using a very small buffer:

  Retry 0: Bad CRC
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Got TIMEOUT
  Retry 0: TIMEOUT
  Retry 0: Bad CRC
  Retry 0: Bad CRC
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: TIMEOUT
  Retry 0: Got ERROR
  Retry 0: TIMEOUT
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Bad CRC

Using a bigger buffer:

  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  (several screensful)

Various other combinations… Nothing seems to work.

Insight: telnetd does exactly what we want to do, sort of. But it uses TIOCPKT, so every time it reads from pty, it receives one control byte and then the data bytes, which would complicate our buffering scheme considerably. Anyway the TIOCPKT ioctl() fails on Mac OS X with 14 "Bad address".

Also see: snoopserver.c (found in Google). It seems to do things in a slightly different way — it sets stdout to raw and then dups it to the slave side of the pty?

Maybe it's a mistake to use the ckupty.c routines. They are designed for creating and accessing an interactive session. Maybe just copy one of the other programs.

Next day. This has got to be the most delicate code ever, it's like Whack-A-Mole, fix A and B pops up. Even without touching it, something that worked perfectly a 2:00 doesn't work at all at 3:00. Maybe I could have used pipes instead of ptys, but pipes have problems of their own. There has to be a way to do this. The telnet server, the SSH server, etc — they all run on ptys, and we can upload files to them with Kermit. Why? Because Kermit puts its terminal into all the right modes using the time-honored methods of ttpkt() and ttvt(). Perhaps all we need is a copy of ttpkt() that operates on the pty.

On that theory, let's go back to Kermit as the external protocol. It's important to suppress all messages and displays. With that, uploads work fine, no hitches.

Downloads: We fail right away. The debug log shows the Kermit program that we are starting in the pty says:

  "" - Invalid command-line option, type "kermit -h" for help.

But of course we are not giving it an invalid command-line option. Switching to gkermit for the external protocol, now we see that no matter command-line options we use, we read 0d 0d 0a from the pty and then the next time we go to read from the pty we get 0 bytes and waitpid() says the program has exited with status 1.

Why should downloading be different from uploading? ttptycmd has no idea, it does everything the same. The only difference would seem to be which side sends first, but even that tends to get washed out by each program's startup messages.

Downloading with Kermit worked 2 days ago, what's different now? The buffer sizes. Putting the net-to-pty back up to 24K (from 48 bytes)… Now it works again.

Conclusion: Kermit conditions the pty correctly, Zmodem does not. Therefore ttruncmd() must duplicate what ttpkt() does.

Or not. Because rz works fine on ssh/telnet ptys too. But not on our pty. lrz exits immediately with status code 2 = 01000 but there are no clues in the lrz.c source code, I don't even see this exit status set anywhere. Unredirecting stderr, I see that the error is "lrz: garbage on command line".

Why do both Kermit and Zmodem sometimes think they are receiving an invalid command line? If I could capture the garbage…

Side trip #1: ("pty.log",O_WRONLY) gives "no such file or directory". Changed this to ("pty.log",O_CREAT,0644) and now it doesn't get an error, and it creates the file, but not with 0644 permissions, and with nothing written in it. How come nothing works?

Fine, the debug log shows that ttptycmd() receives the correct string (e.g. "lrz -v"). It passes it to do_pty() correctly, and do_pty() passes it to exec_cmd(), which runs cksplit() on it, coming up (in this case) with "lrz" and "-v", which is right, and then:

args = q->a_head + 1;

execvp() wants the args array to have a null element at the end. cksplit() does indeed do that, or at least the code is there. Added code to exec_cmd() to verify the argument list and that it is null-terminated. So far it is.

Anyway, we have traffic between the Zmodem partners, but no joy. Commenting out the bit that redirects stderr, now I can see it on my screen in real time:

  lrz waiting to receive.Retry 0: Bad CRC
  Retry 0: Got ERROR
  Retry 0: TIMEOUT
  Retry 0: TIMEOUT
  Retry 0: TIMEOUT
  Retry 0: TIMEOUT

etc etc, forever. Trying sz -e on the far end, I get:

  Retry 0: Bad CRC
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Garbage count exceeded
  Retry 0: Got ERROR
  Retry 0: Bad CRC
  Retry 0: Got ERROR
  Retry 0: Got ERROR
  lrz: xxufio.c removed.

So apparently it's not a matter of escaping. Trying some other stuff, I caught the command-line problem in the act:

  lrz: garbage on commandline
  Try `lrz —help' for more information.

Debug log shows:

  cksplit result[lrz]=1
  cksplit result[-v]=2
  exec_cmd arg[lrz]=0
  exec_cmd arg[-v]=1
  exec_cmd arg[]=2

An empty string at the end instead of a null pointer. I really do not see any way that could happen, but rather than dig into cksplit() again after all these years I added a test for this in exec_cmd(), which, of course after adding it, never encountered this behavior again.

Fiddled with pty buffer size again. Made it 512 bytes instead of 24K. Zmodem downloads are the same (Rety 0: TIMEOUT, over and over). But I don't see what the problem is — every time we receive n bytes from the net, we write n bytes successfully to the pty and there are no errors. But it also looks like the remote sender is sending the file header over and over because it's not receiving an acknowledgment. If we're not losing data, then maybe it's a transparency problem.

Tried uncommenting the TIOCblah stuff I commented out before. Now instead of only timeouts I get:

  lrz waiting to receive.Retry 0: Bad CRC
  Retry 0: Got ERROR
  Retry 0: Bad CRC
  Retry 0: Got ERROR
  Retry 0: Bad CRC
  Retry 0: Got ERROR
  Retry 0: TIMEOUT

which is odd because the TIOCREMOTE ioctl failed with errno 14, EFAULT, bad address, which should indicate it had no effect. We're still receiving data from the remote in tiny chunks (from 12 to 65 bytes), apparently the same stuff (file header), and writing them to the pty successfully but nothing…

Looked at cloning ttpkt() for the pty, but these stupid routines use global tty mode structs so it's not going to be easy.

Well, we got exactly nowhere today, but I think I'll leave stderr as it is so users will see some feedback; no reason not to.


Is it 8-bit transparency? Up til now I've been testing with text files. If I try to download a binary what happens? Fails after 99 seconds. Packet log from the far end shows that as soon as the first packet containing 8-bit data is sent, everything stops. At least I got one of these:

  17:23:56.475 exec_cmd arg[gkermit]=0
  17:23:56.475 exec_cmd arg[-qr]=1
  17:23:56.475 exec_cmd arg[]=2
  17:23:56.475 exec_cmd SUBSTITUTING NULL=2  <-- the code I just added

Doing this again shows the same thing on the near end. All the 7-bit-only packets are sent and acknowledged OK. Three 8-bit data packets arrive and nothing else happens after that. This is with G-Kermit.

The same thing happens with C-Kermit receiving. But if I change C-Kermit's .kermrc to turn off streaming and use a short packet length:

The transfer works, even though it's sending 8-bit bytes. So the problem is not 8-bit data after all, per se. Facts:

  • Kermit can receive streaming transfers of 7-bit files.
  • Kermit can not receive streaming transfers of 8-bit files.
  • Kermit can receive nonstreaming transfers of 8-bit files with short packets.
  • Kermit can receive nonstreaming transfers of 8-bit files with 1K packets.
  • Kermit can receive nonstreaming transfers of 8-bit files with 4K packets.

So it's the combination of streaming and 8-bit data? 12 Jan 2007.

Without any way to make the pty transparent and flow controlled, it would seem to make sense to write to the pty in smaller chunks than we do to the net. I left the read-from-pty-write-to-net buffer at 24K and changed the read-from-net-write-to-pty buffer to 48 bytes.

Upload using lsz worked but took about 3 minutes. Actually it didn't work. On the local end it seemed to work, but the file did not appear on the remote end. Tried this several times, each time with different results, adding more debugging each time. The problem this time was that the pty read could get EWOULDBLOCK. Changed the code to not treat this as an error, now Zmodem uploads are solid again except I never got EWOULDBLOCK again either, even though I repeated the same upload about 1000 times (with throughput of over 2MBps even with debugging on), so the test for it has not been exercised.

OK, uploads still work. Back to downloading… The very first pty read gets 0 bytes, followed by the fork test that shows that it exited with exit status 2.

Next we try starting sz with some different options on the far end:

 -q: quiet (no messages):
     for some reason this gets totally stuck.
     it looks as if this option is misdocumented;
     sz seems to be sending the letter C (as in Xmodem 1K or whatever)

 -e: escape (all control chars):
     first attempt to read pty finds the process gone with exit status 2.

 -k: send 1k blocks:
     this one didn't stop immediately.  It reads 48 bytes from net, writes
     48 to the pty with no error.  Then reads 21 bytes from the pty, writes
     them to the net OK.  Then reads 48 bytes from net, writes them to pty OK,
     reads 21 from pty, writes to net OK, etc etc…  It appears to have
     worked but (final read from pty returned 0, fork test showed lrz exited
     with status 0), but only 754 bytes were received from the net when the
     file is 420K…

Well this only goes to show that the faster we shove stuff into the pty, the worse it gets. Zmodem downloads won't work unless we can make the pty transparent and flow-controlled. So to summarize today's developments:

  • separated in/out buffer sizes
  • handled EWOULDBLOCK
  • found out that sz options don't help much

11 Jan 2007.

Not so great in Zmodem land, however. If I start the external-protocol receiver on the far end, escape back and start a Zmodem send… nothing. If I leave the remote C-Kermit at its prompt (where it supposed to recognize the Zmodem start string), still nothing. On the other hand, if I do it with a script instead of by hand:

def xx output take blah\13, send /proto:zmodem \%1
do xx 

it works, at least intermittently. But that's in remote mode. We won't be using this in remote mode. In local mode, where we have a secure connection to another computer, it seems we can read from the pty and write to the net, but we time out waiting to read from the net; nothing arrives. Well, we know that i/o works both ways, so there is some kind of screwup with the Zmodem protocol start itself. Increasing the (still hardwired timeout) from 5 to 22sec and driving the whole process with a script so as to avoid autodownload as well as manual dexterity effects… It just sits there forever, way longer than 22 sec. ^C'ing out, I see that sz was indeed started on the far end and the protocol was executing. But it looks like the receiver (the one running under ttptycmd()) is getting trashed packets, because (a) it seems to be sending the same thing over and over again, and (b) sometimes it waits as long as 10 seconds before anything arrives from the remote. Maybe I was too impatient; I interrupted it after 4 minutes but it seems to have been making some progress. Whenever there was data available to read from the net, it was always 65 bytes, and it was not actually the same data over and over. This is using lrz as the external protocol. crz gets a bit farther. In this case we read up to 24K at a gulp, but the amount varies a lot. It looks like we took in about 1.2MB of Zmodem protocol data, but were only able to output the first 20K of the file. Clearly there were lots of errors. In the end, the crz exits with status 1 (failure).

Anyway it looks like we're back at needing to find a way to accomplish something like TIOCREMOTE on the pty, which is where we came in. 10 Jan 2007.

Now we're back where we were yesterday morning, but with better throughput. The big issue then was receiving files. But yikes, now it works! Not only that, I got a transfer rate of 2.1M cps. That's using Kermit protocol, streaming, and big (4K) packets. Which didn't work before. Not a fluke either, I uploaded bigger and bigger files up to 6MB, they all went smoothly, at rates between 1 and 2 MBps. 10 Jan 2007.

Moving to Mac OS X, everything works the same as on Solaris, except I don't get the Zmodem getty babble there, not even with Omen rzsz. Tested sends in both remote and local mode, the latter over a secure Kerberos 5 Telnet connection, using C-Kermit, rzsz, lrzsz, and crzsz, all good. 10 Jan 2007.

Found in HP-UX "man 7 pty" a description of ioctl(fd,TIOCTTY,fc) which is exactly what we want: fc 0 turns off all termio processing and guarantees an uninterrupted, unmolested, flow-controlled stream of bytes in both directions. This function also exists in Linux, but not in Solaris, NetBSD, or Mac OS X (TIOCNOTTY is not what we want, it does something else entirely).

Another possibility is TIOCREMOTE, which "causes input to the pseudoterminal to be flow controlled and not input edited, regardless of the terminal mode". This one exists in at least HPUX, NetBSD, Solaris, and Mac OS X.

Solaris: builds OK, but at runtime we get ENOTTY ("Inappropriate ioctl for device"). By the time this happens, it's hard to tell from the code whether the fd we're using is for the master or the slave; TIOCREMOTE can be used only on the master. Close inspection shows that I am indeed doing that; ptyfd as seen by ttptycmd() is truly the master, i.e. the /dev/ptyXX device, not the /dev/ttyXX device (the slave fd can't be seen at all, as it exists only in a separate fork). OK, so now we know that TIOCREMOTE can't be used on Solaris.

NetBSD: Somehow, whether as a result of today's fiddling or the phase of the moon, the code in pty_open_slave() that tries to open /dev/tty started failing on NetBSD ("Device not configured"). Changing it to be run only if fc == 0 (which doesn't seem to hurt anything), once again I get ENOTTY on the TIOCREMOTE ioctl. Zmodem works but Kermit totally fails (the fork exits immediately with an exit code of 0, even though it didn't do anything).

Mac OS X: Exactly the same sequence and results as NetBSD.

Linux: It did not execute the new ioctl at all; apparently the TIOC symbols are hidden or not exported or something.

Where we stand:

  • Downloads don't work
  • Uploads got slow again
  • Kermit doesn't work at all as an external protocol

Actually if I take the debugging out it goes fast, but it doesn't finish.

All today's work on ttptycmd() looks like a dead end. To roll back to yesterday:

  cp ckutio.c-20070108 ckutio.c
  cp ckupty.c-20070108 ckupty.c
  cp ckupty.h-20070108 ckupty.h

or to continue with today's:

  cp ckutio.c-20070109 ckutio.c
  cp ckupty.c-20070109 ckupty.c
  cp ckupty.h-20070109 ckupty.h

Comparing Monday's and Tuesday's pty-related code, the differences are:

 1. Passing of function code to and among pty modules.
 2. Skipping the TIOCSCTTY ioctl and the open("/dev/tty") test.
 3. Attempting to put pty in TIOCTTY or TIOCREMOTE mode.

Commenting out 2 and 3 should put us back where we were on Monday if the parameterization was done right. And with this, on Solaris, downloading with Kermit external protocol works but slowly, 8K cps, with or without debugging. Debug log does not show any obvious bottlenecks; select() takes anywhere between no time at all and 0.1 seconds to return. If I increase the pty-net buffer size from 1K to 4K, the rate goes up to 55K cps. If I make it 8K I get 136K cps. With 16K I get 346K cps. 32K: 395K cps — this last one isn't worth the doubling. But at 24K I get 490K cps, sometimes twice that. Let's stick with 24K for now. Downloading with Zmodem (rzsz) works at the same rate, but now we're back to seeing the getty babble (Several "**B0800000000022d") at the end. 10 Jan 2007.

Back to ttptycmd()… When we left off, we could send but not receive. Set up a test case using Kermit as the external protocol for receiving a short file. If I SET STREAMING OFF and use short packets, it actually does work, so it's not a complete failure to function, but apparently a lack of flow control for the pty. Began by completing the parameterization of the pty module, so it can be called for interactive use (fc 0) or for running protocols (1). Confirmed that everything works at least as well as before (e.g. "set host /pty emacs" vs external protocols). ckcdeb.h, ckutio.c, ckupty.c, 9 Jan 2007.

After noticing a few problems running the pop.ksc script in production over the past year, rewrote \femailaddress() to be more reliable and a lot simpler. ckuus4.c, 9 Jan 2007.

Let's move this from Mac OS to NetBSD and see how it works. Well, the file transfer was just fine, but then I used some sexps to calculate the elapsed time and transfer rate, and Kermit hung in dosexp(). Fine, ignoring that… The debug log shows that ttptycmd() gets the pty OK, master and slave, the i/o goes smoothly, and waitpid() does its job perfectly. Solaris, same deal; ttruncmd() goes smoothly, but then the sexps afterward get "Arithmetic exception". Turns out there was a BAD bug in dosexp() that allowed an integer division by 0 to occur under certain circumstances; it's always been there. Fixed in dosexp(): ckuus3.c, 8 Jan 2007.

The problem is that in this case, reads from the pty never get anything (no data, no error), write always gets an error. It's as if the pty was not being set up right, or we're using the wrong file descriptor. And if we skip the autodownload? Same thing.

OK, putting downloads aside for a moment, let's get uploads working as well as possible. At this point we have the odd situation (at least in this configuration) that the upload succeeds, but now for some reason we are unable to read the exit status from the process, even though this was working before, so ttptycmd() returns 0 (failure), yet Kermit reports success.

Well, it turns out that kill(pty_fork_pid,0) was gumming up the works. If we use only waitpid() all is well, I think. waitpid() with WNOHANG returns -1 with status -1 errno 0 if the pid has not exited, and it returns the pid and status > -1 if the process has exited. Fixed pty_get_status() to do it this way. ckutio.c, 7 Jan 2007.

(days later...)

ckucns.c seems to do the right thing; it recognize the ZSTART string, activates the Zmodem-Receive APC, and returns. doconect() sees the APC and begins to execute it. The RECEIVE command results in a call to the GET command parser, doxget() (IS THAT RIGHT?), then comes a ttflui(), which throws away a bunch of stuff. Finally we get to ttptycmd(), we get a pty and run lrz in it, select() says stuff is waiting from the pty, but read returns 0, errno 0. Skipping the ttflui() in doxget() if the protocol was not Kermit didn't seem to make difference. ckuus6.c, 8 Jan 2007.

Tried an upload over a secure connection using lsz. Unexpectedly, this time it worked; not only was the file (about 0.5MB) transferred correctly, but Kermit detected the fork's termination and got the pid's exit status, and, for the first time, correctly reported a successful transfer. I have no idea why this works today and not yesterday. More tests; it works most of the time. It works with csz and with regular sz too.

Spent a couple hours trying to rearrange the code in the pty module to skip past inaccessible slaves but it was a rabbit hole, not worth it, backed off. 8 Jan 2008.

Changing the subject… On my test system, every time I execute ttptycmd(), I get "permission denied" on /dev/ttyp3. Then I run it again and get to ttyp4 which is OK. I wanted to skip past any pty for which I lack permission and try the next without raising an error. Added debugging code:

16:25:23.524 pty_getpty() pty master open error[/dev/ptyp0]=5
16:25:23.524 pty_getpty() pty master open error[/dev/ptyp1]=5
16:25:23.524 pty_getpty() pty master open error[/dev/ptyp2]=5
16:25:23.524 pty_getpty() found pty master[/dev/ptyp3]
16:25:23.524 pty_getpty() slavebuf [2][/dev/ttyp3]

So it already was skipping past open errors; ttyp3 was opened successfully. The problem is that ptyp3 is rw-rw-rw-, but the corresponding master, ttyp3, is rw—r----. It seems the code assumes that if the master can be opened, then so can the corresponding slave. Unfortunately, the code is not structured to allow us to skip ahead to the next master if the slave can't be opened. 7 Jan 2007.

Added calls to pty_get_status() to every place where we suspect a pty error, tried again with lrzsz, crzsz, and regular rzsz. All three work, but in each case waitpid() indicates that the sz program gave exit code 1 (failure). ckutio.c, 7 Jan 2007.

Moved pty fork testing to a separate routine, pty_get_status(), and added a call to it from the place where we time out, in case the fork terminated; then we can get and return its status. 6 Jan 2007.

Tried again, saw that the file is actually transferred instantly but then we're not picking up the protocol at the end. Theory: after the transfer finishes, we come back to the prompt on the remote host, which means we have something to read from the net and write to the pty, but the pty has already exited. AFTER THE PTY IS GONE, WE DO NOT WANT TO READ FROM THE NET ANY MORE. Adding this test makes Kermit succeed right away when sending the same largish file, with a transfer rate of 4M cps, that's better. But the rz program on the far end is evidently not receiving the goodbye handshake from the receiver, because it sits there foreever in its *B09002402009418 mode until I ^X^X^X^X^X out of it, at which point it deletes the file it already received, not very helpful. In the code, I read from the pty if the pty is open and there is room in the buffer. This means that when we get to the end, either there is no room in the buffer (unlikely) or the last bit sent by sz before exiting was cut off when the fork closed. Why do we get in this fix only with Zmodem and not with Kermit?

In Mac OS X, after sz exits, we get ERRNO=5 if we try to write to the pty, but we still get no errors after that if we try to read from it. Still, prior to this we did more than 20 unproductive nonblocking reads from the pty (no error, no bytes) without incident; there did not seem to be anything waiting. In fact, the last thing we read from the pty were the text messages that are issued at the end of the transfer: "rz 3.73 1-30-03 finished." After which it pauses a second and spits out a message about UNREGISTERED COPY.

Figured out how to build lrzsz, in hopes that the previous problems were with rzsz and crzsz's fiddling with file descriptors, but I get the same behavior. Which is good, I guess, because if I can fix one, I fix them all. Or not… Testing lrz by itself (not under C-Kermit), I see that it doesn't work at all with Kermit's own Zmodem implementation.

OK, here's one problem: at the end of the transfer, the Omen Zmodems print stuff like "Please read the license agreement", Kermit dutifully reads this from the pty and sends it to the host, the host shell says "Please: command not found", issues its prompt again, which Kermit reads, feeds to the pty, and apparently the pty echoes it, so we send it back to the host, and there ensues an infinite loop of getty babble until the pty closes. Now, there ought to be a way to make the external protocol shut up, like Kermit's -q(uiet) flag, but these are unregistered versions so you can't shut up the messages. In fact, the transfer works, but the getty babble at the end ruins the experience. Now I'm beginning to wonder how any of these programs ever worked as external protocols. Hmmm, now that I try it, I see the same thing happens the old way, when using ttruncmd() rather than ttptycmd().

Reading the crzsz documentation I see it says that messages come out on stderr. OK, that's progress. In ckupty.c I try redirecting 2 to /dev/null. Well good, this filters out the messages from csz, but we still get getty babble on the prompt. In the debug log, we read the last bunch of stuff from net, 618 bytes of Zmodem stuff… Now what happens?

Zmodem on the remote exits, the host prints its prompt. Kermit, of course, reads the prompt from the net, now come to the bottom of the loop and we have 7 bytes to write to the pty, and no error condition, so we continue the loop. select() says that the pty is ready for writing. We write the 7 bytes and and get no error. Loop again, this time select() says the pty has data waiting. Sure enough we get the prompt back, and send it to the net, and thus begins the getty babble. There are two causes for this:

  1. crzsz does not exit immediately; it sleeps for 10 seconds after printing its nag message.
  2. During this interval the pty seems to be echoing what is sent to it. csz is not echoing; I checked. Anyway, removing the pause doesn't seem to make a difference.

ttptycmd() needs to:

  • TELL the pty module to redirect stderr to /dev/null
  • SET PTY TO NOECHO (master or slave?)

Tried setting the pty to noecho:

termbuf.c_lflag &= ~(ECHO|ECHOE|ECHOK);

and this seemed to stop the getty babble. After the file transfer, I read back the prompt from the host shell, I write the prompt bytes to the pty; there is no error. And now select() simply hangs forever (or times out if a timeout is set). The question here is: why didn't writing to the pty produce an error? And, because we never detect the pty has exited, we can't set a good return code. 5 Jan 2007.

Found another Mac where the ptys weren't protected against me, make a K5 connection and transferred a largish file with Zmodem with zero glitches, except it was kind of slow, 84K cps. Well, we're doing single-character reads on the net (ttinc()'s instead of ttxin()). Hmmm, but then I did it again and got 2.2Mcps. Success was reported, but it actually didn't work; it only sent the first quarter of the file.... Oh well, at least now we have a testbed. 5 Jan 2007.

Changed TRANSMIT /BINARY output buffer size from 252 to 508 to avoid TCP fragmentation. Need to add a SET command for this later. ckuus4.c, 5 Jan 2007.

Spent a day hunting around for a version of Zmodem that would build and execute on Mac OS X, finally found one. Now at last I could try a Zmodem external-protocol transfer over a secure connection. But phooey, C-Kermit's pty support didn't work on this box. Kermit finds master /dev/ptypa OK, then in ptyint_void_association() tries to open /dev/tty but gets ERRNO=6 "device not configured" (which is apparently OK, because the same thing happens on other platforms where this works), then tries to open slave /dev/ttypa and gets ERRNO=13 "permission denied" because, indeed, I don't have r/w permission on the device. Left a message. 4 Jan 2007.

Made a new makefile target for Mac OS X, macosx10.4+krb5+ssl, ran it on Mac OS X 10.4.8. It bombs out in ckcftp.c with: ckcftp.c:551: error: static declaration of 'gss_mech_krb5' follows non-static declaration /usr/include/gssapi/gssapi_krb5.h:76: error: previous declaration of 'gss_mech_krb5' was here". Ditto for gss_mech_krb5_old, gss_nt_krb5_name, and gss_nt_krb5_principal. Tried again with -DNOFTP. We get lots of warnings in the network modules, but they complete. But ck_ssl.c bombed with a conflict between its own declarations of encrypt_output and decrypt_input and the ones in ckuat2.h; removed the prototypes from the latter (as Jeff advised) it built OK and it works OK too. Built with FTP too, but with link-time warnings about the aforementioned gss_* symbols. #ifdef'd them out (gss_mech_krb5, gss_mech_krb5_old, gss_mech_name, and gss_mech_principal) for MACOSX, where these symbols are exported by the library. Now it all compiles and links OK, and runs OK too. 3 Jan 2007.

Downloaded MIT Kerberos 5 v1.4.4 to Solaris 9, 54MB worth. This is just so I can build a Kerberized C-Kermit for testing ttyptycmd(). Ran the configure program, got a few warnings but it didn't fail (should it?) Did "make install", specifying a private directory but it failed immediately with "cannot stat libkrb5support.so.0.0: No such file or directory". OK, I tried. 3 Jan 2007.

With Ed Ravin's help, successfully built C-Kermit with Kerberos 5 and OpenSSL (netbsd+krb5+openssl+zlib), but it does not make K5 connections; it gets hung up in the Telnet negotiations. 3 Jan 2007.

Changed copyright date to 2007. ckcmai.c, 1 Jan 2007.

Note to myself: On Panix:

  export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/kerblib
  make netbsd+krb5 "K5LIB=-L/usr/local/kerblib" "K5INC=-I/usr/local/include"

Can't telnet-k5 from newly built Kermit on NetBSD; partway through the negotiations, just after "TELNET RCVD SB ENCRYPTION SUPPORT DES_CFB64 DES_OFB64 IAC SE" it dumps core. The last two lines in debug.log after this are:


Rebuilding with -DOPENSSL_097 doesn't change anything. Ed Ravin said they have two different Kerberos installations, Heimdal and MIT; maybe some mixup between the two explains the problem (Jeff concurs). The core dump occurs in ck_crp: encrypt_support():

   debug(F100,"XXX ep not NULL","",0);
   type = ep->start ? (*ep->start)(DIR_ENCRYPT, 0) : 0; <-- Here
   debug(F101,"XXX new type","",type);

Anyway, I can log in with Kerberos 5 to Panix OK from Columbia (sesame) using 8.0.201. So let's try to resurrect the Solaris version with everything:


I hunted around to find where the current library and header file directories were… Last time I tried this (March 2006) it bombed, not finding libdes. Instead we have /opt/kerberos5125/lib/libdes425.a. Made a new cu-specific target that includes this; now we get farther; it blows up in ckcftp.c with tons of errors and warnings, which we can worry about later. Building again with -DNOFTP, it gets to ckuath.c (the first security module) and:

  ckuath.c:151:18: error: krb5.h: No such file or directory
  ckuath.c:152:21: error: profile.h: No such file or directory
  ckuath.c:153:21: error: com_err.h: No such file or directory
  ckuath.c:176:28: error: kerberosIV/krb.h: No such file or directory
  In file included from /opt/openssl-0.9.8d/include/openssl/des.h:101,
                   from ckuath.c:219:

Found krb5.h in /opt/kerberos5125/include/krb5.h, added a -I for this directory ... Now we get lots of warnings in ckuath.c, but it completes OK, then we wind up bombing out in ck_crp.c; I don't know why — there are all the same warnings (related to argument passing to DES functions), but no errors. I have no clue.

Tried to resurrect the solaris2x+krb4 target; this required changing -lkrb to -lkrb4 and -ldes to -ldes425. Lots of warnings in ckutio.c, ckcnet.c, ckctel.c, then it bombs out in ckcftp.c because it can't find krb.h. I found it, adjusted the -I flags, but now it bombs because krb.h itself #includes <kerberosIV/des.h>, which of course it can't find because the brackets mean it's looking in /usr/include/kerberosIV/, which, of course, the sys folks have removed. Giving up on Solaris again. Later, Jeff said "Solaris does not publicly export the krb5 libraries. You need to build the MIT Kerberos libraries separately and link to them." 30 December 2006.

New makefile target for Linux with Kerberos 5, linux+krb5, that doesn't include anything extra from SSL or other security methods (but apparently it is still necessary to include -DOPENSSL_097 in order to get the right names for the DES routines?). Ditto netbsd+krb5 for NetBSD, except in this case -DOPENSSL_097 is not necessary. makefile, 30 Dec 2006.

Now the question of return code. In the original ttruncmd() function, we do a fork() and a wait(). When the external protocol program finishes, wait() gives us its return code and we can pass it on through \v(pexitstat) as well ttruncmd's own return code. But ttptycmd() has to interact with the pty continuously, so it can't just sit back and wait() for it. Instead we have to detect when the process has exited and then call waitpid() on the fork pid, before shutting down the pty. Tested on Solaris using Kermit as the external protocol and then inducing failure, or letting it run to completion. FAILURE and SUCCESS set appropriately in each case. Tested with Zmodem too, works OK except for the aforementioned cosmetic glitch at the end. Tested on NetBSD, all OK.

To make K5 connection to Panix from Spam:

 set telnet debug on
 authenticate K5 init /realm:PANIX.COM /password:xxxxx
 set host shell.panix.com 23 /k5login

Good… Now I try to send a file from Spam to Panix over the K5 connection using Kermit itself as the external protocol. It fails. Inspection of the debug log on the far side shows that the S-Packet was received correctly, good! This means we are reading the clear-text S-Packet from the external Kermit program, and that ttol() is encrypting appropriately.

The remote Kermit sends the Ack and goes to read the next packet: ttinl() calls myfillbuf() and:

  SVORPOSIX myfillbuf calling read()
  SVORPOSIX myfillbuf=0                <-- read returns 0
  SVORPOSIX myfillbuf ttcarr=2
  SVORPOSIX myfillbuf errno=0          <-- and reports no error
  HEXDUMP: mygetbuf read (-3 bytes)
  mygetbuf errno=0
  ttinl myread failure, n=-3
  ttinl myread errno=0
  ttinl non-EINTR -3[closing]

This happens because myfillbuf() deliberately returns -3 when read() gets 0 bytes. I don't understand why this happens but the real problem is yet to come. The local Kermit (the one that has made the secure connection and is running the external protocol through ttptycmd()) eventually figures out that the transfer failed and when we reconnect, we get total garbage — the encryption either stopped happening, or got out of sync.

Looking at the local debug log, ttol() is doing its job, converting the initial "kermit -r\13" from plaintext to cyphertext, as shown by the hexdumps. Then it enters ttptycmd()… Hmmmm, wait, how can it send the "kermit -r" before it starts the external protocol? Never mind, worry about that later… Anyway, ttptycmd() says:

  ttptycmd loop top have_pty=1
  ttptycmd loop top have_net=1
  ttptycmd FD_SET ptyfd in
  ttptycmd FD_SET ttyfd in
  ttptycmd nfds=5
  ttptycmd select=1
  ttptycmd FD_ISSET ttyfd in
  ttptycmd in_chk(ttyfd) n=11
  ttptycmd ttxin n=11

ttxin() asks for 11 bytes, myfillbuf() gets 11 bytes, and hexdump() shows the cyphertext, there doesn't seem to be any decrypting going on. Hmmm, it looks like the regular code calls ttinc() in a loop, rather than ttxin(). Maybe ttxin() doesn't have decryption hooks. No, that's not it, the code is there, but the Kermit packet reader does not use ttxin(), it uses ttinl(). But of course we can't use that for external protocols because it's designed only to read Kermit packets. Substituting a loop of ttinc()s for the ttxin() call fixes things (and strangely enough, it seems to be faster). And now we have our first external protocol transfer over a secure connection (external Kermit program, Linux over Kerberos 5 to NetBSD). Zmodem worked too for a short file but "something happens" with longer ones. 29 Dec 2006.

Switched the pty from buffer peeking (FIONREAD) and blocking reads to to nonblocking reads (O_NONBLOCK / O_NDELAY). Works just fine on NetBSD except now we no longer get EIO at the end when trying to read from the pty process that has exited. In fact, we're back to square one again. not ioctl(), not fcntl(), not select(), not even read() gets an i/o error after the pty process exits. But in NetBSD, we have to use nonblocking reads because ... Hmmmm, maybe switch the fd between blocking and nonblocking for the test… Nope, NetBSD seems to be hopeless (later, Ed Ravin confirmed that similar problems have been observed with other applications that try to do this).

Switching to Linux, I see that yesterday's Solaris code (blocking reads) works exactly the same way on Linux.

Tried today's O_NDELAY method on Solaris. It works perfectly. And then I moved this one to Linux and it works perfectly there too. Except in both cases we have the weird thing with Zmodem at the end, but I think that's because rz/sz don't use standard i/o. On NetBSD, it still hangs at the end.

Turns out that testing the pid works in NetBSD, even though it didn't in Solaris. Turns out read() gets an i/o error in Solaris and Linux but not in NetBSD. So checking the read result first, and then checking the pid if read() got zero bytes catches all three. 28 Dec 2006.

Back to Square One, single-byte reads and writes.

  • This works for both ripple and Kermit.
  • Doesn't work for Zmodem but we'll deal with that later.
  • In this case FD_ISSET(ptyfd) is still true after pty closes.

But the ensuing read() gets EIO so we know the pty is gone. That means the same thing should happen in the buffered version, no? Yes; I went back to the buffered version and replaced all the other nonworking tests by a blocking read of 1 byte on the pty and this detects the termination. Now:

  • ripple works perfectly (of course it's only one-way).
  • Kermit fails

Let's call the remote, forked, redirected, external Kermit A and its local partner B. A sends its S-packet, B receives it OK and Acks. A apparently does not receive the ACK in time, so sends the S again, but OK. followed immediately by the F. B Acks the F. A sends the A, B Acks it. But now A sends a piece of the previous F packet and the first piece of a D packet.

Clearly the buffering is messed up. Sure enough, there was an extraneous statement incrementing a read pointer in a write section. Removing that cleared up the problems with Kermit, now we can send and receive substantial files efficiently in remote mode. Zmodem seems to work too, except that at the beginning a bunch of "**B0800000000022d"'s are stuffed into Kermit's command buffer, so after the transfer we get some error messages.

In local mode, over a Telnet connection, Kermit works fine. Zmodem works OK too except it doesn't finish right, so at the very end rz on the far end is still waiting for something; if I cancel out of it with ^X^X^X^X^X, it deletes the file. So there still is something wrong with the termination test.

Also you don't see anything on your screen when running Kermit or Zmodem this way. That's to be expected, since they are using stdio for the transfer, so they can't also be displaying progress or other messages.

Built this on NetBSD again… Seems to work this time, but has trouble finishing, like Zmodem. Hmmm, on closer examination, it turns out that since in_chk() always returns 0 on the ptyfd, we fall into our new single-byte read code, so it's really slow, like 10K cps on a connection where 1M is the norm. 27 Dec 2006.

Debugging yesterday's code… Still, the error conditions are never set, we never detect when the pty closes. In Solaris, if select() says ptyfd is ready to read but in_chk() says there are no characters there, we can treat this as a loop-exit condition. But in NetBSD, in_chk() always says 0 when used on a pty (but works OK on a serial or net connection).

Realized I could not use in_chk() on the pty because there is too much baggage with the communication path — myread(), etc etc) — so I replaced this with a simple ioctl(ptyfd,FIONREAD,&n). This works fine in Solaris but always returns 0 in NetBSD, despite what the man page says (i.e. that this function can be used on any file descriptor).

OK, let's see.... select() does not return useful results. It says characters are waiting on ptyfd when they are not, and it never detects the closure of the pty..... Well of course not, because we are the ones who have to close it. Just because the process has stopped doesn't mean the pty is closed. So we're back to square one, how do we know when to close it? ckupty.c seems to keep the process ID in a global variable, pty_fork_pid (which is not the same as the pid now returned by do_pty(), which is useless, but I don't understand why). But it doesn't matter because when we kill(pty_fork_pid,0), we still get no error of any kind, even after we know the process has exited. I am completely flummoxed. select() lies, and even if it didn't, there is simply no completion criterion. In the loop, select() always says that the pty is ready to read. To be continued. 26 Dec 2006.

Changed single-character read() and write() to buffered reads and writes, with ttxin() and ttol() used for network i/o. Using Kermit as the external protocol, this gives 450Kcps (about 1/3 normal on this connection).

But now there's a problem: the loop doesn't know when to stop. How does it know when the process that is running on the pty has exited? With single character read()'s that are executed unconditionally when select() says the pty has data waiting, as in the first pass, I get EIO if there actually isn't any, and can exit the loop. But now, to avoid blocking, I call in_chk() to see how much data is waiting, and I don't try to read anything if it says nothing is waiting. If the process associated with the pty file descriptor has terminated, in_chk() would presumably get some kind of error, but it doesn't. I changed do_pty to return the pid of the fork where it execs its command so we can check the pid with kill(pid,0) when in_chk() of the pty says 0, but this doesn't help either; it seems like the process is not exiting, but of course it is.

I could not find any legitimate way to test when the pty fork terminated. Select() always says the pty file descriptor was ready, no matter what. Select() never reports an exception on the pty file descriptor; in_chk(ptyfd) returns 0 and not an error. read(ptyfd,...) gets 0 but not an error. fcntl(ptyfd,...) doesn't get an error. Finally I tried write(ptyfd,c,0) and this indeed gets EIO (i/o error). With this, using Kermit as the external protocol works fine in Solaris but I tend to think this trick will not be very portable (it isn't). 24 Dec 2006.

Made ttptycmd() use a more intelligent buffering scheme, fixed a few things about how I was setting up the select() call that should address some of yesterday's problems. Still doesn't work but it's progress. A: 25 Dec 2006.

Created a new version of ttruncmd() called ttyptycmd(), which works by calling do_pty() to get a pty to run the command on, and then in a loop, reads from the pty and writes to the net and reads from the net and writes to the pty, using select() to which of those it should do on each pass. First cut just uses single-byte reads and writes. Tested using Kermit itself as an external protocol. Works but slowly: 6000cps. Zmodem doesn't work at all. ckutio.c, 24 Dec 2006.

Parameterized pty routines and all references to them for file descriptor, rather than to use global ttyfd, thus allowing ptys to be created for different purposes. Tested on Solaris 9 and Mac OS X 10.4.8, with "set host /connect /pty emacs" (fine in both cases), and (more to the point) "set host /connect /pty kermit" — here we make a connection from one Kermit process to another and transfer a file; works fine and wasn't especially slow either; a good sign. ckcdeb.h, ckutio.c, ckupty.c, 22 Dec 2006.


Built on VMS 7.3-2/Alpha. Had to squelch a couple compiler warnings by changing some ints in the new \fpictureinfo() code from unsigned to signed, and fix a typo in the prototype for the new gettcpport() function. ckcnet.h, ckuus4.c, 22 Dec 2006.


Built on Mac OS X 10.4.8 and NetBSD 3.1_RC3, all OK. 19 Dec 2006.

When downloading with FILE DESTINATION NOWHERE (= /CALIBRATE), Kermit still checked the size of the incoming file and refused it if there wasn't enough free disk space, on platforms (such as VMS) where zchkspa()) actually works; reported by Bob Gezelter. ckcfn3.c, 18 Dec 2006.

Added the obvious timeout checks for FTP uploads, but I have no way to test the code since our misbehaving FTP server does not hang when receiving files, only when sending them. But uploads work both with and without a timeout set, so at least no harm is done. ckcftp.c, 17 Dec 2006.

Checked FTP timeout on command channel with FTP DIRECTORY of a big directory using a path into our ftp server that preserves the hanging behavior. The timeout was actually working, but the failure condition wasn't propagating back to the user, and there was no error message. Fixed in doftprecv2() and failftprecv2(): ckcftp.c, 15 Dec 2006.

Changed \fkeywordvalue() to accept a string rather than a single word as its second argument, so that more than one separator could be specified, and to return -1 on error, 0 if it found nothing, 1 if given a keyword but no value, and 2 if there was a keyword and a value. dokwval(): ckuus[24].c, 14 Dec 2006.

Some casts for the 3 interior args of the new select() call in ckcftp.c for HP-UX 9. 14 Dec 2006.


Removed a debug() statement from zsattr() that suddenly started making some version of gcc complain, reported by Gerry Belanger. ckufio.c, 13 Dec 2006.

Fixed a bug in the INPUT /COUNT: parser: the array of search strings was never initialized, which didn't matter before, but with /COUNT:, if the first element was not a NULL pointer, we'd treat it as a search string, and then if it happened to match something in the input stream, the operation would stop before the count was exhausted. Fixed by (a) initializing the array, and (b) ignoring any search strings if /COUNT: was given. ckuusr.c, 13 Dec 2006.


This morning the Columbia FTP server was malfunctioning in a perfect way for me to implement and test an FTP timeout mechanism. The server would close the data connection after sending the file, but the client never saw the close and was stuck forever in a recv(). I added code to do a select() on the data connection prior to entering the recv(), with a timeout on the select() that the user can establish with SET FTP TIMEOUT. Built and tested on Solaris 9, clear-text FTP. Also built cleanly for FTPS and tested against a server that does not hang; I don't have access to an FTPS server that would tickle the timeout code. ckcftp.c, 11 Dec 2006.

Made "help locus" a synonym for "help set locus". ckuusr.[ch], ckuus2.c, 11 Dec 2006.

Supplied a missing comma in the help-text array for HELP SET TERMINAL, which resulted in bad formatting in K95 around SET SNI-FIRMWARE-VERSIONS. ckuus2.c, 10 Dec 2006.

Built OK with SSL/TLS. Tested with the POP script, found that I broke INPUT when adding the /COUNT feature; there was a path through the code that could leave the "anychar" variable unset and therefore random. Fixed in doinput(). The POP script, which does not use /COUNT, works again and so does a new CGI script, which does use /COUNT. ckuus4.c, 10 Dec 2006.

There was a bad bug in the date-parsing routines; it's been there for years. If a date string includes a timezone, e.g. "Sat, 9 Dec 2006 19:26:23 EST", and converting to GMT changes the date, the variables for day, month, and year (which are used later) were not updated, and the final result was a day off. Fixed in cmcvtdate(): ckucmd.c, 10 Dec 2006.

For communication protocols: INPUT /COUNT:n to read exactly n characters without any matching. Can be used, for example, with CONTENT_LENGTH in CGI scripts; NUL characters are counted but not collected. ckuusr.[ch], ckuus4.c, 8 Dec 2006.

Changed RENAME /COLLISION:PROCEED to be /COLLISION:SKIP, which is clearer. ckuus[26].c, 8 Dec 2006.

Added \ffunction(s1) to tell if a given built-in function is available. ckuus[24].c, 8 Dec 2006.

Added \fcount(s1,s2) to tell the number of occurrences of s1 in s2. ckuus[24].c, 8 Dec 2006.

Added an optional 4th argument to \findex(), \frindex(), \fsearch(), and \frsearch(): the desired occurrence number of the searched-for string. \frsearch() was a bit tricky. ckuus[24].c, 7 Dec 2006.

Fixed a bug in SET TELNET PROMPT-FOR-USERID, SET AUTH KERBEROS[45] PROMPT, and SET AUTH SRP PROMPT in which the user's string was compared with a literal (s == ""), reported by Pavol Rusnak. Worse, empty strings (if the test succeeded) were turned into null pointers, and then fed to strlen(). Fixed in ckuus3.c, 5 Dec 2006.


Added COPY /OVERWRITE:{ALWAYS,NEVER,OLDER,NEWER} to control name collisions when copying across directories. ckuus[26].c, 1 Dec 2006.

This would be a nice elegant way to loop over a bunch of files, if it worked:

for \%i 1 \ffiles(*) 1 { rename \fnextfile() xxx_\flpad(\%i,3,0) }

But in this loop, Kermit skips every other file (beginning with the first) and then runs out of files halfway through the loop. Why? Because in commands like RENAME and DELETE, the filename parser is in a chained FDB with the switch parser. First the switch parser, cmswi(), gets its hands on \fnextfile(), passing it through the evaluator and thus getting the first filename, which it then sees is not a switch, so now the field is parsed by the next parser in the chain, cmifi(), which causes \fnextfile() to be executed again. In fact, the FOR loop has nothing to do with it; the same thing happens like this:

void \ffiles(*)
delete \fnextfile()

This deletes not the first file, but the second one. Obviously users can be told not to refer to \fnextfile() in chained-fdb fields:

for \%i 1 \ffiles(*) 1 { .f := \fnextfile(), delete \m(f) }

but this is hardly intuitive. I had some clever ideas of how to make \fnextfile() work as expected in this context but it's way too much magic. Better to simply document that \fnextfile() is "deprecated" and the array format should be used:

  for \%i 1 \ffiles(*,&a) 1 { delete \&a[\%i] }

The difference is, an array element doesn't change every time it's referred to!

Added a /PRESERVE switch to the COPY command to preserve the timestamp and permissions of the file. I did this using the Kermit APIs so it should work for any version of C-Kermit or K95. ckuus[26].c, 30 Nov 2006.

If we include file selectors with DIR /ARRAY:&a and some of the files that match the given filespec but don't fit the selectors, the array's dimension is bigger than its number of elements. Added code at the end of domydir() to resize the array so \fdim() returns the number of filenames in the array, and also made sure that element 0 contains that number too. ckuus6.c, 30 Nov 2006.

Next problem: when chkarray() returns 0, this should not be interpreted to mean the array does not exist. Looks like the only place this happened was in \fcontents(); fixed in ckuus4.c, 30 Nov 2006.

The other problem was that dclarray(), when called with an array name and a dimension of zero, does two different things depending on whether the array already existed. There is still a fair amount of confusion about whether a dimension of 0 indicates an array with 1 element (as it should) or a nonexistent array. We call dclarray() with a size of 0 to undeclare an array but we also need to able able to declare an array with only element 0. I changed dclarray() to treat a negative dimension as a command to destroy the array, and 0 or positive as a command to create the array with the given dimension. ckuus[r56].c, 30 Nov 2006.

DIR /ARRAY:a filespec, when the filespec does not match any files, terminates with the array undeclared. It would be better to return a declared but empty array (\&a[0] = 0). The code is already there to do that, but isn't working. And yet "declare \&a[0]" does indeed create a 0-element array ("show array" shows a dimension of 0). Turns out there were two problems; one was the careless recycling of a local variable ("array"), resulting in failure to create \&a[] (but not any other array). Fixed in domydir(): ckuus6.c, 30 Nov 2006.

From to-do list: Make a way to inhibit pattern matching in SWITCH labels. It's already there; just quote the wildcard characters; the only trick is that for some reason (such as that SWITCH is really an internally defined macro), a double quote (\\) is needed:

switch \%1 {
  :a\\*z, echo literally "a*z", break
  :abcxyz, echo literally "abcxyz", break
  :a*z, echo a...z, break
  :default, echo NO MATCH

In first case, the asterisk is taken literally; in the third it's a metacharacter and the label matches any string that starts with 'a' and ends with 'z'.

Array initialization would quit early if any initializers were undefined, e.g. "decl \&a[] = \%a \%b \%c" would stop at the first element if \%b was not defined, even though \%c might be defined. Fixed in dodcl(): ckuusr.c, 30 Nov 2006.

The meaningless Lisp command (=) would cause Kermit to hang. Due to some idiosyncracy in the parser, it would see this as ((=) and would go into "wait for the closing paren" mode. There was already a hack in the code to compensate for this, but it didn't work. I fixed the hack but I don't understand the real problem. Anyway, comparing Kermit with real (Franz) Lisp I discovered that comparison operators do not require two arguments, as Kermit has been doing, although they do require at least one. I changed Kermit to not require two, so now all the comparison predicates behave exactly like Franz Lisp, including getting an error if there are no args). ckuus[r3].c, 29 Nov 2006.

This was impossible: def \%1 upper, echo \f\%1(abc) — i.e. to "compose" a function name. Fixed in zzstring(). But note that it's still not possible to do this: def \%1 \fupper, echo \%1(abc) — because at the point where "\fupper" is encountered, which is automatically fed to fneval(), the argument list hasn't been read yet. ckuus4.c, 29 Nov 2006.

SHOW CONNECTION didn't show the TCP port number. This command works by parsing the current connection log entry string, which doesn't have a field for this, but which sometimes shows the port number as part of the hostname (but more often not). Added code to dolognet() to log the TCP port number, if known. This involved adding a gettcpport() function to ckcnet.c. ckcnet.[ch], ckuus3.c, 29 Nov 2006.

SHOW CONNECTION for an SSH connection said the connection type was "NET" rather than "SSH". Fixed in dolognet(): ckuus3.c, 29 Nov 2006.

DIRECTORY /BRIEF ignored file selection switches and always listed all files. This was because of how I cleverly called filhelp() (the routine that lists matching files when ? is typed in a filename field) and, of course, filhelp() doesn't know anything about the DIRECTORY command's file selections. Changed filhelp() to accept all the args needed for passing along to fileselect(), renamed it to xfilhelp(), and made a filhelp() stub that chains to xfilhelp() with null selections. ckcker.h, ckucmd.[ch], ckuus6.c, 29 Nov 2006.

Built OK on Red Hat Linux AS4 with both "make linux" and "make linuxnc". 15 Oct 2006.


PeterE noticed that if you FOPEN a file, do some seeks or reads, then FCLOSE it, then FOPEN it again (or open a different one), some of the old information is still there (e.g. current line number). This is an artifact of the changes of May 4th. Now the file closing and opening routines are a bit more careful about scrubbing and initializing the file info struct. ckuus7.c, 12 Oct 2006.

Added a TOUCH command that does what UNIX touch does: creates the file if it does not exist, updates the timestamp if it does. If a wildcard is given, it operates only on existing files. It shares the DIRECTORY command parser, so all the same file selection switches can be given. ckuusr.[ch], ckuus[26].c, 12 Oct 2006.

Fixed unguarded reference to dialmsg[] for \fdialmessage(), noticed by Gerry Belanger. ckuus4.c, 12 Oct 2006.

The new RENAME command didn't work if both the source and destination names included directory segments, e.g. "rename /tmp/foo ~/bar" (see notes of 4 May 2006). This was fixed in renameone() by a special case in which the second argument is given but it is a filename, not a directory name. ckuus6.c, 11 Oct 2006.

Built with OpenSSL 0.9.7l on Solaris 9. Built with OpenSSL 0.9.8d on Solaris 9; connects and logs in to a secure site. 11 Oct 2006.

Added a debug statement to ftp_hookup() to record the TCP port that was used. ckcftp.c, 11 Oct 2006.

Added netbsd+openssl target to makefile. Built OK (NetBSD 3.0, OpenSSL 0.9.7d) except with some warnings in ck_crp.c. Connects and logs in OK to a secure site. 10 Oct 2006.


Built on Solaris9/Sparc; FreeBSD 6.2/AMD64; NetBSD 3.0/i386; HP-UX 11i v2; SCO OSR6.00.

Soewono Effendi sent code for exit sequence to leave DTR on; this amounted to unsetting HPUCL in c_cflag. I did it a simpler way, hopefully portable to all Unixes, but who knows at this late date. The code is inside #ifndef CK_NOHUPCL..#endif in case it causes trouble. It is executed if SET EXIT HANGUP is OFF and a serial port was open at the time Kermit exits (or closes it explicitly). ttclos(): ckutio.c, 6 Oct 2006.

Suggested by Jim Crapuchettes: \v(dialmessage) is the text string corresponding to \v(dialstatus). ckuusr.h, ckuus4.c, 6 Oct 2006.

Added a missing definition for LOCK_DIR in the Linux HAVE_BAUDBOY case, suggested by Gerry Belanger. ckutio.c, 6 Oct 2006.

Build on Solaris 9 and NetBSD 3.0, 24 Aug 2006.

Added DIR /NOLINKS, which means don't show or count symlinks at all. ckuusr.h, ckuus[r26].c, 24 Aug 2006.

DIR /FOLLOWLINKS and /NOFOLLOWLINKS always did the same thing; the switch was ignored, a symlink is always followed. Fixed in ckuus6.c, 24 Aug 2006.

Added HDIRECTORY as an invisible synonym for DIR /SORT:SIZE /REVERSE. Can be used with other switches, of course, so (e.g.) HD /TOP shows the ten biggest files. ckuusr.h, ckuus[r26].c, 24 Aug 2006.

Added DIR /COUNT:v to count the number of files that match the given criteria and store result in the variable v. ckuusr.h, ckuus[r26].c, 24 Aug 2006.

Fixed DIR /TOP to work if the /TOP:n argument was omitted, defaulting to 10. domydir(): ckuus6.c, 12 Jul 2006.

The new RENAME command didn't give very good error messages, e.g. if the filespec didn't match any files. Fixed in dorenam(): ckuus6.c, 12 Jul 2006.

It is unhelpful when Kermit gets a syntax error in the middle of a big compound statement block (e.g. FOR or WHILE loop) and dumps out the whole thing in an error message. I changed the two places where this can happen to call a new routine that, instead of dumping out the entire cmdbuf, checks its length first and if it's more than a line long, truncates it and adds an ellipsis. ckuus6.c, 12 Jul 2006.

On 29 Nov 2005 I changed IF KERBANG to solve a problem (see entry for that date), but introduced a new one; namely that you can't have (e.g.) a FATAL macro that uses IF KERBANG to decide whether to EXIT all the way or STOP back to the prompt. Changed it again, this time to require not that the command level be 1, but that the command *file* level be 0 (i.e. that we are in the top-level command file, irrespective of the command or macro level, but not in a subfile). ckuus6.c, 12 Jul 2006.

Make \fkeywordval(xxx) undefine xxx (i.e. when a keyword is given with no value). This way command-line keywords will always override preexisting default definitions, whether they have a value or not, which makes it easier to parse command lines like "foo=bar blah xx=yy". ckuus[24].c, 12 Jul 2006.

Added #ifdef SV68, #include <unistd.h>, #endif because Unix System V/68 on Motorola choked on the SEEK_CUR reference without it. ckuus4.c, 10 Jul 2006.


Added \v(lastkwval) so we can retrieve programmatically the keyword most recently processed by \fkeywordval(). ckuusr.h, ckuus4.c, 9 Jul 2006.

The "where-did-my-file-go" message seemed to be ending with a LF rather than CRLF, probably because the terminal modes had not yet been restored, leaving the next prompt hanging below it, rather than on the left margin, if C-Kermit exited immediately after the transfer. Fixed by changing all \n's to \r\n's in wheremsg(): ckcpro.w, 8 Jul 2006.

Added \fgetpidinfo(n) to return info about a process ID; for now it simply returns 1 if the process is alive and 0 if not (or -1 if the argument is bad or missing or on any kind of error). ckuusr.h, ckuus[24].c, 7 Jul 2006.

Discovered that it was not obvious what pattern to use to match strings enclosed in square brackets. "if match [abc] \[*\]" didn't work. Neither did various other tricks like NCRs for the brackets. However, "if match [abc] \\[*\\]" does work. Trying to fix this would no doubt break 100 other things, so let's call it a feature. 7 Jul 2006.

Fixed \fstripb() to not dump core if second argument is missing. ckuus4.c, 7 Jul 2006.

Sometimes we want to check if a file's status before we've FOPEN'd it, in which case the channel variable is likely to be empty and \f_status(\%c) would get an error. Making the obvious change didn't fix this, however. It turns out that the function evaluator failed to adjust argn (argument count) when trailing arguments were empty, and argn was being used in this case, and probably others, to test whether an argument existed. I added code to adjust argn to reflect the number of arguments up to and including the rightmost non-empty one. ckuus4.c, 7 Jul 2006.

Noticed that \fkeywordvalue(foo=this is a string) only kept the first word. Fixed it to keep the whole definition. Also added \fkwvalue() as a briefer synonym. ckuus4.c, 7 Jul 2006

Changed the numeric comparisons = < > <= >= != to allow long integers by changing the data type to CK_OFF_T, etc. ckuus6.c, 7 Jul 2006.

Changed name of \fpicture() to \fpictureinfo() and added help text. By the way, ImageMagick can do this too: identify -format "%w %h" dscf0520.jpg. The advantage of having it in Kermit is that not everybody has ImageMagick. ckuus[24].c, 7 Jul 2006.

Added help text for FTP RESEND and REPUT and amended RESEND help text. ckcftp.c, ckuus2.c, 7 Jul 2006.

Added FTP REPUT and FTP RESEND since previously there was no FTP-prefixed command for recovering uploads, only the regular RESEND command, which might not have been obvious to people. ckcftp.c, 7 Jul 2006.

Tested FTP PUT big file against Tru64, OK. Ditto FTP RESEND big file:

  C-Kermit>resend BIGFILE
   PUT BIGFILE (binary) (3000000001 bytes)---> PASV
  227 Entering Passive Mode (15,170,178,171,13,186)
  213 343211280
  213 20060707141243
  150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for BIGFILE (,45470).

Made REPUT a synonym for RESEND. ckuusr.c, 7 Jul 2006.

Checked FTP GET of large file in ASCII mode against Tru64 FTP server. It was fine, and there was no delay in the server's response to our SIZE command (as there would be if it were scanning the entire file to count how many bytes would be required to send it in text mode). 7 Jul 2006.

Checked current code on VMS 8.2-1 on IA64 / UCX 5.5, builds fine. No changes. Updated listing at HP. 6 July 2006.

Scott Kasten reports that the FTP client can transfer large files OK, at least in Linux, but has trouble with recovery:

  • Kermit takes a very long time to start the transfer, sometimes over 30 minutes. Suspect the ftp server is counting the bytes in a long file? Or maybe it's a text-mode transfer and it's counting the lines? Probably in response to Kermit's SIZE command.
  • The size shown in the FT display is wrong by a random amount. And of course so are the progress bar, percent done, and time remaining.
  • The file, however, is transferred correctly. REGET works correctly too.

I tried setting up a test scenario locally but our Solaris FTP server does not support large files:

  FTP RCVD [550 BIGFILE: not a plain file.]
  FTP RCVD [227 Entering Passive Mode (128,59,48,24,246,37)]
  FTP RCVD [550 BIGFILE: Value too large for defined data type.]

Created the same 3GB on a Tru64 Unix system that allows FTP access. Made the connection from C-Kermit on Solaris (32-bit with LFS):

  16:46:12.908 FTP SENT [SIZE BIGFILE]
  16:46:12.947 FTP RCVD [213 3000000001]

Note that it takes less than half a second to get the reply. Now I start the download and then interrupt it at about 2%:

  16:46:12.979 FTP SENT [TYPE I]
  16:46:13.174 FTP RCVD [200 Type set to I.]
  16:46:13.226 FTP SENT [PASV]
  16:46:13.262 FTP RCVD [227 Entering Passive Mode (15,170,178,171,11,37)]
  16:46:13.299 FTP SENT [RETR BIGFILE]
  16:46:13.337 FTP RCVD [150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for BIGFILE..]
  16:47:24.895 FTP RCVD [426 Transfer aborted. Data connection closed.]
  16:47:24.934 FTP RCVD [226 Abort successful]
  16:47:24.991 FTP SENT [MDTM BIGFILE]
  16:47:25.028 FTP RCVD [213 20060706204458]

Now I do a REGET:

  16:51:55.321 FTP SENT [PASV]
  16:51:55.357 FTP RCVD [227 Entering Passive Mode (15,170,178,171,11,43)]
  16:51:55.394 FTP SENT [REST 122736640]
  16:51:55.430 FTP RCVD [350 Restarting at 122736640. Send STORE or RETRIEVE..]
  16:51:55.431 FTP SENT [RETR BIGFILE]
  16:51:55.469 FTP RCVD [150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for BIGFILE..]

This worked perfectly, as far as I can tell; the FT display picked up in the right place; the thermometer, percent done, and estimated time remaining were the same as when we left off last time. I did the same thing several more times, everything was OK. It would have taken a really long time to let this run to completion, but I think this demonstrates that Scott's symptoms are server-dependent. No changes. 6 July 2006.

Added a new function for dealing with JPGs and GIFs:


  returns 0 if file not recognized or can't be opened;
  returns 1 if landscape, 2 if portrait or square.
  If array given, element 1 is width, element 2 is height.

ckuusr.h, ckuus4.c, 19 Jun 2006.


Scott Kasten noted that the estimated-time-remaining calculation would go bonkers on LFS systems when RESENDing a large file. It looks like the shocps() and shoetl() functions escaped the CK_OFF_T conversion. I made what seemed to be the right adjustments, and then was lucky enough to find a computer that had enough free disk space for me to send a large file, interrupt it several times, resend it, all seems to be OK. 28 May 2006. Later Scott verified these changes independently for Linux, but the problems in IRIX remain.

Patches from Scott Kasten for large files on IRIX 6.5: ckcdeb.h, makefile, 12 Jun 2006.

Fixed the tru64-51b+openssl target — the terminating doublequote of KFLAGS was missing — and also the osf target, which failed to import the LIBS definition from whatever other target invoked it. Now the SSL build goes OK on Tru64 5.1B. Replaced x.tar.z in the download areas without declaring a new Dev number. The new one has a makefile with today's date. Software engineering at its best! makefile, 18 May 2006.

PeterE got a warning in the new FILE OPEN code when building in HP-UX 9. I added a cast, built on HP-UX 11, no more complaint. However there are warnings about internal vs external bindings of sendpath and sendfile in every module. Too bad, these are not Kermit tokens, it's a conflict in HP's header files. Marc Sapiro doesn't see them; probably it's something on the HP testdrive site. ckuus7.c, 17 May 2006.

I wanted to test large files against RESEND but I don't have access to any system that can run C-Kermit and that also has enough space for a large file. I created a "fake" large file on Linux (3G hole plus 1 byte), and sent it over a localhost connection, and interrupted it repeatedly and then initiated a RESEND at the sender. In each case, it picked up where it left off. But before the 2G boundary was crossed the disk filled up. Inconclusive. 14 May 2006.


Built on VMS 7.2-1, tested new RENAME command there; seems to be OK. 13 May 2006.

Fixed RENAME /LOWER and /UPPER, when given with no colon or argument, to default to ALL. ckuus6.c, 13 May 2006.

Ran my old BUILDS script that builds C-Kermit with about 100 different combinations of feature-selection switches. Fixed a few small glitches so now they all build OK (except can't do NOANSI builds any more on recent Linuxes because of varargs()). ckuus3.c, ckuus5.c, ckuus6.c, ckuus7.c, ckucmd.c, ckcfns.c, 6 May 2006.

"Tom Violin" (Tom Hansen) noticed that the first time you FOPEN a file, Kermit's memory consumption goes way up. In fact there's a warning to that effect in the code, where, upon first open, a potentially big array of potentially big structs is allocated. I rewrote the code to allocate each array member (struct ckz_file) as needed, i.e. when a file is opened, and to free it when the file is closed (or the open fails). This was actually quite a lot of work, which is why I didn't do it the first time around: every single "." had to be changed to "->". Every check for a valid channel first had to check if the channel's struct was allocated and every other reference to z_file[i]->anything had to be prechecked that z_file[i] was not a NULL pointer. Also I made some improvements to FILE STATUS, and I fixed FILE CLOSE to default the channel number if only one channel was open, as I did for FILE STATUS a while back. ckuus7.c, Cinco de mayo 2006.

Added HELP SET RENAME and updated HELP RENAME. ckuus2.c, 4 May 2006.

Added code to handle the case where the file being renamed includes a path specification. In this case we separate the path, apply the renaming functions to the filename only, and then at the end rejoin the original filename with the path, and join the new name with same path or, if a destination directory was given, with that. ckuus6.c, 4 May 2006.

Filled in the second one ("all but" the given occurrence). The algorithm is simply to reverse the three strings and then use the same code as we use in the left-right-case, and then unreverse the result. At first I used yystring() for this but yikes, what a bad design! So I made a better string-reversal routine, gnirts(), for this (luckily yystring() is only used in one place, for which its design is appropriate). ckuus6.c, 3-4 May 2006.

Added an "all-but" control to the /REPLACE options: /REPLACE:{{.}{_}{~1}} means replace all but the first (this one works); /REPLACE:{{.}{_}{~-1}} means replace all but the last (this one not yet). ckuus6.c, 2 May 2006.

Added RENAME /FIXSPACES to change all spaces in the filename(s) to underscore or any other character or string that is given. This is just a special case of RENAME /REPLACE:{{ }{x}} with easier syntax. ckuusr.h, ckuus6.c, 2 May 2006.

Conditionalized some Unix/Windows assumptions in renameone() so the code could work in VMS. ckuus6.c, 2 May 2006.

Added SHOW RENAME. ckuusr.h, ckuus[r5].c, 26 Apr 2006.

Back to /CONVERT… Once I was able to get the code to call cvtstring() I was able to debug it (at first it was skipping every second character). And now we have a general-purpose string-translating function we can call from anywhere. Requires that C-Kermit be built with Unicode support. ckuus6.c, 26 Apr 2006.

I thought I had a function to convert the character set of a string but I don't, so actually implementing /CONVERT: will be difficult.

Actually the parsing wasn't that easy either. It works OK interactively, but not in a TAKE file. To make a long story short, I had to change gtword() and cmkey2() to not require "/" at the beginning of a switch, and then to parse arguments-that-are-followed-by-other-arguments as if they were switches, so that they can end with colon rather than space. This might seem dangerous, but switches always have "/" at the beginning, so the check is superfluous. ckucmd.c, 26 Apr 2006.

Experimented with parsing for /CONVERT:cset1:cset2. The problem here is that there is no straightforward way for a switch to have multiple arguments. Or is there...? If I parse cset1 with cmswi() rather than cmkey(), it almost works; the only problem is that the character-set keywords don't have CM_ARG set, so they don't know to stop on, and ignore, a colon. If I make a copy of the table and set CM_ARG in the flags field for each keyword, it works fine: if I Tab in the first name, it fills itself out, supplies a colon, and waits for the second name. So in the code, the first time that RENAME /CONVERT is invoked, I put code to copy fcstab[] and set CM_ARG in each flags field. Works fine, and now we know how to make a switch that takes multiple arguments. ckuus6.c, 24 Apr 2006.

Worked on RENAME /COLLISION:FAIL. I decided it was less than useful to ...

Added SET RENAME { COLLISION, LIST } to let user change default collision and listing actions. ckuusr.[ch], ckuus[36].c, 25 Apr 2006.

Added RENAME /COLLISION:{OVERWRITE,PROCEED,FAIL}. This is implemented but not tested. ckuus6.c, 24 Apr 2006.

Changed /REPLACE options to allow a negative number to specify an occurrence from the right, so -1 means the last occurrence, -2 means the next-to-last, etc. ckuus6.c, 24 Apr 2006.

Added RENAME /SIMULATE. Filled in the code for string replacement, needs testing. ckuus6.c, 20 Apr 2006.

Filled in actions for RENAME /UPPER: and /LOWER: for the single file case, and tested all combinations of switch values and filename configurations. Once that was OK, moved the code out into a separate routine, renameone(), and then called it from both the single-file case and the multifile case. ckuus6.c, 19 Apr 2006.

Added parsing for RENAME /UPPER:option (to uppercase the file name(s)), /LOWER:option (to lowercase), and /REPLACE:{{s1}{s2}} (to do string replacement on the filename(s)), but not the semantics. When any of these switches is given, the target ("to") name is not parsed; they act on the source name. The /LOWER: switch takes keyword args to specify whether it should act only only files that have all UPPER case latters, or on ALL files (i.e., including files with mixed-case names); similarly for the /UPPER: switch. There is some creative parsing allowing these to be given with or without a colon and keyword argument, which works fine except if you include the colon but no argument, execute the command (which works fine), and then recall the command. I haven't yet decided about the interaction among these switches. Clearly if /UPPER is given after /LOWER, it overrides. But if /UPPER (or /LOWER) is given with /REPLACE, what should happen? ckuus6.c, 17 Apr 2006.

Discovered that the RENAME command could be entered without any arguments and it would still succeed. Fixed in dorenam(): ckuus6.c, 17 Apr 2006.

Added RENAME switch values that can be used in the same table with the DELETE switch values, which are shared by many commands. ckuusr.h, 17 Apr 2006.

To make the RENAME command a bit more useful, need to add some switches. But it shares a switch table, qvswtab[], with some other commands. Broke this off into its own switch table. ckuus6.c, 17 Apr 2006.

Added SET SEXPRESSION TRUNCATE-ALL-RESULTS { ON, OFF }. This can be used for force integer arithmetic in any kind of calculation that requires it, such as date calculations. This is a global setting, not on any kind of stack. Also, updated SHOW SEXP and added HELP SET SEXP which wasn't there before. ckuus[23].c, 30 Mar 2006.

Tried resurrecting the solaris2xg+krb5+krb4+openssl+shadow target. It asks to link with libdes but there is no libdes. Removed -ldes from the target, now at least it builds and runs wart. The compilation blows up in ckcftp.c for missing header files:

  ckcftp.c:462: kerberosIV/krb.h: No such file or directory
  ckcftp.c:500: gssapi/gssapi_generic.h: No such file or directory
  ckcftp.c:501: gssapi/gssapi_krb5.h: No such file or directory

Got a bit farther by adding appropriate -I's and -L's to KFLAGS but it still dies compiling (or linking?) ckcftp.c, but it doesn't say exactly why. OK, deferred.


Corrected an omission in applying PeterE's updates to the HP-UX targets. makefile, 28 Mar 2006.

NebBSD 2.0 build completed by turning off optimization on ckcfn2.c ("KFLAGS=-O0"). Result supports 64-bit ints and, presumably, large files. uname -p = "m68k", -m = "sun3". 29 Mar 2006.


Added large file/integer support to SHOW FEATURES. ckuus5.c, 27 Mar 2006.

Built OK on Solaris 9 and 10 with gcc (someone was complaining that this didn't work, but that was 8.0.211).

Started build on a Sun 3/80 mc68030 with NetBSD 2.0 and gcc 3.3.3. But it died with an assembler error in ckcfn2.c (compiler bug). 27 Mar 2006.

New targets of HP-UX 10/11 with OpenSSL from PeterE. makefile, 27 Mar 2006.

In response to a complaint from Clarence Dold, tried "make redhat9" (which is the rather dated target that tried to include all forms of security) on RH Linux AS4.3, it failed miserably. I made a new makefile target, removing Kerberos IV and got a lot farther. But then in ckcftp.c, the following struct definition:

struct {
    CONST gss_OID_desc * CONST * mech_type;
    char *service_name;
} gss_trials[] = {
    { &ck_gss_mech_krb5, "ftp" },
    { &ck_gss_mech_krb5, "host" },

refers to a variable, ck_gss_mech_krb5, that is not defined anywhere. Up above, however, is a static definition for gss_mech_krb5, so I changed the struct definition to match. Next, in ckuath.c, the compiler could not find the com_err.h file. Turns out in Linux this is in a subdirectory, et, so we have to add a -I clause to the makefile target for this. Made a target for Linux+SSL only. Made a target for Linux+Krb5 only; this required moving an #ifdef in ckuus7.c to prevent an unguarded reference to SSLEAY_VERSION. New targets: linux+krb5+ssl, linux+krb5, linux+krb5. ckcftp.c, ckuus7.c, makefile, 27 Mar 2006.

Patches from Mark Sapiro to suppress getsockopt() and getsockname() warnings in Mac OS X. ckcnet.[ch], 18 Mar 2006.


Got access to AIX 5.3, built there, all OK, including large files. 13 Mar 2006.

Gavin Graham noticed that FTP [M]GET /DELETE /MOVE-TO: was rejected with "?Sorry, /DELETE conflicts with /MOVE or /RENAME". This check belongs in the PUT code but not in the GET code. Commented it out and tested the result. The combination is now accepted but then Kermit refuses the incoming file as if it had been given a /SMALLER-THAN: or /LARGER-THAN: switch, which it didn't happen. Turns out there was one more place where I wasn't initializing the new "wide int" member of the switch-parsing pv[] struct. Once this was fixed, the /MOVE-TO part still didn't work. Turned out the /DELETE case was part of a long if-else-if-else- chain, which effectively made /DELETE and /MOVE-TO: or /RENAME-TO: mutually exclusive. Fixed this, now it works fine. ckcftp.c, 13 Mar 2006.

Added OpenSSL version number display to SHOW FEATURES. ckuus5.c, 9 Mar 2006.

In response to a complaint that C-Kermit would not build on HP-UX 11 with OpenSSL, I tried it myself on both 11.11/PA-RISC and 11i v2/Itanium. It built OK on both but I had to add a new target (hpux1000o+openssl-nozlib) for no Zlib since these boxes did not have it installed. makefile, 9 Mar 2006.


The reason Kermit was looping on directories in IRIX was a classic "double-ended break". The makefile targets failed to define DIRENT so Kermit was open/read on directories rather than opendir()/readdir(). But then it was also failing to account for the fact that read() would return -1 on error. The makefile fix adds -DDIRENT, and the read() case in traverse() now properly terminates its loop on error. ckufio.c, 6 Mar 2006.

Fixes from J. Scott Kasten to the IRIX 6.4 and 6.5 makefile targets. They were badly wrong. makefile, 6 Mar 2006.

Added a 32-bit aix51+openssl target. Builds OK, works fine (tested against our SSL POP server). Tried I tried adding -D_LARGE_FILES. It seems to work fine, so we'll keep it. Cleaned up the other aix5blah entries a bit also. makefile, 6 Mar 2006.

Built on AIX 5.1 ("make aix51") without incident. Then I tried:


This had no effect. I found the relevant document ath the IBM website. It says to use -D_LARGE_FILES instead. I added this to the AIX 4.2 target since (a) IBM says large files are supported by AIX 4.2 and later, and (b) all Kermit AIX targets past 4.2 use the 4.2 one. Plus a clause to make sure CK_OFF_T is defined appropriately. ckcdeb.h, makefile, 6 Mar 2006.

Fixed the HELP command when used with tokens like @, ^, #, and ;. The first two had been omitted from the table. The second two required a new path into the guts of the parser, since comments are normally stripped at a very low level. ckuus[r2].c, ckucmd.c, 24 Feb 2006.


Changed the new NetBSD target names to be consistent with the conventions used in most other targets:

  netbsdwoc -> netbsdnc
  netbsdse  -> netbsd+ssl+srp+zlib
  irix65se  -> irix65+ssl+srp+zlib

and removed old, now superfluous, NetBSD targets (old-netbsd, netbst15, netbst16), leaving synonym labels in their place. Also updated (crudely) the Linux target variations (curses instead of nocurses, no curses at all) to be (appropriately modified) copies of the current linux target. It would be nicer to combine them, but this gets the job done. makefile, 23 Feb 2006.

From J.Scott Kasten: (quote...) I just uploaded a patch to /kermit/incoming. The file name is "jsk-patch-for-cku211.diff". I have also included the patch as ASCII text in this email below. This patch may be applied to the cku211.tar.gz source code via:

cd cku211, patch -p1 <../jsk-patch-for-cku211.diff

The patch adds 4 new build targets:

  netbsdwoc - a stripped no curses target for iksd used.
  netbsdse  - security enhanced target with srp, ssl, and zlib.
  irix65gcc - build on SGI Irix 6.5 platform using gcc.
  irix65se  - security enhanced target with srp, ssl, and zlib.

The patch fixes one build target:

  irix64gcc - The "-s" option is not supported by gcc under Irix.

I thank all of you in the Kermit Project for such a fine utility. I recently had to get a 16 MB file overseas across a spotty communications link to repair a computer remotely. Kermit was the only thing that could do the job, so I wanted to contribute these patches back to the mainstream to say thanks. This digitally signed email is a binding contract that officially assigns the rights to the source code patch (shown below) that I developed to the Kermit Project at Columbia University. (...end quote) ck_ssl.c, makefile, 23 Feb 2006.

Further attempts at SSL/TLS message suppression when QUIET is ON. ck_ssl.c, 16 Feb 2006.


Satisfied myself that LFS is OK on Solaris 10 i386, and I'm going to assume it's also OK on Solaris 9. Made LFS standard for all Solaris 9 and 10 builds (including the secure ones) except the explicitly 64-bit ones, and made the provisional solarisXXlfs targets into synonyms. makefile, 9 Feb 2006.

Removed a spurious extra linux+openssl label from the makefile, added solaris10g_64 synonym. 9 Feb 2006.

Fixed a signed/unsigned char warning in the new boundspair() calling code in the compact substring notation handler. ckuus4.c, 9 Feb 2006.


Built OK on FreeBSD 6.1 on AMD64. Adjusted some copyrights and date stamps. ckcmai.c, makefile, 8 Feb 2006.

Apparently, ever since C-Kermit 7.0 was released, it has never been possible to use a variable for the as-name in a RECEIVE command in Kermit 95. This is because evaluation of the as-name field was deferred until after we could check whether it might be a directory name (which, in Windows, could start with a backslash). This little bit of magic was not a good idea, magic hardly ever is. I changed the code to evaluate both as-name fields in the normal way. If they want to receive to a directory called "\%1", they'll just have to spell it differently. The workaround is to turn the whole command into a macro and evaluate it before executing it, e.g.:

  assign xx receive /as-name:\%1
  do xx

ckuus6.c, 1 Feb 2006.

Created a new build target for SCO OSR6.0.0. Gets the exact 6.x.x version dynamically. Supports large files and big-number arithmetic via CK_OFF_T. The sockopt() family of functions changed the data types of some of their arguments since OSR5. It was already possible to define SOCKOPT_T and GSOCKNAME_T from the command line but I had to add code to also allow this for GPEERNAME_T too. ckcnet.c, makefile, 30 Jan 2006.

Determined that SCO OSR5.0.6 (and earlier) do(es) not support large files. Don't know about 5.0.7. 30 Jan 2006.

Changes from PeterE to the makefile for HP-UX 6 and 7, to accommodate bigger symbol tables, etc. 19 Jan 2006.

Changed arraybounds() to call boundspair(). This was a rather drastic change, not strictly necessary, but I think I got all the kinks out. ckuus5.c, 13 Jan 2006.

Noticed that when I changed the compact substring notation code back on August 9th, I broke the ability to use arithmetic expressions within the brackets, which explains some rather odd behavior I saw with some of my scripts. Looking more deeply into this, I also see that all the parsers I have been using up to now for this, as well as for array bounds pairs, have been inadequate because they never allowed for nested constructions, such as a member of a bounds pair that itself was an array element, possibly with another array element as a subscript. I wrote a new routine for this, called boundspair(), which is like arraybounds() except it accepts an extra argument, an array of characters that can serve as bounds-pair delimiters, and it returns the pair separator that was encountered in another new argument. For the alternative substring notation for [startpos-endpos] I had to change the delimiter from '-' to '_' because '-' can be used in arithmetic but '_' is not a recognized operator. This is so I can parse, e.g. [a:b] or [a_b] in the same context, and then find out which form was used, e.g. \s(line[9:12]) or \s(line[9_12]); the first string is 4 bytes long, the second is 12. Everything seems to be OK now. \s(line[10]) gives everything starting at 10, but \s(line[10:0]) gives the null string. Bad syntax in the bounds pairs results in a null string; missing pieces of the bounds pair result in defaults that should be compatible with previous behavior. ckuus[45].c, ckuusr.h, 13 Jan 2006.

A fix for setting 921600 bps on Linux from Paul Fulghum, Microgate Systems Ltd. ttgspd(): ckutio.c, 11 Jan 2006.

A section of tstats() where GFTIMER isn't defined (e.g. on Motorola sv68r3v6) was garbled. Fixed in ckcfn2.c, 10 Jan 2006.

Evidently the HP-UX bundled (non-ANSI non-optimizing) compiler doesn't like long integers in switch expressions. Changed three examples of these in the S-expression code. ckuus3.c, 10 Jan 2006.


Made a pure 32-bit build on SCO UnixWare 7.1.4, all OK. Found that this version also supports LFS, added it to the uw7 target. makefile, 9 Jan 2006.

Looks like I no longer have access to SCO OSR5.

Built on IRIX 6.5. I didn't bother with large files there because it does not support the _LARGEFILE_SOURCE interface; you have to change all the APIs at the source level from blah() to blah64(). Seems to work fine as a 32-bit app even though its off_t is 64 bits. Tried a pure 64-bit IRIX 6.5 build but it dies in ckcnet.c when it hits SOCKOPT_T and GSOCKNAME_T with "The identifier 'socklen_t' is undefined".

Built on QNX-32 4.25, which has no large file support. Got a few strange compiler (WatCom) warnings, but it built and runs OK. Noticed that file transfers into QNX over a Telnet connection can't use streaming, but that's nothing new to this version; same thing happens with C-Kermit 7.0. 9 Jan 2006.

Built on NetBSD 1.4.1 (1999), found that it did not like the large file assumption — fseeko() and ftello() do not exist; added a clause to the netbsd target to check for fseeko and not define _LARGEFILE_SOURCE if not found. Oddly enough, off_t is 64 bits anyway, but it doesn't look like the APIs are half-done. For example, stat() uses off_t (64 bits) for the file length, but fseek() uses long (32 bits) and there is no 64-bit analog. Anyway the new netbsd target works on both 1.4.1 and 1.5.2 (no large files) and on 2.0.3 (large files). makefile, 9 Jan 2006.

Finally got around to testing Jeff's changes to SSL/TLS RAW mode from December 30th against our POP server. It didn't work, couldn't log in. Tried backing off the ckctel.c changes first; that allowed login and communication, but it did not suppress activation of Telnet protocol whenever a 0xff byte arrived. Backed off the rest of the changes and now all is OK again. ckctel.c, ckcnet.c, ckuus7.c, 9 Jan 2006.

Built on FreeBSD 6.0 on IA64. All OK except I got a warning about the argument passed to time() in logwtmp() in ckufio.c. This section had already been partially fixed; thus I put the improved version into #ifdef CK_64BIT, which is our newly available symbol that should be automatically defined for any true 64-bit build. ckufio.c, 4 Jan 2006.

Built on HP-UX 11.11 with _LARGEFILE_SOURCE and _FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64. The result works fine as far as I can tell. It sees big files, it can open them, seek to positions past the 2^31 boundary. It can send large files. It can do large-number arithmetic (^ 2 62). The only problem is that during compilation, every single modules warns:

cc: "/usr/include/sys/socket.h", line 504: warning 562: Redeclaration of
"sendfile" with a different storage class specifier: "sendfile" will have
internal linkage.
cc: "/usr/include/sys/socket.h", line 505: warning 562: Redeclaration of
"sendpath" with a different storage class specifier: "sendpath" will have
internal linkage.

These warnings should be perfectly harmless since they are not coming from C-Kermit code, nor does C-Kermit use either one of those functions. These warnings don't come out in HP-UX 11i v2, but on that one we get tons and tons of picky compiler warnings (variables set but not used, defined but not referenced, etc). A couple, however, turned out to be valid; one case of "expression has no effect", and two of "string format incompatible with data type" (I missed a couple file-size printfs).

There were also numerous warnings about signedness mismatch or sign conversion of constants like IAC (0xff). Does the HP-UX Optimizing Compiler have a compiler flag to make all chars unsigned? Yes, +uc, but the man page says "Be careful when using this option. Your application may have problems interfacing with HP-UX system libraries and other libraries that do not use this option". Sigh, better not use it.

After reviewing "HP-UX Large Files White Paper Version 1.4" and HP's "Writing Portable Code" documents, I added -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 to the hpux1000 target, which is the basis for all HP-UX 10.00 and later builds. Large files are available in HP-UX 10.20 and later. 10.00 and 10.10 were not real releases, and anyway these flags should be harmless there unless the large-file implementation was only partly done. Built OK on both PA-RISC and IA64, optimized and plain. makefile, 4 Jan 2006.

Dumping the command stack every time there's an error is really too much. I added SET COMMAND ERROR-DISPLAY {0,1,2,3} to set the verbosity level of error messages. Only level 3 dumps the stack. ckuus[235].c, 2 Jan 2006.

OpenBSD, same as FreeBSD. Also, added OS-version-getting thing to makefile target for the program herald, as in the other BSDs. Built on OpenBSD 2.5 from 1998, it has 64-bit off_t too. ckcdeb.h, makefile, 2 Jan 2006.

Observed that FreeBSD 4.x has a 64-bit off_t, but does not use the _LARGEFILE_SOURCE convention. Reasoning that all versions of FreeBSD have off_t (I was able to check back to FreeBSD 3.3), I simply #define CK_OFF_T to be off_t in ckcdeb.h within #ifdef __FreeBSD__ .. #endif. Another one down. This can be done for any platform that is guaranteed to have off_t. Turns out FreeBSD 3.3 has 64-bit off_t too. 2 Jan 2006.

Fixed typo, #ifdef CK_NOLONGLONG in ckuus5.c should have been #ifndef CK_LONGLONG (which, it turns out, we don't use anyway). 2 Jan 2006.

Noticed that NetBSD 2.0.3 has 64-bit off_t, and that _LARGEFILE_SOURCE is mentioned in <stdio.h>. Tried building Kermit with _LARGEFILE_SOURCE added to CFLAGS, it's good. Added it to the netbsd target. makefile, 1 Jan 2006.

Updated visible copyright dates to 2006: ckcmai.c, ckuus2.c, ckuus5.c, 1 Jan 2006.

Tried FSEEK /FIND: on a largish file (over 100,000 lines), using it to seek to a line near the end. It took 0.756 seconds, compared with Unix grep, which did the same thing in 0.151 sec. That's because C-Kermit is using ckmatch(). But if the search target is not a pattern, it should be a bit faster to use ckindex(). Yup, 0.554 sec, a 36% improvement. Can't expect to compete with grep, though; it's highly tuned for its single purpose. ckclib.[ch], ckuus7.c, 1 Jan 2006.

Back to the pattern matcher. Noticed that "IF MATCH index.html [a-hj-z]*" succeeded when it should have failed. In ckmatch(), the clist section needed one more clause: it can't float the pattern if an asterisk does not occur in the pattern before the clist. This change fixes the problem without breaking any other cases that weren't already broken, most of which involve slists, i.e. {string,string,string,...}. ckclib.c, 30 Dec 2005.

INPUT /NOWRAP, added recently, is used for efficiently copying the INPUT stream intact, but it's not good for matching because if the INPUT target is broken between the end of the previous buffer and the beginning of the next one, the context is lost and the match does not occur. I thought of several ways around this, but they all involve saving a huge amount of context — old input buffers, the arrays of target strings and corresponding match positions, etc. The alternative is fairly simple but it's not transparent to the user. Here's what I did in a POP script:

.eom := "\13\10.\13\10"
set flag off                           # FLAG ON = success
while ( open connection && not flag ) {
    .oldinput := \fright(\v(input),8)  # Save tail of previous INPUT buffer
    input /clear /nowrap 4 \m(eom)     # Get new INPUT buffer
    if success {                       # INPUT matched - good
        .s := {\freplace(\v(input),\m(eom),\13\10)}
        set flag on
    } else {                           # No match
        .s := \v(input)                # Check if target crossed the border
        .oldinput := \m(oldinput)\fsubstr(\v(input),1,8)
        if \findex(\m(eom),\m(oldinput)) set flag on

I think this will be easier to explain than any dangerous and grotesque magic I might put into doinput() itself. For now, added a few words about this to HELP INPUT. ckuus2.c, 30 Dec 2005.

It was annoying me that FILE STATUS (FSTATUS) required a channel number to be given even if only one file was open, so I supplied the correct default in that case. ckuus7.c, 30 Dec 2005.

Added FSEEK /FIND:pattern. This form of FSEEK accepts all the other switches and arguments and performs the desired seek. Then, if the seek was successful, it starts from that point and reads through the file, line by line, searching for the first line that contains the given string or matches the given (unanchored) pattern and, if found, sets the file pointer to the beginning of that line. Useful, e.g., for very long timestamped logs, where you want to start processing at a certain date or time; searching for a particular string is much faster than doing date comparisons on each line. ckuus[27].c, 30 Dec 2005.

It was reported that WRITE SESSION always returned a failure status, even when it succeeded. The problem was that Unix versions of zsout() and zsoutl(), for the session log only, were using write() and returning write()'s return code, which is different from what zsout() and zsoutl() are documented to return. Also plugged a couple potential holes in zsoutx() that I noticed while I was in the neighborhood. ckufio.c, 30 Dec 2005.

Code adjustments from Jeff, mainly to the SSL and TLS Raw mode code from several weeks ago, plus changing some data types in the security code to CK_OFF_T, plus a different data type for CK_OFF_T for K95 because Windows size_T isn't signed. This presumably will allow large-number arithmetic but it will not give large file access because that will require replacing all C library file i/o calls (esp. in ckofio.c) with native Windows APIs. Build on Solaris 9 with and without SSL and on Linux RH AS4.2 with and without SSL. ck_crp.c, ck_ssl.c, ck_ssl.h, ckcdeb.h, ckcftp.c, ckcmai.c, ckcnet.c, ckcnet.h, ckctel.c, ckuat2.h, ckuus4.c, ckuus7.c, ckuusr.c, 30 Dec 2005.


Built and tested on Red Hat AS4 AMD X86_64, used it to upload new sources to FreeBSD 4.11. Built on FreeBSD 4.11/i386. Here's another one where off_t is 64 bits, even though long is 32 bits. But it seems to work ok, not sure why, when CK_OFF_T is 32 bits. There is no _LARGEFILE_SOURCE stuff in the header files. 29 Dec 2005.

Built on Mac OS X 10.3.9 using the new macosx10.4 target to pick up LFS. Works fine.

Built on Red Hat Linux 4WS on IA64 (64-bit). Now this one is odd, stat() fails on big files. It happens also if I use the "linuxnolfs" target, which does not define _USE_LARGEFILE or _FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64. DIRECTORY BIGFILE shows the size as -1, but if "log debug", it says "no files match", i.e. different behavior, observer effect. I hate when that happens.

Let's see if that's an anomaly… Built on Tru64 Unix 4.0F (64-bit Alpha). It sees long files just fine. Rebuilt and checked on x86_64 again… fine. OK, let's not worry about IA64 yet.

Another small fix to the HP-UX 9.0 target from PeterE. makefile, 29 Dec 2005.

Updated ckvfio.c to use CK_OFF_T for the relevant variables. Built and tested on VMS/Alpha 7.2: file transfer in remote mode; making a Telnet connection and then local-mode file transfer; S-Expressions, all OK. Also built a no-net version OK. 29 Dec 2005.

Commented out the SHOW FEATURES section that displays constants like INT_MAX, CHAR_MAX, etc, because printing each value in the appropriate format is too tricky, and we don't need them anyway. ckuus5.c, 29 Dec 2005.

Built on Unixware 7.1.1, a pure 32-bit build, seems fine. Rebuilt on Red Hat AS 4.2 just to make sure I didn't break anything, it's OK. No testing on HP-UX, etc, because HP testdrive file system is full, can't upload anything. 29 Dec 2005.

Fixed a problem with uninitialized pv[].wval (switch-parsing parameter-value) members that showed up on certain platforms or with certain compilers. Now the Mac OS X 10.4 version works. ckuus[r367].c, ckcftp.c, 28 Dec 2005.

Added GREP /EXCEPT:pattern. ckuus[26].c, 27 Dec 2005.

Built on Mac OS X 10.4 with the regular target. It seems that in that case, off_t is 64 bits anyway. Noticed that a lot of stuff didn't work, like exponentiation in S-Expressions. Tried building it as above, which worked, and now CK_OFF_T is 64 bits instead of 32, but (^ 2 30) is still 2.0. In fact 2-to-the-any-power is 2.0. It seems that the Mac OS X version did not have FNFLOAT defined. It also seems that every test in dosexp() like:

if (result != fpresult) fpflag++;

should have been protected by #ifdef FNFLOAT..#endif /* FNFLOAT */ — a double-ended break, as they say in the nuclear power industry. ckuus3.c, 27 Dec 2005.

Tried building a hybrid version on Solaris 9 after all since the LFS API is ostensibly the same as for Linux:


It built smoothly and the resulting binary is 2.5MB compared to 3.4MB for the 100% 64-bit version. Looks like a keeper. For now, added solaris9lfs and solaris10lfs entries to the makefile but if these work on PCs we can make these the regular entries for Solaris 9 and 10. 27 Dec 2005.

Took all the LONGLONG stuff out of ckcdeb.h, we don't need it.

All of these changes result in 64-bit arithmetic (more or less) on 32-bit Linux, as well as on true 64-bit platforms.

Rebuilt today's code on Solaris 9 in the 32-bit and 64-bit worlds, on Red Hat 6.1, Red Hat AS4.2. I haven't bothered trying a 32/64 hybrid build for Solaris, since I can build a pure 64-bit version there. Quick tests show the large-number arithmetic works OK in all cases except, of course, on pure 32-bit builds (unfortunately I can't find a running Linux system old enough to verify this for Linux, but it's true for other 32-bit platforms). 24 Dec 2005.

Converted the S-Expression handler to use wide integers. ckuus3.c, 24 Dec 2005.

Fixed ckfstoa() to handle the case when n is negative and (0 - n) is also negative, which happens for numbers 2^(n-1) or greater, where n is the number of bits in the word size we're dealing with, e.g. 64, in which case 2^63 has its sign bit set so seems to be negative. In such cases, ckfstoa() returns "OVERFLOW" instead of a numeric string. We'll have to see how this plays out but I think it's better to cause a parse error and stop things dead than to return a spurious number. ckclib.c, 24 Dec 2005.

Changed the algebraic expression evaluator to use wide values. ckuus5.c, 24 Dec 2005.

SEND /SMALLER-THAN:n, SEND /LARGER-THAN:n, and and SEND /START:n also now allow large values of n. ckuusr.c, 24 Dec 2005.

Changed SEND /CALIBRATE:n to allow big values of n. This makes it possible to test the protocol aspects of long-file transfer without actually having a long file handy. ckuusr.c, 24 Dec 2005.

Next come switches, which store their results in a struct stringint. This struct was defined in each module where it was used (ckuus[r367].c, ckcftp.c). I moved the definition to ckuusr.h and added a wval member, which can be referenced by any switch-parsing code that calls cmnumw(). 24 Dec 2005.

Changed FSEEK and FCOUNT to use the new chained FDB interface, now we can seek and look past 2GB. ckuus7.c, 24 Dec 2005.

Calling cmnumw() in chained FDBs required defining a new function code, _CMNUW, adding a new member to the OFDB struct for returning wide results, and adding a new case to cmfdb(). ckucmd.[ch], 24 Dec 2005.

Calling cmnumw() directly requires changes to each routine that uses it. The INCREMENT and DECREMENT commands, for example, required changes to doincr(), varval(), and incvar(), and all references to them. ckuusr.[ch], ckuus[56].c, 24 Dec 2005.

Made a CK_OFF_T version of cmnum(). It would be a very big deal to just change cmnum() to return a new type, so another idea is to rename cmnum() to something else, cmnumw(), change its result argument to CK_OFF_T, and then make a stub cmnum() to call it to get an int, then call cmnumw() explicitly any time we need a big number. ckucmd.c, 24 Dec 2005.

Converted all fseek() and ftell() to macros that expand to fseek() and ftell() or fseeko() and ftello() depending on whether _LARGEFILE_SOURCE is defined. ckufio.c, ckuus7.c, ckuusx.c, 24 Dec 2005.

Built it on Red Hat Linux 6.1 from 1999. This picked up the long file support too. Guess 6.1 isn't old enough to not have it! Kermit seems to work OK on regular files but I don't have enough disk space to create a long file, and my bigfile.c program (which creates a long file containing only 1 byte) doesn't work ("fseeko: invalid argument"). It looks like parts of this API were visible in Linux before they were actually working. 24 Dec 2005.

Checked this on true 64-bit Linux. The same symbols are defined in CFLAGS, but they do no harm; it builds without complaint and works fine. 24 Dec 2005.

It looks like the operative feature-test macro in glibc for transitional large file support is __USE_LARGEFILE64. So if this is defined, we can also supply _LARGEFILE_SOURCE and _FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 automatically for 32-bit Linux builds. But there's a Catch-22, you don't know if this is defined until you read the header files, but you have to define _LARGEFILE_SOURCE and _FILE_OFFSET_BITS before you read the header files. Maybe it's good enough to grep through <features.h> for __USE_LARGEFILE64. makefile, 23 Dec 2005.

Converted the rest of the source files to use CK_OFF_T for all file size and offset and byte-count related variables, and converted all references to these variables in printfs to go through ckfstoa(). Then I built it on Linux/i386 with:


which makes off_t be 64 bits and magically makes all the regular file APIs use 64-bit sizes and offsets without changing the API calls in the source code. It's going to be a lot of work to get through all the kinks but I was able to send a long file, do directory listings of long files, do \fsize(longfile), etc. When it sends a file, the length is shown correctly in the A packet. If the receiver does not support big numbers, it receives the file OK anyway, without showing the size, the thermometer, or percent done (and then will get an error when the file keeps coming after the 2G mark). Kermit 95 actually refuses long files for "Size", but only if the announced is less than 2^63 bytes. When today's Linux version receives a file, it shows the length correctly in the file-transfer display, as well as percent done, thermometer, etc. Also built this version on true 64-bit Linux, and it worked fine. Many files changed, 22 Dec 2005.

For the record, this API is specified in X/Open's Single UNIX Specification Version 2, which is branded as UNIX 98. It is called Large File Support, or LFS, and was developed at the Large File Summit.

Converted debug(), tlog(), ckscreen(), etc, to handle potentially "long long" arguments by making their "n" argument CK_OFF_T. ckuusx.c, ckcdeb.h, 22 Dec 2005.

Changed Attribute Packet reader to convert incoming file size attribute with ckatofs() rather than atol(). ckcfn3.c, 22 Dec 2005.

Changed ckfstoa() to return a signed number in string form, rather than an unsigned one. That's because off_t is signed (thank goodness). Added the inverse function, ckatofs() so we can convert file sizes and offsets back and forth between binary number and string. ckclib.c, 22 Dec 2005.

Fleshed out 32/64-bit data type definitions and changed struct zattr (file attribute structure) members length and lengthk to have the new CK_OFF_T type. Changed final arguments of debug() and tlog() to be the new LONGLONG type. ckcdeb.h, 22 Dec 2005.

Noticed that HTTP not included in FreeBSD and OpenBSD builds. Fixed in ckcdeb.h, 22 Dec 2005.

HTTP file-descriptor swapping is not thread safe. Doing it right, of course, is a big deal, so for now I just don't define HTTP_BUFFERING for Windows. ckcnet.c, 15 Dec 2005.


The problem with HTTP downloads is that Kermit always does single-character read() or socket_read() calls (or the SSL equivalent); see http_inc(). I added buffering code for non-SSL connections only but it's gross because it has to swap ttyfd and httpfd before calling nettchk(). I tried making a nettchk() clone that accepts a file descriptor as an argument but it didn't work because too many other routines that are invoked directly or implicitly by nettchk() (such as in_chk()) are still hardwired to use ttyfd. HTTP GETs are now 20 times faster on the local network (the improvement is less dramatic over a clogged Internet). ckcnet.[ch], 15 Dec 2005.

PeterE complained about ugly DIRECTORY error message, ?No files match - "{blah}". The braces are used internally in case the user typed more than one filespec. I changed the error message to remove them. Ditto DELETE. ckuus6.c, 15 Dec 2005.

Added debug() statements to http_blah() routines to tell whether the connection is "chunked". There seems to be a bad performance problem. ckcnet.c, 14 Dec 2005.

An updated HP-UX 9.xx makefile target from PeterE to fix a core dump that happens on that platform due to insufficient resources. 14 Dec 2005.

Started converting code to use CK_OFF_T for file sizes and offsets, and all [s]printf's to replace "%ld" or whatever with "%s", and the size variable with a call to ckfstoa(). Since I haven't actually changed the definition of CK_OFF_T from what all the size variables were to begin with (i.e. long), it shouldn't do any harm. So far just ckcfn3.c 10 Dec 2005.

Our Ctrl‑C trap (the ON_CTRLC macro) wasn't working for kerbang files. Rearranged some code to make it work. ckcmai.c, 8 Dec 2005.

Fixed a typo in the non-ANSIC definition of ckfstoa(). ckclib.c, 7 Dec 2005.


Added another debug() statement in FTP secure_getbyte() to see what's going on with Muhamad Taufiq Tajuddin's 205-byte-per-second FTP/SSL downloads, plus new code to test SSL_read()'s return code (byte count); if 0 don't update the screen. ckcftp.c, 4 Dec 2005.

The INPUT command did not account for tn_doop() returning 3. Fixed in doinput(), ckuus4.c, 4 Dec 2005.

Discovered that on a SET PORT /SSL connection, Kermit treats incoming 0xff data bytes (e.g. sent from the POP server) as IACs and goes into Telnet negotiations. Jeff says "You will need to implement NP_SSLRAW and NP_TLSRAW that do the same as NP_TCPRAW but negotiate SSL or TLS as appropriate." This was not as easy as it sounded, because apparently a lot of the Telnet code is used by SSL and TLS even when Telnet protocol is not being executed. I wound up doing this as follows: I added /SSL-RAW and /TLS-RAW to the switch table. Rather than disable Telnet, they do exactly what the /SSL and /TLS switches do, but also set a special flag. This flag is checked in only two place: netclos() (to prevent Kermit from sending TELNET LOGOUT when closing the connection), and tn_doop() (to prevent Kermit from reacting to incoming IACs; it makes tn_doop() return(3), which means "quoted IAC", which causes the caller to keep the IAC as data). ckcnet.h, ckctel.h, ckctel.c, ckuus7.c, 4 Dec 2005.

Updated INPUT and MINPUT help text. ckuus2.c, 3 Dec 2005.

Changed "make netbsd" to be a synonym for "make netbsd2" because the original netbsd target was ancient. Renamed it to netbsd-old. makefile, 3 Dec 2005.


Built OK on VMS 7.2-1 with MultiNet 4.4. Built with and without OpenSSL on Linux OK, ditto Solaris 9. Built OK on RH Linux AS4 on X86_64 (64-bit); "show var fsize" (using new ckfstoa()) works OK there. Also Mac OS X 10.3.9 (32-bit), Tru64 UNIX 4.0F (64-bit), HP-UX 11iv2 (64-bit) (picky new compiler spews out tons of useless warnings), FreeBSD 6.0 on ia64 (64-bit).

Changed \flop() and flopx() functions to take a third argument, a number signifying at which occurrence of the break character to lop, so:

\flopx(sesame.cc.columbia.edu) = edu
\flopx(sesame.cc.columbia.edu,,2) = columbia.edu

ckuus[24].c, 1 Dec 2005.

IF KERBANG didn't always work right. If a kerbang script TAKEs another kerbang script, the second one should have IF KERBANG false, but it didn't. Added a check for \v(cmdlevel) == 1. Now you can write a wrapper that runs a kerbang script in a loop, and the latter can use IF KERBANG to know whether to EXIT (if called at top level) or END (if called by another script, thus allowing — in this case — the loop to continue). ckuus6.c, 29 Nov 2005.

Getting rid of the awful hacks required to call cmiofi() meant I also had to change the EDIT command, which is the only other place where it's used. Unfortunately now it's no longer possible to give EDIT without a filename (to just start an empty editor) but I doubt anyone will notice. ckuusr.c, 29 Nov 2005.

Discovered that FOPEN /APPEND doesn't work if the file doesn't exist. It uses cmiofi() which is a super-hokey front end to cmifi2(). I had code to call it but for some reason it was commented out, with a note to the effect it didn't work. I uncommented it but that didn't help much. So I wrote an entirely new cmiofi() that works exactly as it should, using chained FDBs, _CMIFI to _CMOFI (I think the original cmiofi() predated chained FDBs). ckuus7.c, ckucmd.c, 29 Nov 2005.

Changed ssl_display_xxx() to just return if SET QUIET ON. Otherwise there is no way to suppress the messages. Also protected a previously unprotected printf("[SSL - OK]\r\n"); by if ( ssl_verbose_flag ). ck_ssl.c, 28 Nov 2005.

Previously the only way to INPUT an entire data stream without losing anything (assuming it was ordinary lines of text that were not "too long"), was line-by-line:

while open connection {
    input /clear 10 \13\10
    if fail break
    if eq "\v(input)" "$ \13\10" break
    fwrite /string \%o {\freplace(\v(input),\13\10,\10)}

The new code is 3 times faster using the default INPUT buffer length of 4K. Raising it to 16K makes it 3.6 times faster (not worth it). Changing the POP3 script to use INPUT /NOWRAP makes it about twice as fast (it does more; it has to do all the byte-stuffing and unstuffing). 27 Nov 2005.

One thing that INPUT was never able to do well was read and save the complete incoming data stream. That's because, while waiting for its target, the buffer might overflow wrap around. Yet there was never a way to tell it to stop when its buffer fills up and let me save it. I added a /NOWRAP switch that does this. If the buffer fills up before any other completion criterion is met, INPUT returns failure, but with \v(instatus) set to 6 (the next available instatus value). Thus a program that wants to read and save (say) an email message from a POP server, which could be any length at all, and which terminates with <CRLF>.<CRLF> could do this:

set flag off
while open connection {
    input /nowrap 10 \13\10.\13\10 # Wait for <CRLF>.<CRLF>
    if success {
        frwrite /string \%o {\freplace(\v(input),\13\10.\13\10,\13\10)}
        set flag on
    } else if ( == \v(instatus) 6 || == \v(instatus) 1 ) {
        frwrite /string \%o {\v(input)}
if flag (handle success)

Note carefully the braces around the FWRITE text; without them, trailing spaces would be lost.

Added INPUT /CLEAR so INPUT can be started with a clean buffer without requiring a separate CLEAR INPUT command. ckuusr.h, ckuus[r24].c, 27 Nov 2005.

Using the new functions, I wrote a script to fetch mail from a POP3 server over a TLS connection. But the line-at-a-time input (needed for changing line terminators and byte-stuffing text lines that start with "From ") is slow, 17 sec to read 29 messages totaling 175K.

Added a new function \femailaddress(). Given a From: or Sender: header line from an RFC2822-format email address, extracts and returns the actual email address, such as kermit@columbia.edu. ckuusr.h, ckuus[42].c, 26 Nov 2005.

Added a new format code 4 to \fcvtdate() to emit asctime() format, used in BSD-format email message envelopes (i.e. the "From " line). shuffledate(), ckucmd.c, ckuus[24].c, 26 Nov 2005.

Discovered that Kermit's date parser, contrary to the documentation, failed to handle strings like "Wed, 13 Feb 2002 17:43:02 -0800 (PST)", which are commonly found in email. This was because of an overzealous and misguided check in the code; once removed, all was well. ckucmd.c, 26 Nov 2005.

Built a minimal version on Linux with: make linux "KFLAGS=-DNOLOCAL -DNOICP -DNOCSETS -DNODEBUG" Worked fine, result was 260K on i686. 21 Nov 2005.

Made a new library routine ckfstoa() that converts a file size or offset to a string. This is to solve the problem with having to use different printf() formats for different representations of file size (int, long, long long, off_t, signed, unsigned, etc). Replaced a few printf("%l",size) with printf("%s",ckfstoa(size)) with the expected results. This is just a start, the definitions will need adjustment for many platforms, variables need to be redeclared, and all the offending printf's (and printw's) will have to hunted down and converted. ckclib.[ch], ckuus4.c, 17 Nov 2005.

Result: nothing, SSL_get_error() does not report any errors. Suggested testing SSL_read()'s return code, if 0 don't update the screen.

Created a new data type CK_OFF_T in ckcdeb.h that will eventually resolve to whatever each platform uses for file sizes and offsets. ckcdeb.h, 17 Nov 2005.


Added a debug() statement in FTP secure_getbyte() to see what's going on with Muhamad Taufiq Tajuddin's 205-byte-per-second FTP/SSL downloads.


Added NOLONGLONG for SV68. ckcdeb.h, 11 Nov 2005.

Fixed HELP INTRO text. ckuus2.c, 11 Nov 2005.

The Unix version of C-Kermit failed to put anything in the session log if SET TERMINAL DEBUG ON. Rearranged the pertinent clause so logging happens independent of TERMINAL DEBUG. For now, since the user who noticed this wanted debug format to go into the session log, that's what I do. The alternative would be to just log the raw incoming stream as usual, or to add Yet Another SET Command to choose. ckucns.c, 11 Nov 2005.

I added a new variable \v(lastfilespec) that expands to the same last filespec, for use in scripts. ckuusr.h, ckuus4.c, 28 Oct 2005.

An idea popped into my head after having typed too many commands like "dir ck[cuw]*.[cwh]" to check the list of matching files, and then having to retype the same filespec in a SEND command: Why not unleash some unused control character such as Ctrl‑K to spit out the most recently entered input filespec? It was easy, just a few lines in cmifi2() and gtword(), plus a couple declarations. To see all the changes, search for "lastfile" (all the new code is protected by #ifndef NOLASTFILE). ckucmd.c, 28 Oct 2005.

PeterE had been reporting problems stress-testing the new SWITCH code, but only on HP-UX 9, primarily stack overrun. Turns out to be the HP-UX 9 optimizing compiler's fault. No optimization, no problems.

PeterE found that even when dogoto() detects a string that is too long and fails, this does not stop SWITCH from producing a result, which can not possibly be trusted. Changed the part of dogoto() that handles this to not just fail, but also to exit the script immediately and return to top level. ckuus6.c, 28 Oct 2005.

PeterE corrected a typo in the HP-UX 7.00 makefile target. 27 Oct 2005.

Dev.04 didn't actually contain Jeff's data-type changes to shofeat(), I think I saved the wrong buffer in EMACS… Fixed now. 27 Oct 2005.


Testing revealed there was still a problem with SWITCH case labels that were variables that expanded into long strings. Turns out that I was being too clever when I decided that, if the SWITCH macro was n1 characters long and the case-label search target was n2 characters long, I only had to search the first n1-n2+1 characters of the macro definition. That was true before I allowed case labels to be variables, but not any more! Fixed in dogoto(): ckuus5.c, 26 Oct 2005.

PeterE noticed that GOTO targets can only be 50 characters long. This was by design, a long time ago, on the assumption that nobody would make longer labels. But in SWITCH statements, case labels can be variables that expand to anything at all. If we chop them off at 50, we might execute the wrong case. Changed the maximum label size to be 8K, and added code to dogoto() to check when a label or target is too long and fail, to prevent spurious GOTO or SWITCH results. ckuusr.h, ckuus[r6].c, 26 Oct 2005.

Defined NOLONGLONG ckcdeb.h for various old platforms where we know we are never going to need 64-bit ints (even if they support a long long datatype, chances are pretty slim they supported 64-bit file sizes). ckcdeb.h, 26 Oct 2005.

From Jeff: changes to support OpenSSL 0.9.8, ck_ssl.h. ckcasc.h has had short names defined for ASCII control characters for 20-some years but now they are causing conflicts, so EM becomes XEM (also for OpenSSL 0.9.8). Changed K95's default terminal type from VT320 to VT220 because VT320 termcaps/terminfos are disappearing from Unix hosts: ckuus7.c. Reorganize the data-types section of SHOW FEATURES to add more macro tests for integral sizes and to provide for the proper printf formatting in order to allow the sizes to be output ("You are going to need to be careful because %llx is not supported on all platforms. On Windows, it is the same as %lx, 32 bits"): ckuus5.c, 26 Oct 2005.

New makefile targets for HP-UX from PeterE to handle the 'long long' situation. 26 Oct 2005.

Added -DNOLONGLONG to sv68r3v6 target, makefile, 25 Oct 2005.

Fixed a compiler warning in a debug() statement in zzstring() by adding parens. ckuus4.c, 24 Oct 2005.


Found and corrected some misplaced #ifdefs in shofeat(), ckuus5.c, 23 Oct 2005.

From Jeff: some improvements to K95 GUI SHOW TERMINAL. ckuus5.c, 23 Oct 2005.

From Jeff: struct gss_trials initializers changed from gss_mech_krb5 to ck_gss_mech_krb5. ckcftp.c, 23 Oct 2005.

From Andy Tanenbaum, final changes for MINIX3: #ifdef out the inline definitions for gettimeofday() and readlink(). ckutio.c, 23 Oct 2005.

ckuus7.c(2987): warning #267: the format string requires additional arguments (in PURGE command); fixed 20 Oct 2005.

Back to ckmatch()… Under certain conditions (e.g. patterns like *[abc]) failure to match would not stop the recursion because the string and pattern arguments are on the stack, as they must be, so there was no way for level n-1 to know that level n had detected a definitive nonmatch and that no further attempts at matching were required. The right way to handle this is to recode the whole thing as coroutines, the cheap way out is with a global static flag. Works perfectly, in the sense that the match.ksc test results are identical to what they were before and the extra backing up and recursion are eliminated. (The Oct 15th fix wasn't really a fix, it broke a couple of cases.) ckclib.c, 20 Oct 2005.

For docs: if you don't like the funny business that happens when you type an IF command at the prompt, use XIF instead and it won't happen. Also note that commands like "if xxx { echo blah } else { echo blah blah }" don't work when typed at the prompt; you have to use XIF for this.

Fixed a bug in FTP GET /COMMAND filename commandname; it always dumped core dereferencing a null string (the nonexistent local asname). ckcftp.c, 17 Oct 2005.

Making ASKQ always echo asterisks is a bad idea, because when it doesn't echo, it's the perfect way to read silently from stdin, e.g. in a CGI script (INPUT can also be used for this but it's not as straightforward). So I put the default for ASKQ back to no echoing, then gave ASKQ its own switch table, which is the same as for ASK with the addition of an /ECHO:x switch, which tells what character to echo. ckucmd.c, ckuus[26].c, 17 Oct 2005.

Added -DNOLONGLONG to HP-UX 8.00 and earlier builds, and to Motorola-based HP-UX 9.00 builds. This is simply to inhibit the test for whether "long long" is supported by the compiler, since when it isn't, the module containing the test won't compile. makefile, ckuus5.c, 16 Oct 2005.

PeterE noticed that ckmatch(), even though it works pretty well now, does a lot of extra and unnecessary recursion after determining the string and pattern do not match, at least when the pattern is of the form *[abc]. After several false starts I was able reduce this effect to a minor level (but not eliminate it all together) by changing a while loop into a do loop. ckmatch(): ckclib.c, 15 Oct 2005.

Special #ifdefs for finding resolv.h and nameser.h in MINIX3 from Andy Tanenbaum. ckcnet.c, 20 Sep 2005.

Flen() fails on strings of length 8192 or more. The limitation is in the callers of zzstring, which seem to be specifying an 8K buffer, in this case fneval(). The operable symbols are FNVALL (max length of value returned by a function) and MAXARGLEN (maximum length of an argument to a function). I changed both of these for BIGBUFOK builds to be CMDBL. Buffers can never be infinite, there has to be a limit. It's important to make everything work consistently within that limit, and to make something useful happen when the limit is exceeded. At this point, I can probably also increase the limits for modern 32-bit systems, and certainly for 64-bit ones. Also there's no point in worrying about 16-bit platforms any more; earlier C-Kermit versions can still be used on them if necessary. ckuusr.h, 12 Sep 2005.

That still didn't help with FREAD /SIZE:n returning less than n bytes, even when they were available. That's because the underlying routine, z_in(), didn't check fread()'s return code, which is the number of bytes read. If fread() has smaller buffers, it needs to be called in a loop. z_in(): ckuus7.c, 12 Sep 2005.

FREAD does not get an error if it tries to read a record or file or piece of file that is too big for its buffer. In particular, FREAD /SIZE:xxx seems to succeed even if less than xxx was read. It should fail unless, perhaps, it successfully read up to the end of the file. Furthermore, if xxx is bigger than the file buffer size, it should complain. The buffer is line[LINBUFSIZ], 32K. The lack of failure was due to code in dofile() that adjusted the given size silently if it was greater than the buffer size, which I removed, and also added a check when parsing the /SIZE: switch. dofile(): ckuus7.c, 12 Sep 2005.

PeterE discovered that "kermit -y filethatdoesnotexit" gives an erroneous error message that names the user's customization file, rather than the name given on the command line. doinit(): ckuus5.c, 12 Sep 2005.

PeterE found that certain patterns can still make Kermit loop; example:

if match T01011-00856-21-632-073 *[abc] { echo GOOD } else { echo BAD }
if match T01011-00856-21-632-073 *[a-z] { echo GOOD } else { echo BAD }

The minimum offending pattern is * followed immediately by an [xxx] construction, followed by anything else, including nothing. Previous versions of Kermit handled this one correctly, without looping (but failed certain matches that should have succeeded). The new section of code I added on 15 June, upon failure to match, advances the string pointer and backs up the pattern to the previous pattern, and starts again (recursively). However, there needed to be a corresponding check at entry for an empty target string. ckmatch(): ckclib.c, 12 Sep 2005.

Support of large files in 32-bit builds began in 10.20. 64-bit application support began in 11.00, but not all machines that run 11.00 support 64 bits. About long files, see HP /usr/share/doc/lg_files.txt.

Got 64-bit builds to work on HP-UX. According to my notes, John Bigg of HP said (in 1999) that HP-UX 10.30 and later require PA-RISC 1.1, and do not work on PA-RISC 1.0. But is PA 1.0 64-bit or what? Today, Alex McKale of HP said "The 64-bit binaries will work on all machines that have the same or later release of HP-UX (excluding PA-RISC 1.1 machines)". Still need clarification… Maybe it's that all IA64 builds can be 64-bit but I need dual builds for PA-RISC. Meanwhile I started transfer of a 4GB+ file from Solaris to HP-UX 11i but it exceeded some quota on the HP long before it approached the 2G point. It failed cleanly and up until then it was working fine (numbers, stats, etc). 30 Aug 2005.

PeterE confirms that "long long" and off_t are available in all HP-UX 10 and 11, and in HP-UX 9 on PA-RISC but not Motorola. 30 Aug 2005.

Updated minix3 target from Andy Tanenbaum. makefile, 29 Aug 2005.

Fixed a warning in HP-UX 10 and 11 stemming from some old-style prototypes in ckutio.c for get[re][gu]id(). ckutio.c, 29 Aug 2005.

Added some stuff to SHOW FEATURES to see what kinds of macros are exposed (e.g. INT_MAX, LONG_MAX, LLONG_MAX, etc) and also show sizeof(long long) and sizeof(off_t). Building this code all over the place will give me an idea of how widespread these data types are, and to what extent I can tell whether they are available from clues in the header files. (At first glance, it appears that I'm not picking up <limits.h>, but adding an #include for it is just asking for trouble.) No complaints about long long or off_t from Solaris 9 or recent Linuxes. ckuus5.c, 28 Aug 2005.

Compiling ckcnet.c and ckcftp.c got the familiar sockopt-related warnings on HP-UX 11i v2; turns out it is just like Tru64 Unix in using an int for the length argument. Added another special case and the warnings went away. ckcnet.h, 28 Aug 2005.

Verified that 64-bit linking fails in the same way for HP-UX 11i v2 on both IA64 and PA-RISC. Sent a query to HP.

Checked PeterE's complaint again of warnings in ckutio.c about parameter list of get[ug]id() and gete[ug]id(). When I "make hpux1100o" on HP-UX 11.11 (PA-RISC), there are definitely no warnings. He says the same thing happens on 10.xx, but I don't have access to that any more. I also did "make hpux1100o" on HP-UX 11.23 (11i v2) (PA-RISC), also no warnings. (Except in both cases, a warning about a comment within a comment in /usr/include/sys/ptyio.h). On HP-UX 11i v2 on Itanium, however, there are TONS of warnings, mostly of the "variable set but never used" kind. Also "dollar sign used in identifier". Tracking this last one down, I see it's complaining about code that's in #ifdefs for other platforms, such as Apollo Aegis. Is "aegis" defined in HP-UX 11i v2/IA64? No! (It would show up in SHOW FEATURES if it was.) Some phase of the compiler is complaining about code that it should be skipping (and that, in fact, it *is* skipping it because the build is successful). It's as if cc is running lint for me but not telling lint which macros are defined and which are not.

I looked into the 64-bitness of NetBSD, it seems to be like Linux and FreeBSD on 64-bit hardware, i.e. you just build it there and it works, at least on Alpha and AMD64, going back to NetBSD 1.4 or 1.5. But I don't have access to any of these for verification and documentation on the Web is scanty.

Eric Smutz complained that HTTP POST was adding an extraneous blank line, which prevented his application from successfully posting. RFC 2616 states (in Section 4.1):

In the interest of robustness, servers SHOULD ignore any empty line(s) received where a Request-Line is expected. In other words, if the server is reading the protocol stream at the beginning of a message and receives a CRLF first, it should ignore the CRLF.

Certain buggy HTTP/1.0 client implementations generate extra CRLF's after a POST request. To restate what is explicitly forbidden by the BNF, an HTTP/1.1 client MUST NOT preface or follow a request with an extra CRLF.

This seems pretty clear. One section of code in http_post() (just above the postopen: label) was appending a CRLF to a buffer whose last already was terminated by CRLF, and then appended a second CRLF; thus two empty lines. I removed the second one. ckcnet.c, 28 Aug 2005.

From Jeff, 28 Aug 2005.

  • Pick up K95STARTFLAGS from environment, ckuus4.c.
  • Fix some typos in command-line processing (-q), ckuus4.c.
  • Be sure to suppress herald if started with -q, ckuus7.c.
  • Fix ssh command-line switches, ckuusy.c.

Dev.02: 27 Aug 2005

Discovered that VMS C-Kermit on Alpha and IA64 is a 32-bit application; sizeof(long) == sizeof(char *) == 4. Tried adding /POINTER_SIZE=64 to VMS DECC builds on Alpha and IA64, but the results aren't great. Tons of warnings about pointer size mismatches between Kermit pointers and RMS ones, and the executable doesn't run. It appears that access to long files would require a lot of hacking, similar to what's needed for 32-bit Linux.

Backed off from rejecting a file because its announced size overflows a long. Now instead, I set the file size to -2 (a negative size means the size is unknown, but we have always used -1 for this; -2 means "unknown and probably too big"). In this case, the f-t display says:


then the user can interrupt it with X or whatever, or can let it run and see if maybe (as in the case of Mac OS X) it will be accepted anyway. This way, we skip all the bogus calculations of percent done, time remaining, etc. ckcfn3.c, ckuusx.c, 27 Aug 2005.

Took the time to verify my recollection about the "graceful failure" on a regular Pentium Linux system when receiving a too-big file… OK, it's not exactly graceful. It gets a "File size limit exceeded" error; the message is printed in the middle of the file-transfer display, apparently not by Kermit, and Kermit exits immediately. Looks like a trap… Yup. "File size limit exceeded" is SIGXFSZ (25). What happens if we set it to SIG_IGN? Just the right thing: The receiver gets "Error writing data" at 2147483647 bytes, sends E-packet to sender with this message, and recovers with total grace (drains packet buffers, returns to prompt). ckutio.c, 27 Aug 2005.

The HP-UX 11i/ia64 build comes out to be 32-bit but thinks it's 64-bit. CK_64BIT is set because __ia64 is defined. So how do I actually make a 64-bit HP-UX build? I tried adding +DD64 to CFLAGS, and this generates 64-bit object files but linking fails to find the needed 64-bit libs (e.g. -lm). For now I added an exception for HPUX to the CK_64BIT definition section. ckcdeb.h, 27 Aug 2005.

Now to check the effects on other builds…

  Linux on AMD64: ok.
  Linux on IA64: ok.
  Linux on i386: ok.
  Mac OS X 10.3.9 32-bit: ok.
  Solaris 10 64-bit: ok.
  Solaris 9 32-bit: ok.
  Tru64 4.0F: ok.
  FreeBSD 4.11: ok.
  FreeBSD 5.4 ia64 (64-bit): ok.
  FreeBSD 5.4 i386 (32-bit): ok.

The Tru64 5.1B build totally blew up because they have their own unique sockopt/etc length-argument data type (int!), so I had to roll back on using socklen_t for this in all 64-bit builds. Checked to make sure it still builds on Tru64 4.0F after this change (it does). ckcnet.h, 27 Aug 2005.

Got rid of all the warnings in 64-bit Mac OS X about args to getsockopt(), getsockname(), and getpeername(), and the comparisons on the return value of inet_addr(). ckcnet.[ch], 27 Aug 2005.

Added a built-in variable \v(bits) to indicate the size of the build (16, 32, 64, or whatever else sizeof() might report). ckuusr.h, ckuus4.c, 27 Aug 2005.

Created a symbol CK_64BIT to indicate true 64-bit builds at compile time. Added 64-bit announcement to the startup herald and the VERSION text. ckcdeb.h, ckuus[r5].c, 27 Aug 2005.

Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger) is a 64-bit OS. Building C-Kermit 0n 10.4.2 without any special switches stilll gives a 32-bit executable. Ditto building with -mpowerpc64. Further investigation turned up a tip sheet on MySQL that says you have to include all of these: -mpowerpc64 -mcpu=G5 -mtune=G5 -arch ppc64. That did the trick. New makefile target: macosx10.4_64. But the 10.4.2 system I tried did not have 64-bit [n]curses or resolv libs, so this build has no -DNOCURSES -DNO_DNS_SRV. makefile, 27 Aug 2005.

Got rid of all the extraneous FreeBSD 4 and 5 build targets. Now there's one (freebsd) for all FreeBSD 4.1 and later. makefile, 27 Aug 2005.

From now on I'm going to bump the Dev.xx number each time I upload a new ckdaily. This one will be Dev.02. ckckmai.c, 26 Aug 2005.

As I recall from when I was testing this a few weeks ago, when the too-big length is not caught at A-packet time, the transfer fails more or less gracefully when the first attempt is made to write past the limit. I went to doublecheck this by sending a big file from the 64-bit Solaris10 version to a 32-bit Mac OS X version that does not have today's code. The Mac thinks the incoming file is 2GB long when it's really 4GB+. But in this case, something new happens! Although the percent done and transfer rate go negative, the file keeps coming. It would seem that Mac OS X lets us create long files without using any special APIs. The transfer runs to completion. Mac OS X Kermit says SUCCESS (but gets the byte count and cps wrong, of course). But then a STATUS command says FAILURE. The file was, however, transferred successfully; it is exactly the same length and compares byte for byte with the original. This tells me that in the Mac OS X version — and how many others like it??? — today's rejection code should not be enabled. Meanwhile I put today's new code in #ifndef NOCHECKOVERFLOW..#endif, and defined this symbol in the Mac OS X 10.4 target. Over time, I'll have to find out what other platforms have this characteristic. And of course I'll also have to do something about file-transfer display, statistics, and status. makefile, ckcfn3.c, 26 Aug 2005.

Back to long files. What happens if 32-bit Kermit is sent a long file? It gets an A-packet that looks like this:

^A_"A."U1""B8#120050815 18:28:03!'42920641*4395073536,#775-!7@ )CP

The 32-bit receiver reacts like so:

gattr length[4395073536]=100106240

the first number being the string from the A-packet, the second being the value of the long int it was converted to by atol(). Clearly not equal in this case. When this happens Kermit should reject the file instead of accepting it and then getting a horrible error a long time later. Added code to gattr() to convert the result of atol() back to a string and compare it with the original string; if they're not equal, reject the file on the assumption that the only reason this could happen is overflow. Also some other code in case the sender sends the only LENGTHK attribute. Now files whose lengths are too big for a long int are rejected right away, provided the sender sends the length in an A packet ahead of the file itself. If this new code should ever cause a problem, it can be bypassed with SET ATTRIBUTE LENGTH OFF. ckcfn3.c, 26 Aug 2005.

A report on the newsgroup complains that C-Kermit and K95 servers were sending REMOTE DIR listings with only #J line terminators, rather than #M#J. Yet all the other REMOTE xxx responses arrived with #M#J. snddir() was neglecting to switch to text mode. ckcfns.c, 26 Aug 2005.

Problem reported when sending a file to VMS when the name in the F packet starts with a device specification and does not include a directory field, and PATHNAMES are RELATIVE. Example: dsk:foo.bar becomes f_oo.bar. The code assumes that if there is a device field, it is followed by a directory field, and it inserts a dot after the '[', which in this case is not there. Later the dot becomes '_' because of the only-one-dot rule. Solution: only insert the dot if there really is an opening bracket. nzrtol(): ckvfio.c, 23 Aug 2005.

Fixed a bug in the ASKQ echo asterisks code, which made the VMS version of C-Kermit always echo asterisks. Turns out that some code in the main parse loop to reset command-specific flags was in the wrong place, which had other effects too, for example ASKQ temporarily turns off debug logging as a security measure, but the code to turn it back on was skipped in most cases. Some other side effects related to the DIRECTORY and CD commands might have been possible but I haven't seen them. ckuus[56].c, 23 Aug 2005.

On AMD x86_64 and IA64 native 64-bit Linux builds, the pty routines did not work at all. ptsname() dumped core. If I commented out ptsname(), then the next thing dumped core. The same code works on the other 64-bit builds. Poking around, I see that this version of Linux has an openpty() function, which I could try using instead of the current API — grantpty(), etc. Then I see that openpty() is already coded into Kermit's pty module, conditionalized under HAVE_OPENPTY, which has never before been defined for any build. I added a test to the makefile linux target (look for the openpty() prototype in <pty.h>, if found define HAVE_OPENPTY as a CFLAG and also add -lutil to LNKFLAGS). Works fine on the problem builds, and also on previously working 32-bit builds. makefile, 17 Aug 2005.

Added a solaris9_64 target for building a 64-bit version on Solaris 9 with Sun cc. Verified, using the DIR command and \fsize() function on a 4.4GB file, that the Solaris 64-bit version of Kermit gets the size correctly, and that it can copy such a file (thus its fopen/fread/fwrite/fclose interface works right). Initiated a large-file transfer between here and Utah over SSH and verified that it puts the correct file size in the A packet when sending; the right quantities are shown on the file transfer display (file size CPS, percent done, etc). But even at 5Mb/sec, it takes a good while to transfer 4.4GB, more than 2 hours (not streaming; 30 window slots, 4K packets, maybe it would go faster with streaming)… After an hour or so, it filled up the partition and gave up (gracefully) before it reached the 2GB frontier (drained its pending packets, closed the partial file). Restarted at 12:54, this time with streaming and 8K packets (the speed wasn't significantly different). This time it transferred 95% of the file (4187660288 bytes) before failing because the disk filled up. Went to Utah and started a transfer between two Solaris 10/Sparc hosts; this goes about 8 times faster. The transfer completed successfully after 17m41s. All fields in the f.t. display looked right the whole time. Then I verified various other 64-bit combinations transferring the same 4.4GB file:

From  Sol  Amd  i64  Tru
Sol   OK   OK   OK   OK      Sol = Solaris 10 / Sparc
Amd   OK                     Amd = AMD x86_64 RH Enterprise Linux AS4
i64   OK                     i64 = Intel IA64, RH 2.1AS
Tru                          Tru = Tru64 Unix 4.0F Alpha

(The other combinations are difficult to test for logistical reasons.)

Tried sending the same long file with Kermit's FTP client. It chugged along for a while until I stopped it; it would have taken hours to complete. There is no indication that it wouldn't have worked, assuming the FTP server could also handle long files, which who knows. Anyway, Kermit showed all the right data on the display screen. 17 Aug 2005.

Changed the plain-text version (as opposed to the popup or GUI version - the GUI version, at least, already does this) of ASKQ to echo keystrokes asterisks rather than simply not echo anything, so it's easier to see what you're doing, the effects of editing, etc. Experimental; for now, there's no way to disable this. Not sure if there needs to be. Anyway, to get this working required a fair amount of cleaning up of gtword(), which was echoing different ways in different places. ckuus6.c, ckucmd.c, 15 Aug 2005.

The 64-bit Solaris 10 version compiles and links OK and transfers files in remote mode. It can make FTP connections and use them, but Telnet connections always fail with "network unreachable". This is with all default libs and include files. Nelson has a separate set in /usr/local, which he references explicitly in all his 64-bit builds, but using these makes no difference. Some data type is wrong in ckcnet.c. But telnet works fine in 64-bit Linux and Tru64 builds. Debug logs trace the difference to netopen() (of course), the spot where we test the results of inet_addr(), which is already marked suspicious for 64-bit builds. It seems that inet_addr() is of type in_addr_t, which in turn is u_int32, i.e. an unsigned 32-bit int. Yet the man page says that failure is indicated by returning -1. I guess this doesn't matter in 32-bit builds, but in the 64-bit world, the test for failure didn't work right. I made a Solaris-specific workaround, and checked that it works in both 32-bit and 64-builds. I really hate typedefs. ckcnet.c, 15 Aug 2005.

Managed, after some finagling, to build a 64-bit version on Solaris 10 at Utah Math with Sun cc. (Can't make any gcc builds at all, 32- or 64-bit, they all blow up in <sys/siginfo.h>.) New target: solaris10_64. makefile, 15 Aug 2005.

Unbuffered stdout code has never worked because the setbuf(stdout,NULL) call has to occur before the stdout has been used. The reason it's needed is that some Kermit code writes to stderr (which is unbuffered) and other code writes to stdout, and therefore typescripts can come out jumbled. Robert Simmons <robertls@nortel.com> provided the needed clue when he insisted it worked only when executed at the very beginning of main(). So I moved the code to that spot. But since now we also want to make unbuffered a runtime (command-line) option, I had to do a clunky by-hand pre-prescan inline in main() to look thru argv[], even before prescan() was called. ckcmai.c, ckutio.c, ckuusy.c, 13 Aug 2005. (Now that this works, it might be a good idea to remove all use of stderr from Kermit.)

Unix isdir() never allowed for arguments that started with tilde, so gave incorrect results for ~/tmp/ or ~fdc. The problem was mainly invisible since most commands that parsed file or directory names used cmifi(), cmdir(), etc, which did the conversions themselves. But IF DIRECTORY was an exception, since its operand had to be treated as just text, and then tested after it was parsed. ckufio.c, 13 Aug 2005.

Fixed the following: "ckuusx.c", line 8959: warning: implicit function declaration: ckgetpeer "ckufio.c", line 1869: warning: implicit function declaration: ttwait "ckufio.c", line 2941: warning: implicit function declaration: mlook "ckufio.c", line 2943: warning: implicit function declaration: dodo "ckufio.c", line 2944: warning: implicit function declaration: parser "ckcftp.c", line 2625: warning: implicit function declaration: delta2sec "ckcftp.c", line 4071: warning: no explicit type given for parameter: prm "ckcftp.c", line 8389: warning: no explicit type given for parameter: brief ckuusx.c, ckufio.c, ckcftp.c, ckucmd.h. 13 Aug 2005.

Added automatic herald construction for UnixWare 7. makefile, 12 Aug 2005.

For docs and/or scriptlib: Unix C-Kermit can be a stdin/out filter. The trick is to use the ASK, ASKQ, or GETC command for input, specifying no prompt, and ECHO or XECHO for output, e.g.:

while true {
    ask line
    if fail exit 0
    echo \freverse(\m(line))
exit 0

FOPEN didn't do anything with the channel number if the open failed, so any subsequent command that tried to reference it would get a parse error it was undefined or non-numeric, not very helpful. Changed FOPEN to set the channel number to -1 if the file can't be opened. Now subsequent operations on the channel fail with "Channel -1: File not open". I also added two magic channel numbers: -8 means that any FILE command (besides OPEN and STATUS) on that channel is a noop that succeeds silently; -9 is a noop that fails silently. So now it's possible to simply set a channel number to one of these values to disable i/o to certain file without getting lots of error messages. dofile(): ckuus7.c, 12 Aug 2005.

Built OK on Solaris 9, Solaris 10 (with a few implicit declaration warnings in ckuusx.c), Mac OS X 10.4.2 (with some warnings in ckcnet.c and ckcftp.c), Mac OS X 10.3.9 (also using the macos10.4 entry, which gets the right version number, and gets no warnings at all), RH Enterprise Linux AS4 on AMD x86_64, Tru64 Unix 4.0F, SCO UnixWare 7.1.4

Added a new makefile target, macosx10.4, for Mac OS X 10.4. This one uses an undocumented trick to get the otherwise unavailable-except-by-clicking Mac OS X version number (in this case 10.4.2) and stuff it into the HERALD string. makefile, 11 Aug 2005.

See correspondence with Mark Sapiro, Nov 2003 and Sep 2004, about certain variations on IF syntax having been broken by the introduction of "immediate macros" circa 1999. It seems the problem — variables not being expanded — always occurs in the ELSE part when (a) the IF condition is false; (b) the ELSE command is "standalone", i.e. expressed as a separate command after the IF command (original C-Kermit 5A syntax), and (c) its command list is a block. This would suggest the problem is in the XXELS parser.

Going back to 1999, I find this:

Fixed a problem Jim Whitby noticed with quoting in ELSE statements. This problem was introduced when I unified IF and XIF, and occurs only when ELSE begins on a line, followed by a { command list } rather than a single command. The solution (gross) was to make a special version of pushcmd() (called pushqcmd()) for this situation, which doubles backslashes while copying, BUT ONLY IF it's a command list (i.e. starts with "{"); otherwise we break lots of other stuff. Result passes Jim's test and still passes ckedemo.ksc and iftest.ksc. ckucmd.c, ckuus6.c, 27 Sep 99.

I undid this change and it made no difference to all the other IF constructions (in fact, it fixed an unrelated one that was broken, so now iftest scores 54 out of 54, instead of 53). However, it does not fix the ELSE problem; in fact it pushes it all the way in the other direction:

The opposite occurs any time you try to execute an immediate macro inside a macro or any other { block }: not only is the variable evaluated, it is evaluated into nothing. It looks like this happens only in immediate macros, i.e. *commands* that start with '{'. So maybe we really have two isolated problems, that can each be fixed.

The situation is illustrated by this simple script:

def xx {
    if false { echo \%1, echo \%2 }
    else { echo \%3, echo \%4 }
xx one two three four

With pushqcmd() it echoes the variable names literally; with pushcmd() it echoes empty lines. Since ELSE, when its argument is a block, dispatches to the immediate-macro handler, it seems we have unified the two problems, so fixing one should fix the other.

The problem is that we define a new temporary macro and then call dodo() to execute it. But if the definition contains macro arguments, we have added a new level of macro invocation, thus wiping out the current level of args. The cure is to expand the variables in the immediate macro in the current context, before executing it. This means simply changing the cmtxt() call that reads the immediate macro to specify zzstring as its processing function, rather than NULL, which is used for real macros to defer their argument evaluation until after the macro entered. ckuusr.c, 11 Aug 2005.

Compact substring notation extended to accept not only start:length but also start-end notation. Thus \s(foo[12:18]) means the substring of foo starting at position 12 of length 18, and tne new \s(foo[12-18]) means the substring of foo starting at position 12 and ending with position 18. Ditto for \:(\%a), etc. ckuus4.c, 9 Aug 2005.

Built on BSDI 4.3.1. Added -DCKHTTP.

Added -DCKHTTP to Mac OS X 10.3-.4 KFLAGS. Makefile, 4 Aug 2005.

Built OK on Mac OS X 10.4.2 using macosx103 target (but with some "signedness" warnings in ckcnet.c and ckcftp.c). Built on Unixware 7.1.4 with uw7 target. 27-28 Jul 2005.

Changed SET WILD OFF help text to warn that this setting prevents the creation of backup files (later I'll have to see if something more useful can be done about this). ckuus2.c, 18 Jul 2005.

Added missing help text for \fb64encode() and \fb64decode(). ckuus2.c, 18 Jul 2005.

Fixed the June 16th fix to the pattern matcher. I fixed a real problem, but I made an unrelated optimization that introduced new ones. ckclib.c, 18 Jul 2005.

HTTP GET would fail if the URL contained any metacharacters, no matter how much you quoted them. Although it uses cmfld() to parse the (partial) URL, it then uses cmofi() to get the output filename, which by default is the "filename" from the URL, which might be something like "rankem.asp?id=1639". cmofi() refuses to accept unquoted metacharacters in "filenames" and that's what happens in this case if the output filename is not specified. Worked around this by disabling wildcard processing around HTTP GET using the new "wildena" variable from June 15th. ckuusr.c, 18 Jul 2005.

Added #ifndef OSF40..#endif around definition of inet_aton() in ck_ssl() to allow building in Tru64. Added tru64-51b+openssl to makefile. 15 Jul 2005.

Defined CKHTTP for NetBSD, the HTTP code builds and works fine there. ckcdeb.h, 2 Jul 2005.

Added builds and designer banner for Solaris 10. makefile, ckuver.h, 27 Jun 2005.

The GREP command, and probably anything else that uses ckmatch() for pattern matching, failed on patterns like */[0-3]*.html. The [a-b] handler, when failing to match at the current position, neglected to back up the pattern and try again on the remainder of the string. I also fixed another case, in which matching a literal string a*b?c against the pattern a[*?]*[?*]c caused ckmatch() to recurse until it blew up. ckclib.c, 16 Jun 2005.

Improved and fixed typos in HELP WILDCARD and HELP PATTERN. ckuus2.c, 15 Jun 2005.

Suppose (in Unix, for example) a filename contains wildcard characters, such as {abc}.txt. When referring to such a file (e.g. in a SEND command), these characters can be quoted, e.g. \{abc\}.txt. But if the file list has been obtained programmatically, e.g. stored in an array, there is no way, short of tedious, complicated, and error-prone string processing, to reference the file. For this we need a way to disable wildcard processing. I added { ON, OFF } choices for the SET WILD and SHOW FILE commands: ckuusr.h, ckuus[234].c. { ON, OFF } turns wildcarding off and on without affecting the { KERMIT, SHELL } agent choice; it does this by setting a new and separate global variable, wildena. Added semantics to ckufio.c. Crude but effective. It might have been more Unixlike to add Yet Another form of quoting but we have enough of that already (later maybe I'll add a \function() for this). Needs to be propagated to Windows and VMS. 15 Jun 2005.

Fixed SET TERMINAL IDLE-ACTION OUTPUT to work as documented, namely if the output string is empty, to send a NUL. Previously there was no way to make it send a NUL. ckuus7.c, 15 Jun 2005.

Fixed error in ckuver.h NetBSD #ifdefs. 15 Jun 2005.

From Jeff: New build target for Mac OS X 10.3 with Kerberos 5 and SSL. makefile, 14 Jun 2005.

Built on Solaris 9 and NetBSD 2.0.

Added -DHAVE_PTMX to linux+krb5+openssl+zlib+shadow+pam. From Timothy Folks. makefile, 12 Jun 2005.

Removed reference to defunct fax number, ckcmai.c, 12 Jun 2005.

Added the long-needed \flopx() function, to return rightmost pieces of strings, such as file extensions. \fstripx() and \flopx() are the orthogonal functions we need to pick filenames apart from the right: \stripx(foo.tar.gz) = foo.tar; flopx(foo.tar.gz) = gz. ckuusr.h, ckuusr.c, ckuus2.c, 12 Jun 2005.

Made \fdirectory() a synonym for \fdirectories(). Made \fdir() an acceptable abbreviation for these, even though it clashes with \fdirname(), which still works as before. ckuus4.c, 12 Jun 2005.

Fixed a bug in which \fdir() wouldn't work when its argument was the nonwild name of a directory file. zxpand(): ckufio.c, 12 Jun 2005.

Added IF LINK (Unix only) to test if a filename is a symlink. Uses the most simpleminded possible method, calls readlink() to see if it succeeds or fails. No other method is dependable across different Unixes. This code should be portable because I already use readlink() elsewhere within exactly the same #ifdefs. ckufio.c, ckuus2.c, ckuus6.c, 12 Jun 2005.

Put HELP SET TERMINAL DG-UNIX-MODE text where it belonged. ckuus2.c, 12 Jun 2005.

Added LMV as a synonym for LRENAME, which is itself a synonym for LOCAL RENAME. ckuusr.c, 12 Jun 2005.

Fixed getiact() (which displays TERM IDLE-ACTION setting) to display space as \{32}. ckuus7.c, 12 Jun 2005.

Made a command-line option —unbuffered to do what the -DNONOSETBUF compile-time option does, i.e. force unbuffered console i/o. Unix only. ckuusr.h, ckuusy.c, ckutio.c, 12 Jun 2005.

Added SET TERMINAL LF-DISPLAY, like CR-DISPLAY but for linefeed rather than carriage return. ckuusr.h, ckuus[257x].c, 12 Jun 2005.

From Matthias Kurz: automatic herald generation for NetBSD 2.0 and later, "make netbsd2". ckuver.h, makefile, 12 Jun 2005.

From Jeff (12 June 2005):

  • Security updates. ck_ssl.c, ck_crp.c, ckuath.c.
  • Fix bug in K95 SET PRINTER CHARACTER-SET. ckuus3.c.
  • Add printer character-set to K95 SHOW PRINTER display. ckuus5,c
  • Add SET MSKERMIT FILE-RENAMING to K95. ckuus7.c, ckuusr.h.
  • Add help for K95 SET MSKERMIT. ckuus2.c.
  • Add SET GUI CLOSE to K95. ckuusr.h, ckuus2.c, ckuus3.c
  • Add help text for K95 SET GUI MENUBAR and TOOLBAR. ckuus2.c.
  • Add —noclose command-line option for K95. ckuusy.c
  • Add PAM support for Mac OS X. ckufio.c.
  • Add GSSAPI support for Mac OS X. ckcftp.c.
  • Pick up more URL options. ckcker.h, ckuusy.c.
  • Fix bug in delta-time calculation across year boundary. ckucmd.c.
  • Add Secure Endpoints to copyright notices. ckcmai.c.
  • Fix FTP HELP to override unverbose setting. ckcftp.c.
  • Fix assorted minor typos.

Fixed messed-up sndhlp() call which apparently had been jiggered to compensate for the bad prototype which has now been fixed, ckcpro.w, 12 Jun 2005.

From Andy Tanenbaum (28 May 2005):

  • Fix an errant prototype in ckcker.h and ckucmd.h - () instead of (void).
  • Add support for MINIX 3.0. makefile, ckutio.c, ckufio.c, ckuver.h.

From Dave Sneddon: an updated CKVKER.COM containing a fix where the COMPAQ_SSL symbol was not defined but later referenced which generated an undefined symbol error. ckvker.com, 5 Jan 2005.

Server side of REMOTE MESSAGE: ckcpro.w, 23 May 2004.

Added client side of REMOTE MESSAGE/RMESSAGE/RMSG: ckuus[r27].c, 23 May 2004.

FTP CD did not strip braces or quotes from around its argument. Fixed in doftprmt(): ckcftp.c, 23 May 2004.

DIAL MACRO fix was not right; the quotes were kept as part of the phone number and sent to the modem. dodo() pokes its argument to separate the macro argument string into its component arguments. xdial() is called repeatedly on the same string, so after the first time, a NUL has been deposited after the first word of the telephone number. The fix is to have xdial() create a pokeable copy of its argument string before calling dodo(dial-macro,args...). It might seem odd that dodo pokes its argument, but making copies would be would be prohibitive in space and time. ckuus6.c, 23 May 2004.

When a DIAL MACRO is defined and the phone number is comprised of more than one "word" (i.e. contains spaces), the dial macro loses the second and subsequent words after the first call. Fixed in xdial() by inserting quotes around phone number before passing it to xdial(). ckuus6.c, 10 May 2004.

If the local Kermit's parity is set to SPACE and then a file arrives via autodownload, automatic parity detection improperly switches it to NONE. Fixed in rpack() by switching parity automatically only if parchk() returns > 0 (rather than > -1), since NONE and SPACE are indistinguishable. A bigger problem still remains: autodownload does not work at all if the sender is using actual parity bits (even, odd, or mark) and the receiver's parity is NONE. ckcfn2.c, 10 May 2004.

Red Hat 7.3 (and maybe others) <baudboy.h> referenced open() without first ensuring it was declared. The declaration is in <fcntl.h>, which is after <baudboy.h> in ckutio.c series of #includes. Made a special case for this. ckutio.c (see comments), 10 May 2004.

S-Expression (AND FOO BAR) would not short-circuit if FOO's value was 0, even though short-circuiting code has been there since Day 1. Similarly for (OR BAR FOO). Turns out the first operand was a special case that bypassed the short-circuit check. Fixed in dosexp(): ckuus3.c, 10 May 2004.

From Jeff, applied 10 May 2004.

  • Rearrange #ifdefs that define OS/2-only features. ckcdeb.h.
  • Fix two strncat()s that should have been ckstrncat()s. ckuus7.c.
  • Fix two strncat()s that should have been ckstrncat()s. ckuus4.c.
  • Fix one strncat(). ckcfns.c.
  • SET FTP CHAR ON used backwards byte order when output to screen. ckcfns.c.
  • Fix two strncat()s. ckuus3.c.
  • Add SET NETWORK TYPE NAMED-PIPE for K95. ckuus3.c.
  • Add "No active connections" message to hupok(). ckuus3.c.
  • Fix many strncat()s. ckcnet.c.
  • Fix some strncat()s. ckcftp.c
  • Make FTP port unsigned short for 16383 < port < 65536. ckcftp.c.
  • Improvements to FTP USER command. ckcftp.c.
  • Fix FEAT parsing to allow for various forms of whitespace. ckcftp.c.

Removed "wermit" from "make clean" (how did it get there?). makefile.


Removed Beta designation, released as 8.0.211, 10 Apr 2004.

I had somehow lost the edit to ckutio.c that changed the UUCP lockfile for Mac OS X from /var/spool/uucp to /var/spool/lock. So I slipped it in and re-uploaded version 8.0.211. You can tell the difference because SHOW VERSIONS has 17 Apr 2004 for the Communications I/O module. Also the 10.3 executable now has a designer banner: "Mac OS X 10.3". makefile, ckuver.h, ckutio.c, ckuus[45].c, 17 Apr 2004.

While doing the build-all, I noticed the VMS version did not build with Multinet or older UCX versions, always with the same errors — undeclared variables, undefined symbols, all TCP/IP related. This didn't happen a couple weeks ago… Somehow the order of #includes was messed up — ckuusr.h depended on symbols that are defined in ckcnet.h, but ckcnet.h was being included after ckuusr.h… this was compounded by two missing commas in ckvker.com. 11 Apr 2004.

Traced problems in VMS/IA64 statistics report to rftimer()/gftimer() in ckvtio.c, which use sys$ and lib$ calls to figure elapsed time. These work on VAX and Alpha but not IA64. Sent a report to the chief engineer of the IA64 VMS port; he says it's probably a bug in VMS 8.1 (which is not a real release); he'll make sure it's fixed in 8.2. As an experiment, tried swapping in the Unix versions of these routines (which call gettimeofday() etc). They seem work just fine (it hung a couple times but I think that's because the underlying system hung too; trying it later on a new connection, it was fine; however I noticed a BIG discrepancy in throughput between sending and receiving). Moved definitions for VMS64BIT and VMSI64 to ckcdeb.h so all modules can use them and added them to the SHOW FEATURES display. Added VMSV80 definition to build procedure. Beta.03+. ckcdeb.h, ckcuus5.c, ckcvvms.h, ckvtio.c, ckvker.com, 6 Apr 2004.

Fixed the ckdaily script to include the makefile and man page in the Zip file (they were not included because the Zip file was intended mainly for VMS users, but some Unix users prefer Zip to tar.gz). 6 Apr 2004.

Got access to VMS 8.1 on IA64. Building the nonet version of C-Kermit required minor modifications to ckvvms.h, ckv[ft]io.c, and ckvcon.c, to account for a third architecture. Also to SHOW FEATURES in ckuus5.c. Once that was done, the UCX 5.5 version built OK too. Starts OK, makes Telnet connection OK, sends files. Has some obvious glitches though — "stat" after a file transfer reports 0 elapsed time (in fact it was 00:09:48) and 1219174400 cps (when in fact it was 10364). This doesn't happen on the Alpha. Btw, the IA64 binary is twice as big as the Alpha one. Changed to Beta.03. 5 Apr 2004.

Problem: SCO XENIX 2.3.4 network build failed in the FTP module with header-file syntax and conflicting-definitions trouble. I'm not going to try to fix it; 8.0.209 built OK with FTP, so we'll just keep that one available.

3-4 Apr 2004: More 8.0.211 Beta.02+ test builds:

  • FreeBSD 3.3
  • FreeBSD 4.4
  • Linux Debian 2.1
  • Linux RH 6.1
  • Linux RH 7.1
  • Linux RH 7.2
  • Linux RH 9 (with 84 different combinations of feature selection)
  • Linux SuSE 6.4
  • Linux SuSE 7.0
  • NetBSD 1.4.1
  • NetBSD 1.5.2
  • OpenBSD 2.5
  • OpenBSD 3.0
  • QNX 4.25
  • SCO UnixWare 2.1.3
  • SCO UnixWare 7.1.4
  • SCO OpenServer 5.0.7
  • SCO XENIX 2.3.4 (no TCP)

Changes needed: None.

Looked into FTP timeouts. It appears I can just call empty() (which is nothing more than a front end for select()) with the desired timeout before any kind of network read. If it returns <= 0, we have a timeout. This is not quite the same as using alarm() / signal() around a recv() (which could get stuck) but alarm() / signal() are not not used in the FTP module and are not naturally portable to Windows, but select() is already in use in the FTP module for both Unix and Windows. This form of timeout could be used portably for both command response and data reads. What about writes to the command or data socket? They can get stuck for hours and hours without returning too, but the select() approach won't help here — we need the actual send() or recv() to time out, or be wrapped in an alarm()/signal() kind of mechanism. But if we can do that for sends, we can also do it for receives. Better check with Jeff before I start programming anything. 20 Mar 2004.

Later: Decided to postpone the above two projects (ditto IPv6) until after 8.0.211 is released because both will have major impacts on portability. Grumble: all i/o APIs should have been designed from the beginning with a timeout parameter. To this day, hardly any have this feature.

20 Mar 2004: Looked into adding long file support, i.e. handling files more than 2GB (or 4GB) long. Discovered very quickly this would be a major project. Each platform has a different API, or environment, or transition plan, or whatever — a nightmare to handle in portable code. At the very least we'll need to convert a lot of Kermit variables from long or unsigned long to some new Kermit type, which in turn is #defined or typedef'd appropriately for each platform (to off_t or size_t or whatever). Then we have to worry about the details of open() vs fopen(); printf() formats (%lld vs %Ld vs %"PRId64"...), platforms like HP-UX where you might have to use different APIs for different file systems on the same computer, etc. We'll need to confront this soon, but let's get a good stable 8.0.211 release out first! Meanwhile, for future reference, here are a few articles:

 General:  http://freshmeat.net/articles/view/709/
 Linux:    http://www.ece.utexas.edu/~luo/linux_lfs.html
 HP-UX:    http://devrsrc1.external.hp.com/STK/partner/lg_files.pdf
 Solaris:  http://wwws.sun.com/software/whitepapers/wp-largefiles/largefiles.pdf

From Jeff, 14 Mar 2004:

  • Initialize localuidbuf[] in tn_snenv(): ckctel.c.
  • Remove remote-mode checks in hupok() for K95G only (why?): ckuus3.c.
  • Add help text for new K95-only TYPE /GUI switches: ckuus2.c.
  • TYPE /GUI parsing, ...: ckuusr.c.
  • TYPE /GUI action, dotype(): ckuus6.c
  • Change Jeff's affiliation: most modules.

Corrected the check in the linux target to see if /usr/include/crypt.h exists, and if so to define HAVE_CRYPT_H, which is used in ckcdeb.h to #include <crypt.h> to get the prototype for crypt() and prevent bogus conversions on its return type on 64-bit platforms (the previous test wasn't quite right and the resulting symbol wasn't spelled right). makefile, 12 Mar 2004.

Miscellaneous cleanups: ckuusx.c, ckcnet.c, ckufio.c, 11 Mar 2004.

Changed MANDIR to default to $(manroot)/man/man1, and manroot to default to $(prefix). More adding of CC=$(CC) clauses: {Free,Net,Open}BSD, 4.4BSD. makefile, 11 Mar 2004. Added "LIBS=-lcrypt" to bsd44 targets since nowadays crypt is almost always unbundled from libc. Also added explanatory notes. makefile, 11 Mar 2004.

Added FreeBSD 4.9 and 5.1 targets (only the herald is affected). makefile, ckuver.h, 11 Mar 2004.

Added error checking to kermit:// URL macros, so they don't plow ahead after the connection is closed. ckcmai.c, 11 Mar 2004.

Added CC=$(CC) CC2=$(CC2) to many (but not all) makefile targets that reference other makefile targets. On some platforms (notably AIX, Solaris, SunOS) there are specific targets for different compilers, so I skipped those. makefile, 10 Mar 2004.

Minor syntax and typo fixes (mostly prototypes): ckcdeb.h, ckcfns.c, ckclib.c, ckufio.c, ckuusr.h, ckuusx.c, 10 Mar 2004. (I still have a few more to do.)

From Nelson Beebe: In the Kermit makefile in the install target commands, line 981 reads:

        cp $(BINARY) $(DESTDIR)$(BINDIR)/kermit || exit 1;\

Could you please add this line before it:

        rm -f $(DESTDIR)$(BINDIR)/kermit;\

Some sites (mine included) keep multiple versions of software around, with hard links between $(prefix)/progname and $(prefix)/progname-x.y.z. Failure to remove the $(prefix)/progname at "make install" time then replaces the old $(prefix)/progname-x.y.z with the new one, destroying an old version that the site wanted to be preserved. makefile, 10 Mar 2004.

Replaced hardwired references to /usr/local in makefile with $(prefix) (which defaults to /usr/local, but can be overridden on the command line), suggested by Nelson Beebe for use with Configure. 10 Mar 2004.

Added ckuker.nr to x.sh (ckdaily upload) and updated ckuker.nr with current version number and dates. 10 Mar 2004.

IKSD (kermit://) command-line URLs did not work right if the client had already preauthenticated with Kerberos or somesuch because they tried to log in again with REMOTE LOGIN. The macros constructed in doxarg() needed to check \v(authstate) before attempting REMOTE LOGIN. ckcmai.c, 10 Mar 2004.

Fixed compiler warning in doxarg() caused by typo (NULL instead of NUL) in the 5 March doxarg() edit. ckuusy.c, 9 Mar 2004.

Trial Beta builds:

  • HP-UX B.11.11 PA-RISC
  • HP-UX B.11.23 IA64
  • Tru64 4.0G Alpha
  • Tru64 5.1B Alpha
  • Debian 3.0 i386
  • Red Hat ES 2.1 i386
  • Slackware 9.1 i386
  • VMS 7.3-1 Alpha + UCX 5.3
  • VMS 7.3-1 Alpha no TCP/IP
  • VMS 7.3 Alpha MultiNet 4.3 A-X
  • SCO UnixWare 7.1.4 i386
  • SCO OSR5.0.7 i386
  • Solaris 9 Sparc

The logic in dourl() about which macro to construct (login and connect, login and get directory listing, or login and fetch a file) was a bit off, so all three cases were not handled. ckcmai.c, 5 Mar 2004.

Problem: when accessing IKSD via a kermit:// or iksd:// URL, and a user ID is given but no password, doxarg() set the password to "" instead of leaving it NULL, but all the tests in dourl() are for NULL. Fixed in doxarg(): ckuusy.c, 5 Mar 2004.

Fixed zrename() syslogging — it had success and failure reversed. Beta.02: ckufio.c, 4 Mar 2004.

Designation changed from Dev.00 to Beta.01. ckcmai.c, 2 Mar 2004.

Updated Jeff's affiliation in VERSION command text. ckuusr.c, 2 Mar 2004.

New ckuath.c, ck_ssl.c from Jeff. 2 Mar 2004.

Fixed some confusion in creating IKSD database file and temp-file names. I was calling zfnqfp() without remembering that the path member of the returned struct included the filename, so to get just the directory name, I needed to strip the filename from the right. ckuusy.c, 2 Mar 2004.

Checked a complaint that "LOCAL &a" did not make array \&a[] local. Indeed it did not, and can not. You have to use the full syntax in the LOCAL command, "LOCAL \&a[]", or else it doesn't know it's not a macro named &a. 7 Feb 2004.

Added KFLAGS to sco32v507 targets to make PTY and SSH commands work. The same flags could probably also be added to earlier OSR5 targets but they have not been tested there. makefile, 7 Feb 2004.

From Alex Lewin: makefile target and #ifdef for Mac OS X 10.3 (Panther): makefile, ckcnet.c, 7 Feb 2004.

Fix from Jeff: Connections to a TLS-aware protocol which require a reconnect upon certificate verification failure could not reconnect if the connection was initiated from the command line or via a URL. ckctel.c ckcmai.c ckuusr.c ckuus7.c ckuusy.c, 20 Jan 2004.

Fixed a glitch in K95 "help set port". ckuus2.c, 20 Jan 2004.

Changed version to 8.0.211 so scripts can test for recently added features. ckcmai.c, 15 Jan 2004.

Fixed SWITCH to work even when SET COMMAND DOUBLEQUOTE OFF (from Mark Sapiro). ckuus5.c, 15 Jan 2004.

Catch another copyright date. ckuus5.c, 14 Jan 2004.

Dat Nguyen noticed that (setq u 'p') followed by (u) dumped core. This was caused by an over-clever optimization that skipped mallocs for short literals, but then went on later to try to free one that hadn't been malloc'd. Fixed in dosexp(): ckuus3.c, 14 Jan 2004.

Added untabify() routine to ckclib.[ch], 13 Jan 2004. Added FREAD /TRIM and /UNTABIFY. ckuus[27].c, 13 Jan 2004. Added \funtabify(). ckuusr.h, ckuus[24].c, 13 Jan 2004.

Unix zchki() would fail on /dev/tty, which is unreasonable. This prevented FOPEN /READ from reading from the terminal. zchki() already allowed for /dev/null, so I added /dev/tty to the list of specials. Ditto for FOPEN /WRITE and zchko(). ckufio.c 13 Jan 2004.

declare \&a[999999999999999] would dump core on some platforms. atoi() or whatever would truncate the dimension to maxint. When we add 1 to the result, we get a negative number, which is used as an index, loop test, etc. Fixed both dodcl() and dclarray() to check for (n+1 < 0). ckuus[r5].c, 12 Jan 2004.

While setting up IKSD, Ian Beckwith noticed that including the —initfile: option caused Kermit to start parsing its own Copyright string as if it were the command line, and eventually crash. I couldn't reproduce on Solaris / Sparc but I could in Linux / i386 (what Ian is using) — a change from Jeff on 28 Apr 2003 set the command-line arg pointer to a literal empty string in prescan() about line 1740 of of ckuus4.c; the pointer is incremented next time thru the loop, resulting in random memory being referenced. Fixed by setting the pointer to NULL instead of "". ckuus4.c, 12 Jan 2004.

Updated \verify() and \fcode() help text. ckuus2.c, 12 Jan 2004.

\fcode(xxx) returned an empty string if its argument string was empty. This makes it unsafe to use in arithmetic or boolean expressions. Changed it to return 0 if its argument was missing, null, or empty. ckuus4.c, 12 Jan 2004.

undef \%a, \fverify(abc,\%a) returns 0, which makes it look as if \%a is a string composed of a's, b's, and/or c's, when in fact it contains nothing. Changed \fverify() to return -1 in this case. ckuus4.c, 12 Jan 2004.

Added SET INPUT SCALE-FACTOR <float>. This scales all INPUT timeouts by the given factor, allowing time-sensitive scripts to be adjusted to changing conditions such as congested networks or different-speed modems without having to change each INPUT-class command. This affects only those timeouts that are given in seconds, not as wall-clock times. Although the scale factor can have a fractional part, the INPUT timeout is still an integer. Added this to SHOW INPUT, and added a \v(inscale) variable for it. ckuusr.h, ckuus[r257].c, 7 Jan 2004.

Added INPUT /NOMATCH, allowing INPUT to be used for a fixed amount of time without attempting to match any text or patterns, so it's no longer necessary to "input 600 STRING_THAT_WILL_NEVER_COME". If /NOMATCH is included, INPUT succeeds if the timeout expires, with \v(instatus) = 1 (meaning "timed out"); fails upon interruption or i/o error. ckuusr.h, ckuus[r24].c, 7 Jan 2004.

From Ian Beckwith <ian@nessie.mcc.ac.uk> (Debianization), 7 Jan 2004:

  • Search dir/ckermit for docs, as well as dir/kermit in cmdini(): ckuus5.c.
  • New linux+krb5+krb4+openssl+shadow+pam target (kitchen sink minus SRP, which Debian does not distribute): makefile.
  • (?) Mangles the DESTDIR support in makefile to install into a staging area: makefile (I didn't take this one yet).

Updated copyright notices for 2004, all modules. 7 Jan 2004.

From Jeff: 7 Jan 2004:

  • At one point Frank started to add a timer parameter to the uq_txt() function but he only did it for the non-ANSI compilers. I added it for the ANSI compilers, fixed the prototypes and provided a default value easily changed DEFAULT_UQ_TIMEOUT: ckcker.h, ckuus[36].c, ck_ssl.c, ckcftp.c, ckuath.c.
  • Fixed SET TERMINAL DEBUG ON (typo in variable name): ckuus7.c.
  • Fixed BEEP INFORMATION; previously it made no sound, now uses MB_ICONQUESTION. ckuusx.c.

From Jeff, 30 Nov 2003:

  • Fix SEND /MOVE-TO: ckuusr.c.
  • Fix K95 SET TITLE to allow quotes/braces around text: ckuus7.c.
  • Improved "set term autodownload ?" response: ckuus5.c.
  • Fix SHOW FEATURES to specify the protocol for encryption: ckuus5.c
  • Make {SEND, RECEIVE} {MOVE-TO, RENAME-TO} work for XYZMODEM (K95 only).

A couple fixes to the solaris9g+krb5+krb4+openssl+shadow+pam+zlib target from Jeff. Added a solaris9g+openssl+shadow+pam+zlib target. makefile, 21 Nov 2003.

Another new makefile from PeterE with improved and integrated HP-UX targets. 12 Nov 2003.

From PeterE, 10 Nov 2003:

  • Improved HP-UX 10/11 makefile targets for OpenSSL.
  • #ifdef fix for OpenSSL on HP-UX: ck_ssl.c.

From Jeff, 6 Nov 2003:

  • #ifdef adjustments: ckcftp.c, ckcdeb.h
  • Fix spurious consumption of first byte(s) on Telnet connection: ckctel.c
  • Another HP PJL test for scanfile: ckuusx.c.
  • K95: Recognize DG4xx protected fields in DG2xx emulation: ckuus7.c.
  • Add SSLeay version display to SHOW AUTH command: ckuus7.c
  • Improved SET MOUSE CLEAR help text: ckuus2.c.
  • Improved Kverbs help text: ckuus2.c (+ new IBM-3151 Kverbs).
  • Some changes to ck_ssl.c, ckuath.c.

Added target for HP-UX 10/11 + OpenSSL built with gcc, from Chris Cheney. Makefile, 12 Oct 2003.

Change SET DIAL INTERVAL to be like SET DIAL RETRIES. ckuus[34].c, 6 Oct 2003.

From Jeff: add /DEFAULT: for popups. ckuus6.c. 6 Oct 2003.

Added /DEFAULT: to ASK-class commands (ASK, ASKQ, GETOK):

  • For popups: no way to send defaults to popup_readtext() or popup_readpass().
  • For GUI ASK[Q], pass default to gui_txt_dialog().
  • For GUI GETOK, convert "yes" "ok" or "no" default to number for uq_ok().
  • For Text GETOK, add default to cmkey().
  • For Text ASK[Q], add default to cmtxt().
  • For GETC, GETKEY, and READ: no changes.

GETOK, ASK, and ASKQ with /TIMEOUT: no longer fail when the timer goes off if a /DEFAULT was supplied. The GUI functions (uq_blah) don't seem to support timeouts. Only the text version has been tested. ckuus[26].c, 4 Oct 2003.

Allow DIAL RETRIES to be any positive number, and catch negative ones. Also added code to check for atoi() errors (e.g. truncation). At least on some platforms (e.g. Solaris) atoi() is supposed to set errno, but it doesn't. ckuus3.c, ckucmd.c, 4 Oct 2003.

From Jeff: Replace the compile time ALLOW_KRB_3DES_ENCRYPT with a run-time command SET TELNET BUG AUTH-KRB5-DES which defaults to ON: ckctel.[ch], ckuus[234].c, ck_crp.c, ckuath.c. 4 Oct 2003.

Marco Bernardi noticed that IF DIRECTORY could produce a false positive if the argument directory had previously been referenced but then removed. This is because of the clever isdir() cache that was added to speed up recursion through big directory trees. Changed IF DIRECTORY to make a second check (definitive but more expensive) if isdir() succeeds, and changed the directory-deleting routine, ckmkdir(), to flush the directory cache (UNIX only — this also should be done in K95 but it's not critical). This was done by adding a routine, clrdircache() to ckufio.c, which sets prevstat to -1 and prevpath[0] to NUL. ckcfn3.c, ckuus6.c, ckufio.c, 18 Sep 2003.

Marco reported the second fix still didn't work for him (even though it did for me). Rather than try to figure out why, I concluded that the directory cache is just not safe: a directory found a second ago might have been deleted or renamed not only by Kermit but by some other process. Why did I add this in the first place? The log says:

  Some debug logs showed that isdir() is often called twice in a row on the
  same file.  Rather than try to sort out clients, I added a 1-element cache
  to Unix isdir().  ckufio.c, 24 Apr 2000.

Experimentation with DIR and DIR /RECURSIVE does not show this happening at all. So I #ifdef'd out the directory cache (see #ifdef ISDIRCACHE in ckufio.c; ISDIRCACHE is not defined) and backed off the previous changes: ckufio.c, ckcfn3.c, ckuus6.c, 18 Sep 2003.

From Jeff: Corrected code in ckcnet.c to ensure that Reverse DNS Lookups are not performed if tcp_rdns is OFF. Fixed ck_krb5_getrealm() to actually return the realm of the credentials cache and not the default realm specified in the krb5.conf file. Previously krb5_cc_get_principal() was not being called. Fixed ck_krb5_is_tgt_valid() to test the TGT in the current ccache and not the TGT constructed from the default realm. ckcnet.c, ckuath.c, 14 Sep 2003.

"ftp mget a b c" succeeded if one or more of the files did not exist, even with "set ftp error-action proceed". This is because the server's NLST file list does not include any files that don't exist, so the client never even tries to get them. Fortunately, the way the code is structured, this one was easy to fix. ckcftp.c, 14 Sep 2003.

From Jeff: Added - #define ALLOW_KRB_3DES_ENCRYPT. When this symbol is defined at compilation Kermit will allow non-DES session keys to be used during Telnet Auth. These session keys can then be used for Telnet Encrypt. The reason this is not compiled on by default is that the MIT Kerberos Telnet does not follow the RFC for constructing keys for ENCRYPT DES when the keys are longer than 8 bytes in length. ckuath.c, ckuus5.c, 4 Sep 2003.

Added comments about OpenSSL 0.9.7 to all linux+openssl targets. makefile, 4 Sep 2003.

Ditto (but within #ifndef NOPCLSCAN) for PCL (<ESC>E) and PJL (<ESC>%) files, but no binpatterns (note: ".PCL" is the extension for TOPS-20 EXEC scripts). ckuusx.c, 4 Sep 2003.

Ditto for PostScript files, but conservatively. Signature at beginning of file must begin with "%!PS-Ado". If it's just "%!" (or something nonstandard like "%%Creator: Windows PSCRIPT") we do a regular scan. Also added "*.ps" to all binary filename patterns. ckuusx.c, 4 Sep 2003.

Scanfile misidentified a big PDF file as text because the first 800K of it *was* text (most other PDF files were correctly tagged as binary). Fixed by adding a check for the PDF signature at the beginning of the file. scanfile(): ckuusx.c, 25 Aug 2003.

From Jeff: "Reorganizing code to enable building with different subsets of options; a few typos corrected as well." ckcdeb.h, ckuver.h (for RH9), ckcnet.c, ckuus7.c, ckuus3.c: 24 Aug 2003.

GREP /NOLIST and /COUNT did too much magic, with some undesirable fallout: "GREP /NOLIST /COUNT:x args" printed "file:count" for each file. "GREP /COUNT:x /NOLIST args" did not print "file:count", but neither did it set the count variable. Removed the magic. Also one of the GREP switches, /LINENUMBERS, was out of order. Fixed in ckuus6.c, 20 Aug 2003.

From Jeff: Fix for typo in urlparse() (svc/hos): ckuusy.c, 18 Aug 2003.

From Jeff: Redhat9 makefile targets (needed for for OpenSSL 0.9.7): makefile, 19 Aug 2003.

Fixed ACCESS macro definition to account for the fact that FIND is now a built-in command. ckermit.ini, 30 Jul 2003.

Mats Peterson noticed that a very small Latin-1 file would be incorrectly identified as UCS-2 by scanfile(). Fixed in ckuusx.c, 29 Jul 2003.

From Jeff: updated ckuat2.h and ckuath.c, 29 Jul 2003.

From Jeff: Fix problems mixing SSL and SRP without Kerberos. Plus a few minor #define comment changes and a reshuffling of #defines in ckcdeb.h to allow me to build on X86 Windows without Kerberos. ckcdeb.h, ck_crp.c, ckuath.c, 10 Jul 2003.

Add -DUSE_MEMCPY to Motorola SV/68 targets because of shuffled #includes in ckcftp.c. 8 Jul 2003.

Remove duplicate #includes for <sys/stat.h>, <errno.h>, and <ctype.h> from ckcftp.c. 6 Jul 2003.

From Arthur Marsh: solaris2xg+openssl+zlib+srp+pam+shadow and the corresponding Solaris 7 target. makefile, 6 Jul 2003.

Fixed ckvfio.c to #include <ckuusr.h> (instead of <ckucmd.h>) to pick up missing prototypes. 6 Jul 2003.

Tried to build on our last VMS system but it seems to be dead. Looks like a head crash (makes really loud noises, boot says DKA0 not recognized) (fooey, I just paid good money to renew the VMS license). Tried building at another site with:

  Process Software MultiNet V4.3 Rev A-X,
  Compaq AlphaServer ES40, OpenVMS AXP V7.3
  Compaq C V6.4-008 on OpenVMS Alpha V7.3

Had to make a few corrections to ckvker.com. But still, compilation of ckcnet.c bombs, indicating that the SELECT definition somehow got lost somewhere since the 209 release (i.e. no SELECT type is defined so it falls thru to "SELECT is required for this code"). But I don't see anything in ckcdeb.h or ckcnet.[ch] that would explain this. Not ckvker.com either (putting the old one back gives the same result). OK, I give up, maybe it's just that I haven't tried building it on MultiNet recently. What about UCX? Aha, builds fine there except for warnings about mlook, dodo, and parser in ckvfio.c (because of ON_CD) — I suppose I have #include <ckucmd.h>… (done) Anyhow it builds OK and the HTTP code is active and almost works (HTTP OPEN works; HTTP GET seems to succeed but creates an empty file every time). Tried building under MultiNet at another installation; same bad result.

OK so why won't it build for MultiNet? Comparing ckcnet.c with the 209 version, not a single #ifdef or #include is changed. Tried building with p3="NOHTTP" — builds OK, aha. Where's the problem? Not ckcnet.h… Not ckcdeb.h… OK I give up, will revisit this next time I get time to do anything with the code.

Later Jeff said "Martin did not implement VMS networking for the HTTP code. All he did was activate the #define HTTP which happens to work because his connections are using SSL/TLS connections. http_inc(), http_tol(), etc have no support for VMS networking regardless of whether it is UCX or MULTINET. The vast majority of HTTP connections are not secured by SSL/TLS. It makes no sense to support HTTP on VMS until someone is willing to either do the work or pay have the work done to implement VMS networking in that code base." So the fix is to not enable HTTP for VMS after all. Removed the CKHTTP definition for VMS from ckcdeb.h, 6 Jul 2003.

From Jeff: Fix SET DIALER BACKSPACE so it can override a previous SET KEY (e.g. from INI file): ckuus7.c. Some SSL/TLS updates: ck_ssl.c. HTTP support for VMS and other VMS improvements (e.g. a way to not have to hardwire the C-Kermit version number into the build script) from Martin Vorlaender: ckcnet.h, ckuus[r3].c, ckcdeb.h, ckvtio.c, ckcnet.c, ckvker.com. Built on Solaris (gcc/ansi) and SunOS (cc/k&r). The new VMS script tests the VMS version and includes HTTP support only for VMS 6.2 or later. 2 Jul 2003.

From Jeff: fixes to HTTP /AGENT: and /USER: switch action: ckcnet.c ckuus3.c ck_crp.c ckcftp.c ckuus2.c ckuusy.c ckuusr.c ckcnet.h, 21 Jun 2003.

From Jeff: Stuff for Kerberos 524: ckcdeb.h. Fixes for FTP; "FTP ASCII send data did not properly compute the end of line translations. On Unix (and similar platforms) the end of line was correct for no character sets but incorrect when character sets were specified. On Windows/OS2, the end of line was correct when character sets were specified and incorrect when they were not. On MAC, both were broken. Also, FTP Send Byte counts were incorrect when character sets were specified." ckcftp.c. 17 Jun 2003.

From Jeff: FTP ASCII send data to host when FTP /SSL was in use was broken. ftp_dpl is set to Clear when FTP /SSL is in use. This was causing the data to be written to the socket with send() instead of the OpenSSL routines. ckcftp.c, ckuath.c, 21 May 2003.

Added support for Red Hat <baudboy.h> and /usr/sbin/lockdev. Supposedly this allows Kermit to be installed without setuid or setgid bits and still be able to lock and use the serial device. Compiles and starts, but not tested. ckcdeb.h, makefile, ckutio.c, ckuus5.c, 16 May 2003.

Fixed an oversight that goes back 15 years. While \{123} is allowed for decimal codes, \x{12} and \o{123} were never handled. ckucmd.c, 11 May 2003.

CONTINUE should not affect SUCCESS/FAILURE status. ckuusr.c, 11 May 2003.

Vace discovered that FTP MGET /EXCEPT:{… (with an unterminated /EXCEPT list) could crash Kermit. Fixed in ckcftp.c, 11 May 2003.

The doublequote-parsing fixes from March and April broke the SWITCH statement, which is implemented by internally defining, then executing, a macro. If I drop back to the old dumb handling of doublequotes, everything is fixed except the problem of March 17th. But can we really expect getncm() to pre-guess what the parser is going to do? getncm()'s only job is to find command boundaries, which are represented by commas. Commas, however, is needed IN commands too. We take a comma literally if it is quoted with \, or is inside a matched pair of braces, parens, or doublequotes. It is not unreasonable to require a doublequote in a macro definition to be prefixed by \ when it is to be taken literally. The proper response to Jason Heskett's complaint of March 17th should have been to leave the code alone and recommand an appropriate form of quoting:

  def TEST {
      .foo = {X\"}
      sho mac foo

And this is what I have done. Another reason for sticking with the old method is that it's explainable. The "improved" method, even if it worked, would be be impossible to explain. Btw, in testing this I noticed that the switch-test script made 8.0.201 dump core. Today's version is fine. The problem with quoted strings inside of IF {...} clauses and FOR and WHILE loops is fixed too. Perhaps "unbroken" would be a better word. ckuus5.c, 11 May 2003.

From Jeff, 11 May 2003:

  • Add support for SSH Keepalive to relevant SET command (K95): ckuus3.c
  • Reduce max overlapped i/o requests from 30 to 7 (K95): ckuus7.c
  • Don't call sysinit() in fatal(): ckuusx.c.
  • Some new conditionalizations for SSL module: ck_ssl.c

From Jeff, Sat May 3 14:15:23 2003:

  • Pick up the right isascii definition for K95: ckctel.c
  • malloc… ckuath.c (new safe malloc routines for K95)
  • Add author listing: ckuus5.c
  • SSH Heartbeat support (K95 only): ckuus[23].c
  • Prescan —height and —width to avoid window resizing at startup: ckuusy.c
  • Add checks for fatal() or doexit() called from sysinit(): ckuusx.c
  • Move some K95-specific definitions to ckoker.h: ckcdeb.h
  • Add support for ON_CD macro in zchdir(): ckufio.c
  • Add a command to let FTP client authenticate with SSLv2: ckcftp.c
  • Fix parsing of FTP file facts like "UNIX.mode": ckcftp.c

ON_CD will need some explaining (to be done). It's implemented for Unix, VMS, WIndows, and OS/2.

The FTP file facts fix came from first exposure to the new OpenBSD FTP server: ftp://ftp7.usa.openbsd.org/pub/os/OpenBSD/3.3/i386/ The period in "UNIX.mode" caused an erroneous word break, adding junk to the filename.

About the malloc changes, Jeff says "K95 is not behaving well in low memory environments. I'm not sure that C-Kermit does much better. The program does not crash but it certainly does not behave the way the user expects it to. I'm beginning to think that any malloc() error should be treated as fatal."

Not visible in these changes because it's in K95-specific modules: Jeff made SET ATTRIBUTES OFF and SET ATTRIBUTES DATE OFF apply to XYZMODEM transfers.

From Jeff, 29 Apr 2003:

  • Corrected target for HP-UX 11.00 + OpenSSL: makefile,
  • Do not allow WILL AUTH before WONT START_TLS: ckctel.h ckctel.c
  • Add hooks for SFTP and SET/SHOW SFTP: ckcdeb.h ckuusr.h ckuusr.c ckuus3.c
  • Add SKERMIT ckuusr.h ckuusr.c
  • Add ADM-5 terminal emulation: ckuus7.c, ckuus5.c
  • Uncomment and update HELP SET SSH V2 AUTO-REKEY: ckuus2.c
  • Enable IF TERMINAL-MACRO and IF STARTED-FROM-DIALER for C-Kermit: ckuus6.c
  • Fix conflicting NOSCROLL keyword definition: ckuusr.h
  • Set ttname when I_AM_SSH: ckuusy.c
  • Add extended arg parsing for SSH, Rlogin, Telnet: ckuusy.c, ckuus4.c
  • Security updates: ckuath.c, ck_ssl.c
  • Change K95 version number to 2.2.0: ckcmai.c
  • Save K95 term i/o state before executing keyboard macro: ckuus4.c
  • Add tests for SSH Subsystem active during INPUT/OUTPUT/CONNECT: ckuus[45].c
  • Enable K95 SET SSH V2 AUTO-REKEY: ckuus3.c

SFTP and SET SFTP subcommands are implemented up to the case statements.

Files of mine that Jeff hadn't picked up:

  ckuver.h ckcftp.c ckutio.c ckuusx.c (just minor changes for last build-all)

On 4 Jan 2003, SET RECEIVE MOVE-TO was changed to convert its argument to an absolute path, which made it impossible to specify a relative path, then move to different directories and have it apply relatively to each directory. Changed this as follows:

  • Parser uses cmtxt() rather than cmdir() so it won't fail at parse time.
  • If path is absolute, we fail at parse time if directory doesn't exist.
  • In reof() we run the path through xxstring (again, in case deferred evaluation of variables is desired) and then, if not null, use it.
  • If the directory doesn't exist, rename() fails and reof() returns -4, resulting in a protocol error (this is not a change). We do NOT create the directory on the fly.

I also fixed SET SEND/RECEIVE RENAME-TO to parse with cmtxt() rather than cmdir(), since it's parsing a text template, not a directory name, e.g. "set receive rename-to file-\v(time)-v(date)-\v(pid)". This was totally broken, since when I don't know. We don't call xxstring() in this parse, so evaluation is always deferred — I'd better not change this. ckuus7.c, ckcfns.c, 1 May 2003.

From Mark Sapiro, a fix for the March 17th doublequote fix, getncm(): ckuus5.c, 4 Apr 2003.


Changed since 208: makefile ckuver.h ckcmai.c ckclib.c ckcftp.c ckucmd.c ckuus*.c ckutio.c.

Added a target for SCO OSR5.0.7. makefile, ckuver.h, 30 Mar 2003.

OK that gets us past ckcmai.c… Then in ckutio.c I had to add a new #ifdef around the LFDEVNO setting, because the Cray didn't have mkdev.h. Could not find a Cray-specific manifest symbol, so I made a new makefile target (cray9) that sets this symbol. Having done this I have no idea what kind of lockfile would be created, but I also doubt if anybody dials out from a Cray. The binary should run a C90, J90, or Y-MP. makefile, 26 Mar 2003.

Tried building C-Kermit on a Cray Y-MP with UNICOS 9.0. "int suspend", declared in ckcmai.c and used in many modules, conflicts with:

  unistd.h:extern int suspend __((int _Category, int _Id));

The "=Dsuspend=xsuspend" trick doesn't work for this; there is no way around the conflict other than to rename the variable: ckcmai.c, ckutio.c, ckuus[35xy].c. 26 Mar 2003. VMS and K95 not affected.

A fix from Jeff SSL/TLS FTP data decoding. ckcftp.c, 18 Mar 2003.

There are only certain cases where it makes sense to treat doublequotes as significant:

  • An open quote must be at the beginning or preceded by a space.
  • A close quote is only at the end or else followed by a space.

This too was fixed in getncm(): ckuus5.c, 17 Mar 2003.

Jason Heskett found another bug: if you define a macro FOO inside the definition of another macro BAR, and FOO's definition includes an odd number of doublequotes (such as 1), FOO's definition absorbs the rest of BAR's definition. Example:

  def TEST {
    .foo = {X"}
    sho mac foo
  do test
  sho mac foo

Results in:

  foo = {X"}, sho mac foo

Diagnosis: the TEST definition becomes:

  def TEST .foo = {X"}, sho mac foo

and the macro reader is erroneously treating the doublequote as an open quote, and then automatically closes the quote at the end of the definition. The error is that a doublequote should be significant only at the beginning of a field. But the macro reader isn't a command parser; it doesn't know what a field is — it's just looking for commas and skipping over quoted ones. First we have to fix an oversight: SET COMMAND DOUBLEQUOTING OFF should have worked here, but it wasn't tested in this case. Fixed in getncm(): ckuus5.c, 17 Mar 2003.

Picked up a new ckuath.c from Jeff, not sure what the changes are. 16 Mar 2003.

Did a few regular and secure builds to make sure I didn't wreck anything. Changed version number to 209 (final). ckcmai.c, 16 Mar 2003.

Fixed FTP MODTIME to not print anything if QUIET ON. ckcftp.c, 16 Mar 2003.

SET CARRIER-WATCH <Esc> "auto matic" (spurious space in supplied keyword). Cosmetic only; it still worked. Fixed in setdcd(): ckuus3.c, 16 Mar 2003.

"directory a b c" listed too many files — all files whose names END WITH a, b, or c, rather than the files whose names WERE a, b, or c. Diagnosis: The filespec is changed into a pattern: {a,b,c}, which is the correct form. It is passed to nzxpand(), which goes through the directory getting filenames and sending each one to ckmatch() with the given pattern. ckmatch() receives the correct pattern but then prepends a "*" — that's not right. It's not just in filename matching either. The following succeeds when it shouldn't:

  if match xxxxc {{a,b,c}} <command>

Changing ckmatch() to not prepend the "*" to each segment fixes the command above but breaks lots of others. Running through the "match" torture-test script shows the problem occurs only when the {a,b,c} list is the entire pattern, and not embedded within a larger pattern. Testing for this case fixed the problem. ckmatch(): ckclib.c, 16 Mar 2003.

\v(exedir) wasn't being set correctly (it included the program name as well as the directory). Fixed in getexedir(): ckuus4.c, 16 Mar 2003.

Since it has multiple applications, changed the flag's name from minputactive to keepallchars. ckucmd.c, ckuus[r5].c, 16 Mar 2003.

But there's still a problem:

  dcl \&a[] = "\4\5\13\10" "\6\7" "xxx"

creates an array whose first member is "^D^E (one doublequote included). But if braces are used instead, there's no problem. Same deal as MINPUT: cmfld() breaks on CR or LF, thus the end quote is lost. If I set minputactive for DECLARE initializers too, that fixes it. Is there any reason not to do this? Can't think of any (famous last words)… ckuusr.c, 16 Mar 2003.

MINPUT n \fjoin(&a) works OK if all the members of \&a[] are text strings, but if they are strings of control chars (as above), they don't get separated by the spaces. For example in:

  dcl \&a[] = "\4\5" "\6\7" xxx
  minput 10 \fjoin(&a)

MINPUT gets two targets: "aaa" and "\4\5 \6\7 xxx". The bug was in the cksplit() call in the \fjoin() case of MINPUT: it needed to specify an include set consisting of all the control characters except NUL. ckuusr.c, 16 Mar 2003.

While debugging the alphapage script, I found that the command "minput 8 \6\13 \21\13 \13\27\4\13 \30\13" gets "?Not confirmed" in 8.0.208 and 8.0.209, but not in 206 and earlier. This problem too was introduced on Feb 10th by changing MINPUT parsing from cmtxt() followed by cksplit() to cmfld() in a loop. cmfld() uses setatm() to return its result and of course setatm() breaks on \13. Changing setatm() not to do this would break everything else. But cmfld() has no arguments that let us tell it to do anything different in this case. Changing the API would be a disaster. The only solution is to add an "MINPUT ACTIVE" (minputactive) global variable that tells cmfld() to tell setatm() not to break on CR. Now MINPUT with braced targets containing CR and/or LF works in 209, 206, and 201 (but not 208). ckucmd.c, ckuusr.c, ckuus5.c, 15 Mar 2003.

Changed version number to 209 Dev.00. ckcmai.c, 14 Mar 2003.

Fixed MINPUT to strip quotes or braces from around targets (this was broken on Feb 10th). Thanks to Jason Heskett for discovering and reporting this (killer) bug. ckuusr.c, 14 Mar 2003.

From Jeff 13 Mar 2003:

  • Updated SSL module allows importation of tickets from host.
  • freebsd50+openssl target: makefile.
  • FTP PUT /PERMISSIONS error message for K95: ckcftp.c.


C-Kermit 8.0.208 dated 14 March 2003 released on 10 March 2003.

Rebuilt binaries for some of the more current Unix releases: AIX 4.3.3-5.1, Solaris 7-9 , Red Hat 7.0-8.0, Slackware 8.1, Freebsd 4.7-4.8, NetBSD 1.6, OpenBSD 3.2, Unixware 7.1.3, Open Unix 8, OSR5.0.6a, etc. A Unix binary with COPY umask fix shows a 6 Mar 2003 date for "UNIX File support" in SHOW VERSIONS; a binary without the fix shows 24 Oct 2002.

Added a debug call to dologend in hopes of catching overzealous Locus switching, which seems to happen only in K95. ckuus3.c, 7 Mar 2002.

In the VMS version, changed:

while ((n--) && xx_inc(2) > -1) ;


while ((n--) && xx_inc(2) >= 0) ;

to suppress the "...is being compared with a relational operator to a constant whose value is not greater than zero" warning. ckvtio.c, 7 Mar 2002.

In Unix, the zcopy() routine (used by the COPY command) reset the user's umask to 0 for the remainder of the Kermit process lifetime. The bug was in ckufio.c 8.0.194, 24 Oct 2002, and is fixed in ckufio.c 8.0.195, 6 Mar 2003. Of course this happened after building 155 C-Kermit 8.0.208 binaries. (But before officially releasing 8.0.208.)

Added target/banner for Tru64 5.1B. makefile, ckuver.h, 5 Mar 2003.

Jeff fixed a problem with the Xmodem-CRC checksum being crunched whenever there was a retransmission. 7 Mar 2003.

Jeff fixed the K95 Dialer QUICK dialog to (a) allow templates, and (b) have a Save-As option. 3 Mar 2003.

Fixed GETOK /GUI to evaluate its text argument. ckuus6.c, 3 Mar 2003.

Changed Mac OS X entries to include -DUSE_STRERROR. makefile, 2 Mar 2003.

Added freebsd48 target for FreeBSD 4.8. makefile, 1 Mar 2003.

At Jeff Mezei's suggestion, separate text and binary mode open sequences for VMS session log. ckvfio.c, 28 Feb 2003.

From Jeff: Fix typo in my K95 zfnqfp() code from yesterday; fixes for handling UNCs uniformly, no matter which way their slashes are leaning. ckofio.c, 28 Feb 2003.

Somehow an old copy of ckuath.c popped to replace the new one. Put the new one back. 28 Feb 2003.

Added code to K95 zfnqfp() to tack on directory separator when returning a directory name. ckofio.c, 27 Feb 2003.

Added code to ensure \v(download) ends in a directory separator in Unix, Windows, and OS/2. ckuus7.c, 27 Feb 2003.

From Jeff: More #ifdef shuffling for nonsecure builds: ckuath.c, ck_ssl.c, 27 Feb 2003.

Built on VMS. Needed to add a prototype for mxxlook*() to ckuusr.h; built OK otherwise. 26 Feb 2003.

Ran the build-in-84-different-configurations script on Linux to make sure it still builds with all different combinations of feature selection options. All OK. 26 Feb 2003.

Added #ifdefs to skip compilation of ckuath.c in nonsecure builds. Tested by building both secure and regular versions in Linux. ckuath.c, 26 Feb 2003.

In the Unix version, replace "extern int errno;" with "#include <errno.h>" if __GLIBC__ is defined, since glibc now defines a thread-specific errno. ckcdeb.h, 26 Feb 2003.

From Jeff, 21 Feb 2003:

  • AIX53 and AIX52 symbols for ckcdeb.h, makefile.
  • New gcc targets for various AIX 4.x/5.x versions: makefile.
  • Copyright date updates: ck_crp.c, ck_ssl.c.
  • ENABLE/DISABLE QUERY broken because keyword table out of order: ckuusr.c.
  • Fixed the use of HTTP proxies for HTTP [RE]OPEN for Unix: ckcnet.c.

Also for K95 only: Allow file transfer when K95 is invoked on the remote end of a connection to a Pragma Systems Terminal Server connection; automatically SET EXIT HANGUP OFF when invoked with open port handle ("k95 -l nnnn").

"cd a*" failed even when "a*" matched only one directory. Fixed in cmifi(): ckucmd.c, 21 Feb 2003.

Similar treatment for ck_ssl.c. 20 Feb 2003.

Fixed #ifdefs in ck_crp.c to allow nonsecure builds on old platforms like System V/68 R3. 19 Feb 2003.

Fixed COPY error messages, which did not come out in standard format when /LIST was not included. ckuus6.c, 17 Feb 2003.

RENAME would sometimes not print an error message when it failed, e.g. in K95 when the destination file already existed. ckuus6.c, 17 Feb 2003.

The following FTP commands did not set FAILURE when they failed: RMDIR, CD, CDUP, Fixed in the corresponding doftpblah() routines. ckcftp.c, 16 Feb 2003.

Added \fcvtdate(xxx,3) to format its result in MDTM format (yyyymmddhhmmss, all numeric, no spaces or punctuation). Of course these numeric strings are too big to be 32-bit numbers and are useless for arithmetic, but they're useful for lexical comparison, etc. ckuus[24].c, 16 Feb 2003.

Got rid of "krbmit" target from makefile. It's still there, but we don't use it any more. All secure targets now use "xermit", and produce a binary called wermit, just like the regular ones do (except the old ckucon.c ones). Non-secure targets, since they don't define any of the security symbols, wind up compiling and linking to (mostly) empty security modules. makefile, 15 Feb 2003.

Ran my S-Expression torture test to make sure Sexps still worked. They do, except the bitwise & and | operators were broken, e.g. (& 7 2) and (| 1 2 4) get "Invalid operand" errors. Jeff's code had added an early failure return from the lookup loop when when a single-byte keyword matched a keyword that started with the same byte but was more than one byte long. So "&" would hit "&&" and fail instead of continuing its search (xlookup tables aren't sorted so there can be no early return). Fixed in xlookup(): ckucmd.c, 16 Feb 2003.

In K95, "set key \1234 \27H" (any SET KEY command in which the first char of the definition was backslash, and the ONLY character after the backslash quantity was an uppercase letter, that letter would be lowercased). Diagnosis: xlookup() poking its argument (see notes from July 2000). Jeff sent a fix. ckucmd.c, 15 Feb 2003.

Fixed FTP OPEN to allow the /USER switch to override SET FTP AUTOLOGIN OFF, just as /NOLOGIN overrides SET FTP AUTOLOGIN ON. ckcftp.c, 11 Feb 2003.

Macro replacement via \m() and \fdefinition() does not work as advertised (i.e. case sensitively) for associative array elements; e.g. \m(xxx<abc>) is treated the same as \m(xxx<ABC>), contrary to section 7.10.10 of the C-Kermit 7.0 update notes, and to the fact that the two really do exist separately. Fixed by adding a static function isaarray(s) which succeeds if s is an associative array reference and fails otherwise, and then having \m() and \fdef() call mxxlook() (case-sensitive lookup) if isaarray(), otherwise (as before) mxlook()). ckuus4.c, 11 Feb 2003.

It seems \fpattern() didn't work with MINPUT at all. There was no code to handle \fpattern() in the MINPUT parse loop, so it never worked. The code had to be totally rewritten to use cmfld() in a loop, rather than cmtxt() and then cksplit(). Furthermore, whenever any of the fields was an \fjoin(), this had to be split. ckuusr.c, 10 Feb 2003.

INPUT n \fpattern(xxx) did not work for case-independent comparisons. Fixed in doinput(): ckuus4.c, 10 Feb 2003.

HELP PATTERN text incorrectly identified commands and functions with floating and anchored patterns. The corrected lists are: Floating: GREP, TYPE /MATCH:, /EXCEPT: patterns, \farraylook(), Anchored: IF MATCH, file-matching wildcards, \fsearch(), \frsearch() ckuus2.c, 10 Feb 2003.

Don't dump core if FTP DEBUG is ON and FTP OPEN does not include a service. openftp(): ckcftp.c, 10 Feb 2003.

From Jeff:

  • Avoid core dump when dereferencing tnc_get_signature(): ckuus4.c.
  • Bump version numbers to 8.0.208, 2.1.4: ckcmai.c.

Added /NOLOGIN to FTP [OPEN]. ckcftp.c, 10 Feb 2003.

New makefile target for HP-UX 11.xx with OpenSSL from Tapani Tarvainen. makefile, 31 Jan 2003.

GREP did not pass its pattern through the expander, thus variables could not be used for patterns. This must have been an oversight — I can't find anything in my notes about it. Fixed in dogrep(): ckuus6.c, 24 Jan 2003.

FTP MPUT f1 f2 f3… gets a parse error if any of the fn's do not match an existing file. This is bad for scripts. In doftpput(), cmfdb() looks for keywords (switches) or CMIFI. When it hits CMIFI, it exits from the initial parse loop and then does additional cmifi()s in a loop until done. The most obvious fix is to parse each field with cmfdb(CMIFI,CMFLD), i.e. fall back to CMFLD if CMIFI doesn't match anything. Then if CMFLD was used, we don't add the filespec to the list. This is a rather big change but it seems to work. No error messages or failures happen for non-matching fields, but an error message is printed (and the MPUT command fails) if none of the fields match any files. This fix got in too late for 2.1.3; workaround: use C-Shell like wildcard list (ftp mput "{*.abc,foo.*}"). ckcftp.c, 16 Jan 2003.

FTP USER, FTP ACCOUNT, plus the various prompts and switches for FTP username, password, and account all neglected to strip quotes, and in most cases quotes are necessary to specify a username that contains spaces. ckcftp.c, 15 Jan 2003.

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Updates to C-Kermit, versions 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0